Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Presentation Overview CIGRE B4 HVDC and Power Electronics HVDC Colloquium, Oslo, April 2006

- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
18/09/2005 VSC Transmission Tutorial 1 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 2

VSC Transmission
presented by Dr Bjarne R Andersen,
Andersen Power Electronic Solutions Ltd

LCC HVDC Transmission


In use since 1954 - Long Distance transmission - Asynchronous Interconnections - >60GW in service, Voltage up to 600kVdc Uses Thyristors, - Line Commutated Converters - Converter absorbs reactive power - AC harmonic filters are used to achieve satisfactory waveshape and power factor
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 3

The Voltage Sourced Converter


- DC Voltage source - Semi-conductors capable of turn-on AND turn-off are used - An ac voltage with controllable amplitude and phase angle is produced.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

VSC Transmission
Based on Motor Drive technology, - Voltage Sourced Converter, - IGBTs, capable of turning on and off, providing a self commutated converter, - 4 Quadrant capability (P & Q). Demonstrator went into service in 1997, 10kVdc, 3MW. Now 7 schemes in service, total rating 900MW.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 5

Simplified VSC Transmission Scheme

- Power flow dictated by the voltage difference and dc resistance: Idc= (UdA - UdB)/ Rdc - Power flow can be controlled very quickly and accurately - No reactive power flow on the dc side
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 6

Simplified VSC Transmission Scheme

Voltage Sourced Converter 2-level converter


d

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

VSC Start Up - 1 Diodes act as an uncontrolled rectifier.

VSC Start Up - 2 Diodes act as an uncontrolled rectifier.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

10

VSC Operation - 1
IGBT Conducting - Inverter Operation.

VSC Operation - 2
IGBT Turned off - Diode picks up current

What happens when we turn-off the IGBT??


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 11

There will be a delay before the ac current changes polarity because of L


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 12

VSC Operation - 3
Inverter Operation - Blanking Period has passed and current has reversed.

VSC Operation - 4 Rectifier Operation

How do we turn off the diode?


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 13 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 14

VSC Operation - 5 Turning Off Diode - IGBT Conduction causing a temporary short circuit

VSC Operation - 6
The diode turns off because of the short circuit current

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

15

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

16

VSC Operation - 7 When the current in L reverses the IGBT turns off and the diode turns on

Full Wave Conversion


ac

Advantages - Low Power Loss

dc

dc

Disadvantages - AC and DC voltage relationship fixed - makes it unsuitable for dc transmission - High magnitude of low order harmonics - large ac harmonic filters are required
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 17 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 18

Pulse Width Modulation

PWM Control
Disadvantage - Power loss larger because of more frequent switching Advantages - Gives additional degrees of freedom - e.g. independence of converters, and control of ac voltage amplitude with fixed dc voltage - Reduces lower order harmonics - smaller filters - Higher speed of response
19 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 20

Carrier at 9 times fundamental frequency


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

Simplified Representation

Four Quadrant Control


The Reactive Power output depends on the voltage amplitude:

P=

U conv (1) .U L(1) X

sin

Q=
3rd April 2006

U L (1) (U L (1) U conv(1) cos ) X


21 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 22

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

Four Quadrant Control


The Active Power output depends on the converter voltage Phase Angle:
U =U conv L U L I conv U conv U conv U L

Four Quadrant Control


Simplified PQ Diagram
Pconv Rectifier Mode Desired Reactive Power Desired Active Power Qconv Inductive Capacitive

I Pconv = 0

conv Pconv > 0 Inverter operation


23 3rd April 2006

P conv < 0 Rectifier operation

Uac = Max Uac = Nom Inverter Mode


CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

Uac = Min

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

24

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 25 3rd April 2006

Comparison - Experience
LCC HVDC
In service since 1954 Installed Capacity >60GW Largest Scheme 6300MW Highest Voltage +/-600kVdc Reliability/Availability proven

VSC Transmission
In service since 1997 Installed Capacity 930MVA Largest Scheme 346MVA Highest Voltage +/-150kVdc No formal records available at present

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

26

Comparison - Converter Technology


LCC HVDC
Uses 8.5kV, 4kA Thyristors, a latching device Turn on by control, turn off when current tries to reverse Requires AC network voltage for commutation

Comparison - Harmonics
LCC HVDC
12-pulse harmonics (12n1), plus non-characteristic (2, 3, 4, 5, 7 etc )harmonics Requires large filters to limit harmonics typically on HV bus or on tertiary winding Possibility of magnification of pre-existing harmonics

