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Di

! erentiability

Derivative and Differentiability Differentiability Graphically Differentiability and Continuity

Di

! erentiability

Derivative and Differentiability Differentiability Graphically Differentiability and Continuity

Introduction

f
f

x x + h

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction

f
f

x x + h

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.

comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 Differentiation/Introduction to
comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 Differentiation/Introduction to

0.77<x<1.27

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.

comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 f x x + h If the
comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 f x x + h If the

0.77<x<1.27

f
f

x x + h

If the mistake of the linear approximation of the function is nicely bounded, then we say that the function is differentiable.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.

comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 f x x + h If the
comes from looking at linear approximations of functions. 0.77<x<1.27 f x x + h If the

0.77<x<1.27

f
f

x x + h

If the mistake of the linear approximation of the function is nicely bounded, then we say that the function is differentiable. We show that these two parallel approaches define the same concept, i.e., that if f has derivative at a point, then it is differentiable, in view of the above definition, and vice versa.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (1)

Definition 1
Definition 1

The derivative of a function f at a number x 0 , is

f

( x 0 + h ) f

(

x

0 )

h

provided that the limit exists and is finite.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

h0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (2)

Definition 2
Definition 2

A function f is differentiable at a number x 0 if there is a number a, called the differential of f at x 0 , and a function ε such that

1.

f(x)

2.

lim

ε

x

x 0

f(x 0 ) = a (x – x 0 ) + (x – x 0 ) ε(x – x 0 ),

( x x 0 ) = 0.

and

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (3)

Remark
Remark

Using the notations y = f(x), x = x – x 0 , y = y – y 0 = f(x) f(x 0 ), the condition for the number a and the function ε can be written as

y = ax + x ε( x ).

If ε( x ) 0 as x 0, then f is differentiable at x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (4)

Theorem
Theorem

A function f is differentiable at x = x 0 if and only if f has derivative at x = x 0 . The differential a

of

f

at x = x 0 is the derivative of

f

at x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5)

Theorem
Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5)

Theorem
Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Proof ⇒
Proof

Assume that y = f(x) is differentiable at

x

= x 0 and that the differential of f at

x

= x 0 is

a. Then

y = ax + x ε( x )

with ε( x ) 0

as x 0.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5)

Theorem
Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Proof ⇒
Proof

Assume that y = f(x) is differentiable at

x

= x 0 and that the differential of f at

x

= x 0 is

a. Then

y = ax + x ε( x )

with ε( x ) 0

as x 0.

) = lim Δx Δy = lim

+ ε Δx )) = a.

⇒

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

(

x 0

Δx 0

Δx 0

(

(

Hence

f

a

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6)

Theorem Proof ⇐
Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

Δy

at x = x 0 .

Δx

exists and is finite.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6)

Theorem Proof ⇐
Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

Δy

at x = x 0 .

Δx

exists and is finite. Define the function ε setting ε( x ) = y/ x – f’(x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6)

Theorem Proof ⇐
Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

f

Δy

Δx

at x = x 0 .

exists and is finite. Define the function ε setting ε( x ) = y/ x – f’(x 0 ).

Then y = f’(x 0 ) x + x ε( x ) by the definition

of ε,

∆ x + ∆ x ε ( ∆ x ) by the definition of ε ,

and ε( x ) 0

as x 0 since

y/ x f’(x 0 ) as x 0.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Linear Approximations of Functions

The quantity x ε( x ) is the definition of differentiability is the mistake that one does when approximating the graph of a function with that of its tangent line.

the graph of a function with that of its tangent line. -1 < x < 2

-1 < x < 2

function with that of its tangent line. -1 < x < 2 0.5 < x <

0.5 < x < 1.5

tangent line. -1 < x < 2 0.5 < x < 1.5 0.9 < x <

0.9 < x < 1.1

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Tangents, Velocity, and the Derivative by M. Seppälä

Di ! erentiability and Continuity Theorem A differentiable function f is continuous. Differentiation/Introduction to

Di !erentiability and Continuity

Theorem
Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Di ! erentiability and Continuity Theorem A differentiable function f is continuous. Proof I f

Di !erentiability and Continuity

Theorem
Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous.

Proof
Proof

If f is differentiable at x 0 , then

f(x) – f(x 0 ) = f’(x 0 )(x x 0 ) + (x x 0 ) ε(x x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Di ! erentiability and Continuity Theorem A differentiable function f is continuous. Proof I f

Di !erentiability and Continuity

Theorem
Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous.

Proof
Proof

If f is differentiable at x 0 , then

f(x) – f(x 0 ) = f’(x 0 )(x x 0 ) + (x x 0 ) ε(x x 0 ). This means that

lim

x x 0

( f

( x ) f

( x

0 )) = 0

i.e.

lim f

x x 0

( x ) = f

(

x

0 ) .

) = 0 i.e. lim f x → x 0 ( x ) = f (

Hence f is continuous at

x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä