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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

SIMPLE STRAIN
Strain,
Is the deformation due to stress

* =

e L

Where: e = is the deformation in mm L = is the original length in mm

mm * = mm

++ no unit, a-stract

Solving for deformation, e: e=

. "

" e = is the deformation (Compression) >> (Contraction)

e L

. "

" e = is the deformation (Tension) >> (Elongation)

** If the unit stress is constant, the unit strain is:


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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

* = * =

e L

** If the unit stress is varia-le, the unit strain is:

d d e L

HOOKES LAW: AXIAL DEFORMATION


0he unit stress is directl1 2ro2ortional to the unit strain u2 to the elastic limit.

*= E

* Solving for

8 = E

e = to L then su-stituting

0herefore, e

8 E L

-ut " 8 . =

So, the general formula of deformation is:

e =
Where: e " L . E = = = = = 7hich

" . L E
is the deformation in mm is the a3ial load in 4 is the original length in mm is the cross-sectional area in mm is the &oung5s 6odulus, or 6odulus of Elasticit1 in 6"a is al7a1s constant

Re tri!ti"n in # in$ t%e &"r'#(a "& )e&"r'ati"n:


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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 #. 0he load must -e a3ial. %. 0he -ar must have a constant cross section and -e homogenous. (. 0he stress must not e3ceed the 2ro2ortional limit. Shearing deformation: - .n element su-9ect to shear does not change the length of its sides, -ut undergoes a change in sha2e from a rectangle to 2arallelogram as sho7n in the figure.

e =

: . Ls;
= = = is the shearing force is the shearing area modulus of rigidit1

Where: : .s ;

Figure 1: Shear Deformation

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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

Figure 2: Stress-strain Diagram

Figure 3: Comparative Stress-strain Diagrams for different materials

TERMS RELATED TO STRAIN:

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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 #. Elasticit1 < is that 2ro2ert1 of matter to return to its original si=e and sha2e u2on the removal of the outside force. %. Elastic Limit < is that value a -od1 ma1 reach its 2oint of -eing elastic and again return to its original si=e and sha2e. (. !atigue < if a -od1 is su-9ected to force re2etitivel1, the -od1 7ill soon fail due to fatigue ). !atigue Limit < is that value a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected to force re2etitivel1 7ithout causing 2ermanent deformation. >. .llo7a-le Stress - is that value of force a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected 7ithout causing failure and? or deformation. @. Altimate Stress < is that value of force a -od1 ma1-e su-9ected 7ithout causing 2ermanent destruction. B. !actor of Safet1 < is also Cno7n as factor of ignorance. It cares the 7ear and tear during the e32ected life s2an of the structure.

Pra!ti!e Pr"+(e' : #. .n .luminum -ar having a cross-sectional area of #@' mm% carries the a3ial loads at the 2osition sho7n. If E = B' ;"a, com2ute the total deformation of the -ar. .ssume that the -ar is suita-l1 -raced to 2revent -ucCling.
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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

.
(> C4 '.D m

/
#> C4 (' C4 #.' m

F
#' C4 '.@ m

%. .n .luminum tu-e is fastened -et7een a steel rod and a -ron=e rod as sho7n. .3ial loads are a22lied at the 2ositions indicated. !ind the value " that 7ill not e3ceed a ma3imum overall deformation of %mm or a stress in the steel of #)' 64?m%, in the .luminum of D' 64?m%, or in the -ron=e of #%' 64?m%. .ssume that the assem-l1 is suita-l1 -raced to 2revent -ucCling and that E S = %'' 3 #'( 6"a, E.l = B' 3 #'( 6"a, and E/ = D( 3 #'( 6"a.

(. 0he rigid -ars sho7n are se2arated -1 a roller at E and 2inned at . and F. . steel rod at / hel2s su22ort the load of >' C4. Eom2ute the vertical dis2lacement of the roller at E.

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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

). 0he rigid -ar ./, attached to t7o vertical rods as sho7n is hori=ontal -efore the load " is a22lied. If the load " = >'C4, determine its vertical movement.

STATICALL, INDETERMINATE MEMBERS: If the anal1sis could not -e done -1 2lain a22lication of the three La7s of Static, the mem-er is said to -e indeterminate. - F. = /0 - F1 = /0 -M=/

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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4 We need to a22l1 2rinci2le such as DEFORMATION to determine the other unCno7ns.

Pra!ti!e Pr"+(e' : >. . hori=ontal -eam hinged at . and carries a concentric load " = (' C4 at end F. 0he -eam is su22orted -1 t7o tim-er columns of the same material -ut of different cross-section. Eom2ute the value of the force at su22orts.

@. .s sho7n, a rigid -eam 7ith negligi-le mass is 2inned at one end and su22orted -1 t7o rods. 0he -eam as initiall1 hori=ontal -efore load " 7as a22lied. !ind the vertical movement of " if " = #%' C4.

B. . homogenous rod of constant cross-section is attached to un1ielding su22orts. It carries an a3ial load " as sho7n. Eom2ute the value of the reactions.

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MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES Lecture Notes # 4

D. . homogenous -ar 7ith cross-sectional area of >'' mm% is added to rigid su22orts. It carries the a3ial loads, "# = %> C4 and "% = >' C4. Fetermine the stress on each segment.

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