VSC Transmission
Uses 2.5kV, 2kA IGBTs, a transistor type device Turn on by control and turn off by control, irrespective of the current flow at the time Is self commutating Can be the sole supply to a passive network

VSC Transmission
PWM moves characteristic harmonics to higher orders Smaller and higher frequency filters required typically between converter reactor and interface transformer Risk of magnification of preexisting harmonics may be smaller, but needs evaluating

Faults and switch operations in No Commutation Failures the network can cause commutation failure Faults on the dc line cleared by The diodes feeds current into thyristors through control fault on dc side AC Circuit action breaker action needed to clear
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 27

Switchable AC Harmonic Filters Filter not normally switchable also used for Q Control

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

28

Comparison - Reactive Power


LCC HVDC
Converters absorb reactive power (~55% of Real Power)

Comparison - Other

VSC Transmission
Converters can operate at any leading or lagging power factor.

LCC HVDC
Used with overhead lines, cables and mixtures thereof.

VSC Transmission
All commercial installations have used cables so far.

Switchable AC Harmonic Filters Reactive Power can be for Q Control controlled by the converter Large overvoltages can occur during load rejection Site area is relatively large because of need for switchable harmonic filters and shunt capacitors Load rejection overvoltage is small Site area is compact because of small unswitchable filters and simple ac switchyard

Relatively low capital cost when Competitive capital cost at power <350MW, particularly used at large power and when ac networks are weak relatively strong ac networks Multi-terminal operation is challenging for small taps in weak ac network areas Low power loss (~0.8% per terminal at full power) Multi-terminal operation seem easy, as the converter tap will not suffer commutation failures, and dc voltage polarity is not changed Higher power loss (~1.9% per terminal at full power)

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

29

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

30

Comparison - Power Loss


Converter losses 2-level Triangular PWM 3-level, or comparable topologies, or 2-level with OPWM

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
31 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 32

Line commutated HVDC

2000
3rd April 2006

2002
CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

Year

Benefits of Interconnections
Interconnection Benefits: - Better utilisation of installed generation. - Reduction in overall spinning reserve. - Emergency power support The benefits from the use of HVDC include: - The power flow is fully controlled. - Asynchronous networks can be connected. - HVDC is more economic when distance is large, e.g. >800km overland or >70km submarine.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 33

Benefits of the use of cable connections


It may be more expensive than an overhead line but: - It is less intrusive on the landscape. - It does not produce electric fields or varying magnetic fields, - More acceptable to the public, resulting in planning approval being granted more quickly. - It is not subject to flashover due to pollution problems, - More reliable than an overhead line,
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 34

Interconnection to Small Isolated network - 1

Interconnection to Small Isolated network - 2 Reasons for Interconnection:


- No Electrical Power at present - Small diesel generation at present
Expensive MWhr cost, Maintenance requirement, Reliability/Availability, Damaging for the environment

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

35

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

36

Interconnection to Small Isolated network - 3


Benefits from Using VSC Transmission: - No need for Synchronous Compensators - Converter can dynamically control the ac system voltage - Economic and environmental benefit by using main network generation - Less Maintenance - Cable connection has low visual impact

Interconnection between weak networks - 1

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

37

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

Interconnection between weak networks - 2 Reasons for Interconnection:


- Weak areas are likely to be remote from main network.
Provide damping control - improved security of supply (fewer trips of ac line to main network)

Re-inforcement of Weak AC tie Lines - 1

- Asynchronous connection may be more acceptable politically -(HVDC as Firewall) - Converter can dynamically control the ac system voltage - improved system stability.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

39

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

= = ~ HVDC Line

HVDC Line

= ~

38

= ~

40

Re-inforcement of Weak AC tie Lines - 2 Reasons for Re-inforcement:


- More capacity needed. - As load grows, instabilities may cause frequent trips. - Power oscillations may reduce useable power capacity. - Unacceptable loop power flows. - Controlability of HVDC may add substantial benefits
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 41

Re-inforcement of Weak AC tie Lines - 3


Benefits from Using VSC Transmission: - VSC Transmission can significantly increase the available capacity on the ac Tie Line. - Powerful damping control, through control of active and reactive power.
ABB have shown that the capacity of a weak ac Tie line can be increased by more than the rating of the parallel VSC Transmission scheme

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

42

Connection of Offshore loads - 1

Connection of Offshore loads - 2 Reasons for Connection:


- More capacity needed for extraction and transport. - Reduction of maintenance compared with GTs, - Reduction of CO2 emissions - Reduction of fire risks

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

43

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

44

Connection of Offshore loads - 3


Benefits from Using VSC Transmission: - Does not require synchronous compensators, - Much lighter and more compact than LCC HVDC, - Can operate as a variable speed drive, for large motors.

