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AECL EACL
AECL CANDU EACL CANDU ,~

REFEIRENCE1

Fundamentals of CANDU Reactor Nuclear Design A Lecture Series given at Trieste 22 January 28 March 1980,
TDAI-244

1980 August

Aoiit 1980

UNRESTRICTED

TDAI-244

FUNDAMENTALS

OF

CANDU

REACTOR

NUCLE.43

DESIGN

A Lecture

Series

by A.A. Pasanen

ABSTRACT

This lectures 22 January at the - 28

document Winter tlarch, of

contains College 1980. Power for on

the

material

presented and of

in sew3 Reactors the course at Triesce on

Nuclear

Physics part

They

constitute

Opekational the lectures

Physics are of

Reactors Part Heavy the 1.1

,given during of the first

March. week's

Specifically, lectures, some of

written

"Fundamentals the topics

Pressurized during and

Water

Reactors". pertaining of of

However,

presented Measurement are

second of

week

to "Power Power nuclear design.

Operations, Distributions"

Methods

Calculation overview

also

covered

in this

CANDU

A physical is given, performance analysis results initial associated with

description emphasis The the

of

a CANOU on.the

reactor

of

the and

600

NWe

size

particular

core

design used

nuclear physics and typical of tests :he

characteristics. associated with

methodology

in the

design

process
Finally,

is outlined, the

of

:he

analysis

presented.

determination and

fuel

load

is described

and,the are

physics

analysis

with

commissioning

summarized.

ATOMIC

ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED ENGINEEXING SHERIDAN PARK aESEARCH CONtlUNlTY HISSISSAUGA, GNTARID LSK IBZ

COMPANY

TDAI -244

CONTENTS

PAGE

ABSTRACT 1.0 2.0 INTRODUCTION PHYSICAL 2.1 2.2 The DESCRIPTION Pressure OF THE CANOU-600 Concept 1

2 2
3 3 6 7

Tube

Reactor

Ca!andria Devices Details Zone Controllers Control Absorbers System

2.3
2.4

Reactivity Core 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7 2.4.a Design

Liquid

Mechanical Adjuster Moderator Shutdown Shutoff Liquid Regional FOR REACTOR

a 9 10 11 11

Rod Absorber

Poison
Systems Rods

Poison

Injection

System system IN CORE DESIGN

11

0verpowerProcec:ive PHYSICS ANALYSIS

12 26 26 26 27 27 27 27

3.0

METHODOLOGY 3.1 Sumnary 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.2

Engineering Lattice Simulation Core Kinetic Reactor Fuel Flux (Cell)

Requirements Calculations Devices

Of Reactivity

Calculations Studies Stability Burnup flapping tiethodology

And Control

2a

And Managemen:

28 2a 29 29

CANDUiPhysics 3.2.1 3.2.2

Introduction Conceptual Stage Design Analysis

29

TDAI-244

PAGE

3.2.2.1

Calculation

Of Lattice

Parameters

30 30 33
For

3.2.2.1.1 3.2.2.1.2 3.2.2.2

Functional Description Of Lattice Parameter Programs SpeciaI Features CANOLI Applications Calculations Data For

Typical POWOERPUFS The CANCJU-600

36 36 37 38 38 39 40 40 40 42
liodelling In-Core Of 42 Devices 46 56

3.2.2.2.1 3.2.2.2.2
3.2.2.2.3 3.2.2.2.4

Four-Factor

Fuel Temperature Reactivity Effects Coolant Temperature Reactivity Effects Loss-Of-Coolant Reactivity Effect Hoderator Reactivity Temperature Effect

3.2.2.2.5 3.2.2.2.6 3.2.3


Core Design Analys,is Core Core Size Design

Reactivity Effect Of Boran In The Kodera:or

3.2.3.1
3.2.3.2

Considerations Hethodology Numerical The Core Locating

3.2.3.2.1 3.2.3.2.2

3.2.4

Time

Dependent Xenon

Analyses Transients Sys:em Of Performance Of CooIant Analysis Accidents

3.2.4.1
3.2.4.2 3.2.4.3

57 59 63 b.5 105 105


Fuel Load

Shutdown Hodelling Flux Happ;ng

Loss

3.2.5
4.0 INITIAL FUEL General

On-Line LOAOING

DEiERHINATlON

4.1
4.2

Criteria For Determining Characteristics 4.2.1 4.2.2 Fuel Use Bundle of Dummy Of Ttw

