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RSA

2003
File No. RSA-006 revision. 0 -7/08/03

Tables on Oil Analysis

All Rights Reserve - 2003

Prepare by : Rolly Angeles Technical Training

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Rolly Angeles

RSA
2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table 1 : ISO 4406 Fluid Cleanliness Standard .. 1 Table 2 : Fluid Cleanliness Standard for New Oil ... 1 Table 3 : Sample Standard Base Cleanliness Target . 2 Table 4 : General Water Concentration Limit ... 2 Table 5 : Engine Problems Analyzed Through Oil Analysis ... 3 Table 6 : Recommended Test for Different Applications . 3 Table 7 : Comparing Multi-grade oil properties . 4 Table 8 : Another ISO 4406 Fluid Target Cleanliness Std 5 Table 9 : Commonly Recommended Oil Sampling Frequencies 6 Table 10 : Common Elements Found On Oil. 6 Table 11 : What Different Oil Analysis Test Will Detect .. 7 Table 12 : Limits On Oil Analysis Tests . 7

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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 1 : ISO 4406 :99 Fluid Cleanliness Standard

ISO 4406 CODE 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6

Number of Particles From To 320,000 640,000 160,000 320,000 80,000 160,000 40,000 80,000 20,000 40,000 10,000 20,000 5,000 10,000 2,500 5,000 1,300 2,500 640 1,300 320 640 160 320 80 160 40 80 20 40 10 20 5 10 2.5 5 1.3 2.5 0.6 1.3 0.3 0.6

Table 2 : Fluid Cleanliness Standard Comparison for New Oil

Without By-Pass ISO 22/17 > 5 = 29263 ppm > 15 = 1112 ppm > 25 = 29 ppm > 50 = 0 ppm >100 = 0 ppm

Brand New Oil ISO 17/14 > 5 = 1292 ppm > 15 = 119 ppm > 25 = 19 ppm > 50 = 5 ppm >100 = 0 ppm

With By-Pass Filter ISO 13/10 > 5= > 15 = > 25 = > 50 = >100 = 55 15 3 0 0 ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 3 : Sample Standard Cleanliness Target for System Applications

MACHINE / COMPONENT Roller Bearings Journal Bearings Industrial Gearboxes Mobile Gearboxes Diesel Engines Steam Turbine Paper Machine Servo-Valve Proportional Valve Variable Volume Pump Fixed Piston Pump Vane Pump Gear Pump Ball Bearing Turbine

ISO RATING 16/14/12 17/15/12 17/15/12 17/16/13 17/16/13 18/15/12 19/16/13 13/12/10 14/13/11 15/14/12 16/15/12 16/15/12 16/15/12 14/13/11 17/15/12

Table 4 : General Water Concentration Limits

H20 Concentration 100 - 300 300 - 800

Status Alert Danger

Action
Check seals, breathers, coolers, etc., for ingression sources, watch the trend Aggressively investigate and correct the source of ingression and implement an effective water removal activities Immediate action is required to eliminate ingression and effect removal of water to minimize damage to machine and lubricant

800 above

Extremely Danger

Note : Unit of Water concentration in PPM

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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 5 : Engine Problems Analyzed through Oil Analysis

Metal Traces
Silicon

Limit
10 - 30 ppm

Engine Problem
Dirt Ingression

What to Check
Air intake system Oil filter plugging Oil filler cap and breather Valve cover Excessive oil consumption Abnormal engine noise Performance problem Oil pressure Stuck or broken piston Excessive oil blow-by Oil consumption / degradation Coolant in engine oil Abnormal noise on operating at stall speed Extended oil change intervals Blow-by gases Oil consumption Power loss Abnormal engine noise

Iron (Fe)

100 - 200 ppm

Wear of cylinder liner Valve and fear train Oil pump Rust in the system Piston ring wear Bearing / bushing wear Radiator corrosion Bearing corrosion Piston and piston thrust Bearing wear

Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu)

10 - 30 ppm 10 - 50 ppm

Lead (Pb) Aluminum (Al)

40 - 100 ppm 10 - 30 ppm

Table 6 : Recommended Test for different applications

Equipment
Engines Compressor Gearboxes Bearings Hydraulics Turbines Motor
Where :

Spectro- Viscosity Analysis

FTIR

Particle Count

Karl Fisher

TAN

TBN

Rotrode Filter

R R R R R R R

R R R R R R R

R R R R R R R

---A ---A R R ----

R R ------A R ----

R ---------A R ----

R -------------------

A R R R R R R

R - Require Test A - Advisable, provides extra details

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Table 7 : Comparing Multi-grade Oil Properties

BRAND (SAE 20W-50)


AMSOIL Castrol GTX Exxon High Perfmance Havoline Formula 3 Kendall GT-1 Pennzoil GT Performance Quaker State Dix Red Line Shell Truck Guard Spectro Golden 4 Spectro Golden M.G. Unocal Valvoline All Climate Valvoline Turbo Valvoline Race Valvoline Synthetic

VI
136 122 119 125 129 120 155 150 130 174 174 121 125 140 140 146

Flash
482 440 419 465 390 460 430 503 450 440 440 432 430 440 425 465

Pour
-38 -15 -13 30 -25 -10 -25 -49 -15 -35 -35 -11 -10 -10 -10 -40

% Ash
< 0.50 0.85 0.70 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.90 --1.00 ----0.74 1.00 0.99 1.20 <1.50

% Zinc
--0.12 0.11 --0.16 ------0.15 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.2 0.12

BRAND (SAE 20W-40)


Castrol Multi-Grade Quaker State Dix

VI
110 121

Flash
440 415

Pour
-15 -15

% Ash
0.85 0.90

% Zinc
0.12 ---

BRAND (SAE 15W-50)


Chevron Mobile 1 Mystic JTS Red Line

VI
204 170 144 152

Flash
415 470 420 503

Pour
-18 -55 -20 -49

% Ash
0.96 --1.70 ---

% Zinc
0.11 --0.15 ---

BRAND (SAE 5W-50)


Castrol Syntec Quaker State Sunquest Pennzoil Performax

VI
180 173 176

Flash
437 457 ---

Pour
-45 -76 -69

% Ash
1.20 -----

% Zinc
0.1 -----

BRAND (SAE 5W-40)


Havoline

VI
170

Flash
450

Pour
-40

% Ash
1.40

% Zinc
---

BRAND (SAE 15W-40)


AMSOIL Castrol Chevron Delo 400 Exxsn XD3 Exxon XD3 Extra Kendall GT-1 Mystic JT8 Red Line Shell Rotella w/ XLA Valvoline all fleet Valvoline Turbo

VI
135 134 136 --135 135 142 149 146 140 140

Flash
460 415 421 417 399 410 440 495 410 --420

Pour
-38 -15 -27 -11 -11 -25 -20 -40 -25 -10 -10

% Ash
<0.50 1.30 1 0.9 0.95 1 1.7 --1 1 0.99

% Zinc
--0.14 --0.14 0.13 0.16 0.15 --0.13 0.15 0.13

BRAND (SAE 5W-30)


AMSOIL Castrol GTX Chevron Supreme Chevron Supreme Synthetic Exxon Superflow HP Havoline Formula 3

VI
168 156 202 165 148 158

Flash
480 400 354 446 392 420
4

Pour
-76 -35 -46 -72 -22 -40

% Ash
<0.50 0.8 0.96 1.1 0.7 1

% Zinc
--0.12 0.11 0.12 0.11 --Rolly Angeles

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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 8 : Guidelines for determining, achieving and maintenance Target Cleanliness Levels with High Performance Filtration (Beta Ration > 200)
Low Medium Pressure High Pressure

Most Sensitive System Components


Fixed External Gears Vane Pump Fixed Piston Variable Piston Check Valves Directional (Solenoid) Standard Flow Control Cartridge Valve Proportional Valve Servo Valve Cylinders, Vane Motors Gear Motors Piston Motors Swash Plate Motors Hydrostatic Drives Paper Machine Oils Steam Turbin Oils Diesel Engines Mobile Gear Box Industrial Gear Box Journal Bearings Roller Bearings Ball Gearings

Pressure

140 Bar
ISO Target Levels Micron Rating

140 - 210 Bar


ISO Target Levels Micron Rating

210 Bar - up
ISO Target Levels Micron Rating

PUMPS
21/17/14 21/17/14 20/16/14 19/16/13 21/17/14 21/17/14 21/17/14 20/16/14 19/15/12 18/14/12 22/18/15 22/18/15 20/16/14 20/16/14 19/15/12 21/16/13 20/15/12 19/16/13 19/16/13 19/15/12 19/15/12 18/14/12 17/13/11 25 25 10 6 25 25 25 10 3 3 25 25 10 10 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 20/16/14 20/16/14 19/16/13 19/15/12 20/16/14 20/16/14 20/16/14 19/16/13 18/14/12 17/13/11 20/17/14 20/17/14 19/16/13 19/16/13 18/14/12
n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

10 10 6 3 10 10 10 6 3 3 16 16 6 6 3
n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

20/16/14 19/16/13 19/15/12 18/14/12 20/16/14 20/16/14 20/16/14 19/15/12 17/13/11 16/12/10 19/16/13 19/16/13 19/15/12 19/15/12 17/13/11
n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

10 6 3 3 10 10 10 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 3
n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

VALVES

ACTUATORS

LUBRICATING OILS

Severe conditions may include high flow surges, pressure spikes, frequent cold starts, extremely heavy duty use or the presence of water Two or more systems filters of the recommended rating may be required to achieve and maintain the desired Target Cleanliness Level (ISO 4406 : 99)

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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 9 : Commonly Recommended Oil Sampling Frequencies

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Machine Type
Diesel Engine Transmission, differentials, final drives Hydraulics - Mobile Equipments Gas Turbines - industrial Steam Turbines Air / Gas Compressors Chillers Gear boxes - high speed / duty Gear boxes - low speed / duty Bearings - journal and rolling elements Aviation reciprocating engines Aviation gas turbines Aviation gear boxes Aviation hydraulics

Hours
150 300 200 500 500 500 500 500 300 1000 25 - 50 100 100 - 200 100 - 200

Table 10 : Commonly Elements Found On Oil

Item
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Element
Iron Copper Chromium Tin Aluminum Lead Silicon Sodium Boron Calcium Magnesium Zinc Phosporous Molybdenum Potassium

Symbol
(Fe) (Cu) (Cr) (Sn) (Al) (Pb) (Si) (Na) (B) (Ca) (Mg) (Zn) (P) (Mo) (K)

Wear x x x x x x

Contam x x x
x x x x x

Additive x

x x x

x x x x x x x x

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Oil Analysis Important Tables


Table 11 : What Different Oil Analysis Test Will Detect

LUBE MACHINE CONDITION


Moisture Contamination Particle Contamination Wear Debri Detection Glycol Contamination Corrosive Condition P S S S P Wear Debri Analysis Abnormal Viscosity Additive Depletion Oxidation Stability Alkalinity Reserve Thermal Failure P S Fuel Dilution

Soot Load

OIL ANALYSIS Test

Particle Count Viscosity TAN / TBN FTIR Spectroscopy Ferrous Density Analytical Ferrography RPVOT Moisture Tester Elemental Spectroscopy Flash Point Test

S P S S S P S P S P P S S S P S P P P S P

P S

S P P S P S P P S P S S

P = Primary Indicator

S = Secondary Indicator

Table 12 : Limits On Oil Analysis Tests

Oil Analysis Test


Cleanliness Dryness TAN Fuel Glycol Soot Viscosity RPVOT FTIR (Ox) Zinc Calcium TBN Water
- Iron (Fe) - Silicon (Si) - Chromium (Cr) - Lead (Pb) - Aluminum (Al) - Copper (Cu)

Caution
ISO 14/11 200 0.2 1.50% 200 ppm 2% +5% - 30 % 0.3 -15 % -10 - 50% 100 - 300 ppm

Critical
ISO 16/13 600 0.4 5% 400 ppm 5% + 10% - 60 % 1 - 30 % 20% - 75 % above 300 ppm above 200 ppm above 30 ppm above 30 ppm above 100 ppm above 30 ppm above 50 ppm

Shell Limits
no data no data no data no data no data no data +/- 20 % no data no data no data no data 2 mg KOH min 0.10% by vol.

Metals
100- 200 ppm 10 - 30 ppm 10 - 30 ppm 40 - 100 ppm 10 - 30 ppm 10 - 50 ppm

Shell Limits
3 - 150 ppm 1 - 15 ppm 0 - 20 ppm 3 - 50 ppm 2 - 20 ppm - 5 - 65 ppm
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