Connection of Remote Wind Farms - 1

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

45

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

46

Connection of Remote Wind Farms - 2 Reasons for Connection with HVDC:


- Transmission distance is large, - De-coupling required between ac grid and wind farm ac network,
faults power quality

Connection of Remote Wind Farms - 3


Benefits from Using VSC Transmission: - Connection can be made to weaker point in ac network, - Improved stability of the wind farm ac network, - Reduction of flicker on wind farm network - Smaller site area required than for LCC HVDC - Power can be transmitted to wind farm network when the wind does not blow,
Auxiliary Power - Control & Protection, Telecommunication, Navigation, Safety.

- Enabling variable frequency of wind farm network, for greater efficiency,

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

47

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

48

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 49 3rd April 2006

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

50

VSC - 3 phase implementation


3 phase 2-level Voltage Sourced Converter

PWM Control
Different PWM control methods: - Triangular carrier, pure sinewave for control - Triangular carrier, sinewave with 3rd harmonic for control - Optimised PWM - Selective harmonic elimination

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

51

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

52

PWM - Waveshape & Harmonics -2


AC Voltage phase to Neutral Fundamental frequency component

OPWM / SHEM
Eliminates specific harmonics, but switching instants change with operating conditions. - Pre-calculated or determined as you go Can arrange to minimise switching at maximum current Results in a reduction in power loss, compared with simple triangular carrier wave.

Fourier Analysis of Phase to Phase voltage

Triangular carrier at 21st harmonic, sinewave with 3rd harmonic as control


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 53 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 54

PWM - Waveshape & Harmonics -3


AC Voltage phase to Neutral Fundamental frequency component

3-level (NPC), 3-phase VSC


Waveshape shown for full wave switching

Fourier Analysis of Phase to Phase voltage

Optimised PWM or Selective Harmonic Elimination


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 55 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 56

Advantages of multi-level converters


Fewer switch operations for similar harmonic performance. Lower voltage per switch. Amplitude of fundamental frequency voltage can be adjusted even with full wave switching - giving additional degree of freedom. Lower power loss.

Pulse Width Modulation


PWM switching at 21 times fundamental frequency
Line-to-neutral voltage (pu) 1

2-Level VSC

1 0 90 180 Degree 270 360

1 Line-to-neutral voltage (pu)

3-Level VSC

1 0 90 180 Degree 270 360

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

57

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

58

Series connected 2-level converters (HVDC Plus)

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

Converter Transformer
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 59 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 60

VSC Valves - Device choice


Currently the device of choice is the IGBT - Can be turned off in short circuit conditions. - Active control of the voltage across the device, - Low power control of the device (Voltage control - MOSFET device). - High switching speed capability.

IGBT Press Pack


- Valve operation with failed devices, - Pack includes IGBTs and Diodes - 6kV designs available, but 2.5kV, 2kA devices generally used, - Multi-chip design.

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 61 3rd April 2006

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


62

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

VSC Valve design - 1


Coherency of switch on and off is essential. Voltage distribution controlled by IGBT transistor action Stray inductance kept as low as possible Voltage divider and surveillance circuits for device monitoring Energy for gate electronics obtained from main circuit via voltage divider Fibre optic interface with ground level control
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 63

VSC Valve design -2


A valve for 150kVdc may contain >300 series levels. IGBTs and diodes are water cooled Devices mounted with great pressure against heatsinks Valves housed in metallic enclosure - contains EMF

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

64

VSC Valve for 150kVdc

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

Photo Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 65 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 66

DC Capacitor Design
Provides energy storage on the dc side, acting as a dc voltage source. Capacitor must have low inductance Capacitor placed close to VSC Valves to minimise stray inductance in commutating loop

DC Capacitor
Capacitance must be large enough to limit harmonic ripple to design limit - Ripple depends on direct current amplitude and on the switching strategy
long pulses of high current causes more ripple

Voltage variations during faults in ac networks also need to be taken into account.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

67

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

68

DC Capacitor Design
Dry type capacitors used - minimises fire risks Self healing metalised film design used Plastic Housing Compact
Photo Courtesy of ABB

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

69

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

70

Controls
Determines the instant at which each individual VSC valve is switched on or off to meet the operational requirements. Typically: - One station controls the direct voltage. - One station controls the active power - Both stations can also control ac voltage or reactive power Implemented as a duplicated digital control system.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 71 3rd April 2006

Control System Block Diagram

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 Figure Courtesy of ABB

72

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

Converter reactor
Provides constant fundamental frequency impedance for the control of the VSC active and reactive power output. Provides a high frequency blocking filter between the VSC and the ac network. Limits rate of rise of short circuit currents.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

73

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

74

Converter reactor for 65MVA, 80kVdc VSC Transmission scheme


Dry type air-insulated air-cored reactor Typical impedance of 15% Low stray capacitance Metallic screen to eliminate external magnetic fields Forced air cooling
Photo Courtesy of ABB
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 75 3rd April 2006

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

76

AC Harmonic Filter - 1
Characteristic harmonics tend to be at higher orders. Must check non-characteristic harmonics, when the ac system can be unbalanced. Design methods similar to those for LCC HVDC scheme Typical rating of the ac harmonic filter is 15%. Typically includes tuned and high pass branches.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 77

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

78

Interface Transformer - 1
Enables the VSC to be designed independently of the ac connection voltage. Blocks zero sequence current Provides additional series reactance - beneficial for harmonics - adds to converter reactor reactance

Interface Transformer - 3
Typically does not have dc stress or significant harmonic stress. - Ordinary substation transformer can be used. A converter winding tapchanger can achieve: - larger steady state rating - lower power loss A tertiary winding may be used for auxiliary power supply Typical impedance of 10-15%
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 80

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

79

Interface Transformer - 3

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer DC Cables

Photo Courtesy of ABB Illustration Courtesy of ABB

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

81

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

82

DC Cables
Extruded polymeric cables can be used, as the dc voltage does not change polarity. - Lighter - Smaller bending radii - No significant environmental risks. These features make them easier and quicker to install. This type of cable has been proven in service at voltages up to 150kVdc.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 83

Land Cables
Installed lengths of 12km are joined in the field. Depending on the ground conditions, cable can be buried using direct ploughing methods.

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 84

Laying a Land Cable

Deep Sea Submarine Cables


Can be manufactured and laid in continuos lengths of > 100km, depending on rating.

Illustration Courtesy of ABB IllustrationPhoto Courtesy of ABB Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 85 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 86

Components of a VSC Transmission scheme


Converter Topology VSC Valves DC Capacitor Controls Converter Reactor AC Filters Interface Transformer Other DC Cables

Other equipment in a VSC Transmission substation


AC circuit breakers. RFI and PLC filters. Voltage and Current measuring transducers. Surge arresters. Disconnectors and earth switches. Auxiliary power supplies. Fire Protection. Civil works.

equipment/components

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

87

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

88

Physical Layout, 65 MVA HVDC LightTM Converter Station


Phase A, B and C valve enclosures Phase Reactors

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes,

DC Yard Equipment

Auxiliary Power System & Cooling Control

Cooling towers
Building 45 x 18 m
3rd April 2006

AC Yard & Harmonic filters Illustration Courtesy of ABB


CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 89

- Future Trends.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 90

System Issues - 1
Protection in ac network. - During ac faults the current delivered by a VSC Transmission scheme is limited to rated. - Conventional over-current protection may not work. - However, low current may permit longer fault detection - Protection needs careful consideration - VSC Transmission does not add inertia
Frequency tripping limits may need to be reassessed
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 91

System Issues - 2
Feasibility Studies can use third party commercially available models. - However, these models may not reflect full capability and/or limitations of the VSC. - When specifying a scheme make the specification functional, and provide necessary system data. - Studies done during feasibility phase typically has to be repeated by the manufacturer during the implementation phase
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 92

System Issues - 3
When comparing options during feasibility studies all issues must be considered: Ancillary service Benefits: Capital cost Reactive Power control, Power Loss Black Start Capability Maintenance Environmental Impact Reliability Visual Impact Availability EMF Time to In-service Operation cost Public Enquiry Time to implement
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 93

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 94

Gotland - the first commercial HVDC LightTM project


Technical Data Commissioning year: Power rating: AC Voltage: DC Voltage: DC current Length of DC cable: 1999 50 MW 70 kV both ends 80 kV 350 A 2 x 70 km

Gotland HVDC Light

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


Main reasons for choosing HVDC system: Wind power (voltage support). Easy to get permission for underground cables.

