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Di

! erentiability

Derivative and Differentiability Differentiability Graphically Differentiability and Continuity

Di

! erentiability

Derivative and Differentiability Differentiability Graphically Differentiability and Continuity

Introduction f

x x + h

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction f

x x + h

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.  0.77<x<1.27

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.  0.77<x<1.27 f

x x + h

If the mistake of the linear approximation of the function is nicely bounded, then we say that the function is differentiable.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Introduction

The derivative of a function has earlier been defined as the limit of the rate of change of the function.

f

(

x ) = lim

h 0

f

( x + h ) f

(

x

)

h

A parallel definition comes from looking at linear approximations of functions.  0.77<x<1.27 f

x x + h

If the mistake of the linear approximation of the function is nicely bounded, then we say that the function is differentiable. We show that these two parallel approaches define the same concept, i.e., that if f has derivative at a point, then it is differentiable, in view of the above definition, and vice versa.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (1) Definition 1

The derivative of a function f at a number x 0 , is

f

( x 0 + h ) f

(

x

0 )

h

provided that the limit exists and is finite.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

h0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (2) Definition 2

A function f is differentiable at a number x 0 if there is a number a, called the differential of f at x 0 , and a function ε such that

 1 f(x) – 2 lim ε

x

x 0

f(x 0 ) = a (x – x 0 ) + (x – x 0 ) ε(x – x 0 ),

( x x 0 ) = 0.

and

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (3) Remark

Using the notations y = f(x), x = x – x 0 , y = y – y 0 = f(x) f(x 0 ), the condition for the number a and the function ε can be written as

y = ax + x ε( x ).

If ε( x ) 0 as x 0, then f is differentiable at x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (4) Theorem

A function f is differentiable at x = x 0 if and only if f has derivative at x = x 0 . The differential a

of

f

at x = x 0 is the derivative of

f

at x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5) Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5) Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ). Proof

Assume that y = f(x) is differentiable at

 x = x 0 and that the differential of f at x = x 0 is a. Then

y = ax + x ε( x )

with ε( x ) 0

as x 0.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

Derivative and Di !erentiability (5) Theorem

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ). Proof

Assume that y = f(x) is differentiable at

 x = x 0 and that the differential of f at x = x 0 is a. Then

y = ax + x ε( x )

with ε( x ) 0

as x 0.

) = lim Δx Δy = lim

+ ε Δx )) = a. Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

(

x 0

Δx 0

Δx 0

(

(

Hence

f

a

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6) Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

Δy

at x = x 0 .

Δx

exists and is finite.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6) Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

Δy

at x = x 0 .

Δx

exists and is finite. Define the function ε setting ε( x ) = y/ x – f’(x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

f

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Derivative and Di !erentiability (6) Theorem
Proof

Differential of f at x = x 0 equals f’(x 0 ).

Assume that y = f(x) has derivative f’(x 0 )

Then

f

Δy

Δx

at x = x 0 .

exists and is finite. Define the function ε setting ε( x ) = y/ x – f’(x 0 ).

Then y = f’(x 0 ) x + x ε( x ) by the definition

of ε, and ε( x ) 0

as x 0 since

y/ x f’(x 0 ) as x 0.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä

(

x 0

) = lim

Δx 0

Linear Approximations of Functions

The quantity x ε( x ) is the definition of differentiability is the mistake that one does when approximating the graph of a function with that of its tangent line. -1 < x < 2 0.5 < x < 1.5 0.9 < x < 1.1

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Tangents, Velocity, and the Derivative by M. Seppälä Di !erentiability and Continuity Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous.

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä Di !erentiability and Continuity Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous. Proof

If f is differentiable at x 0 , then

f(x) – f(x 0 ) = f’(x 0 )(x x 0 ) + (x x 0 ) ε(x x 0 ).

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä Di !erentiability and Continuity Theorem

A differentiable function f is continuous. Proof

If f is differentiable at x 0 , then

f(x) – f(x 0 ) = f’(x 0 )(x x 0 ) + (x x 0 ) ε(x x 0 ). This means that

lim

x x 0

( f

( x ) f

( x

0 )) = 0

i.e.

lim f

x x 0

( x ) = f

(

x

0 ) . Hence f is continuous at

x = x 0 .

Differentiation/Introduction to Differentiation/Differentiability by M. Seppälä