Illustration Courtesy of ABB Gotland HVDC Light converter station at Ns, exterior view

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

95

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

96

Gotland HVDC Light

Eagle Pass HVDC Light link


The HVDC Light installation in Eagle Pass mitigates voltage instability, and at the same time allows power exchange between the U.S. and Mexico.

Technical Data

Converter station at Ns blends in well with surrounding farms.

Commissioning year: Power rating: AC Voltage: DC Voltage: DC current Illustration Courtesy of ABB Configuration:

2000 36 MW

132 kV (both sides) 15,9 kV 1,1 kA Back-to-back

Illustration Courtesy of ABB Illustration Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 97

Main reasons for choosing HVDC system: Controlled asynchronous connection for trading. Voltage control
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 98

Eagle Pass HVDC Light, simplified SLD

Eagle Pass

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


Eagle Pass converter station, AC yard.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 99 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 100

Murraylink
At factory Technical Data Commissioning year: Power rating: AC Voltage: DC Voltage: DC current: Length of DC cable: Illustration Courtesy of ABB Main reasons for choosing HVDC system: Controlled asynchronous connection for trading. Easy to get permission for underground cables.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 101 3rd April 2006

Murraylink - valve enclosures

Inside building 2002 200 MW 132/220 kV 150 kV 739 A 2 x 180 km Placed on foundation

Illustrations Courtesy of ABB


CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 102

Murraylink

Cross Sound Cable


Technical Data Commissioning year: Power rating: Voltage: DC Voltage: DC current Illustration Courtesy of ABB 2002 330 MW AC

345 kV at New Haven 138 kV at Shoreham 150 kV 1175 A 2 x 40 km

Illustration Courtesy of ABB


Murraylink, the Berri converter station.

Length of DC cable:

Main reasons for choosing HVDC system: Controlled connection for trading. Submarine cables without oil.

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

103

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

104

Cross Sound Converter Layout

Dynamic Response to Network Faults


March 17, 2005 Cross arm fault on 353 Line (345kV)

Building 90 x 18 m Illustration Courtesy of ABB


Illustration Courtesy of ABB

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

105

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

106

Dynamic Response to Network Faults

Troll A HVDC LightTM link


The HVDC LightTM installation between the Norwegian main land and the Troll A oil platform consists of two circuits, each feeding a 40 MW compressor motor

Technical Data Commissioning year: Planned 2004/2005 Power rating: AC Voltage: DC Voltage: Illustration Courtesy of ABB DC current Length of DC cable: 2 x 42 MW 132 kV/56 kV 60 kV 350 A 4 x 70 km

Cross arm fault on 353 Line (345kV)


Illustration Courtesy of ABB
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 107

Main reasons for choosing HVDC LightTM system: Environmental improvement by elimination of gas turbines on platform. Low weight and small space on platform. Ability to feed and black-start motors, without local generation.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 108

Troll A HVDC LightTM link


Troll A 56kV 70 km +/- 60kV Kollsnes

Troll A

SM
MotorFormer 4-pole, 40MW 0 - 65 Hz HVDC Light

Illustrations Courtesy of ABB


3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 109 3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 110

Presentation Overview
- Basic Characteristics of VSC Transmission, - Comparison of VSC Transmission and LCC HVDC technology, - VSC Transmission Applications, - Components of a VSC Transmission Scheme, - System Issues, - Overview of VSC Transmission schemes, - Future Trends.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 111 3rd April 2006

= =

138kV

Illustration Courtesy of ABB

VSC Transmission Outlook


VSC Transmission has many technical advantages over LCC HVDC WG-37 has not identified any technical reason why VSC Transmission cannot be developed for very high voltage and power, say 500kVdc, 3000MW Main drawbacks relative to LCC HVDC are its presently limited power rating and higher power losses.

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

112

VSC Transmission trends


Future Developments - Increased dc voltage (higher power, longer distances) - Increased dc current (higher power) - New topologies (lower losses) - New Semi-conductor devices (lower losses and cost) Resulting in: - VSC Transmission competing head on with LCC HVDC in more and more applications.
3rd April 2006 CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006 113

Recommended Further reading


VSC Transmission, Cigre Brochure 269, Working Group B4.37, April 2005. Its Time to Connect, Technical Description of HVDC Light technology, ABB website, www.ABB.com/hvdc

3rd April 2006

CIGRE B4 Meeting Oslo, April, 2006

114

Thank you for your Attention!

Any Questions? Bjarne@AndersenPES.com

18/09/2005

VSC Transmission Tutorial

115