Initial

106
106

bdifications Bundles Initial Fuel Load For The

107 107

4.3

Determination CANDU-600

TOAl-

PAGE

5.0

PHYSICS
5.1 5.2

ANAlySlS
General Physics 5.2.1 5.2.2

AND ZSTS

RELATE0

TO

COHHlSSlONlNti

I21 121

Tests Approach Calibrafion To Critical Of Zone Control Of System Individual

121 121 I24

5.2.3
5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6

Reactivity Calibration Shutoff Rods Calibration Calibration Flux Mapping Calibrations Dynamic Heat Tests System Of Of

125
Control Adjuster Absorbers Rods I26 126

ilechanical Individual

Measurements Of Groups Of

And

Reactivity Reactivity Devices

I27 129 129

5.2.1
5.2.a 5.2.9 5.2.10

Transport

Temperature Coefficient From To Low Measurement Physics Bruce Tests A Tes:s

Moderator Some

Temperature Results Approach Shutdown

130 130 130 131 .I33 134 154.

Typical

Power For

5.2.10.1 5.2.10.2 5.2.10.3

Critical

System

Rynamic

Flux Zone

Oistribution Control Sysiem

Measurements Cali~bration

5.2.10.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY

TDAI-244

LIST

OF

FIGURES

NUM6EFi

TITLE

PAGE

2.1-1 2.1-2 2.2-1 2.3-t 2.3-2 2.3-3 2.4-1 2.4-2

Reactor Schematic Concrete Reactor Reactor Reactor Variation Lattice

Assembly Of CANOU-Pi-lW Lattice Vault

13 14 15 16
Assenbiy - Elevation (Section)

Calandria GA Plan

General Layout Of

17

Ia
Lattice Pitch For CANDU-PHW

Reactivity

With

I9
Fourteen Assemblies 20 Detectors Assembly Locations SDS1 and With Respect To 21 Locations - View SDS2 22

Relation Of Zone Control Units (ZCU).To The Zones And The Reactor Zone Control Detector

VFD 2. 3, 9, 2.4-3 2.4-4 .C~,~_~ 'd 2.4-5 2.4-6 2.4-7


Position Zone Vertical Flux Of

18. 23, 25
Zone Control

Compartments Flux Detector Detector Showing 3

flapping

I
(Top,View)

23 24 25

CaIandria (Continued)

Plan

Detectors

View

3.1-1 3.2-1 3.2-2 3.2-3 3.2-4 3.2-5 3.2-6 3.2:7 3.2-a

A Simplified Detectors Lattice Cell

Chart For

Of The 37-Element Oxide Oxide Oxide Pit&

Physics Fuel

Analysis

Of

PtiW

6a
63

Z&Element Uranium Versus Pttch 28-Element Uranium Versus Pitch Z&Element Temperature Uranium Versus

La:tice, Lattice, Lattice,

Hateriai Fuel Fuel

Buckling

70
Wescott-R Neutron

72
Flux

Z&Element Uranium Oxide Lattice Ratio Of Thermal In Moderator To Thermal Flux In Fuel Versus Pitch 37-Element Uranium Versus Pit& 37-Element Versus Uranium Oxide Oxide Lattice, Lattice, Material Fuel Buckling

73
14

Wescott-R

Pitch Uranium Versus Oxide.Lattice, Pitch Fuel Neutron

75 76

3j'-Element Temperature

TDAI-244

LIST

OF FIGURES TITLE

(C0NTl0)

NUMBER

PAGE

3.2-5
3.2-10

28-Element Uranium Oxide Material Buck1 ing Versus 37-Element Uranium Oxide Material 6uckling Versus

Lattice, Pitch Lattice, Pitch

Void Void

Coefficient Coefficient 3etween

Of

77
Of

78 75
LJ02 80 81 82 Fuel Temperature

3.2-11
3.2-12 3.2-13 3.2-14 3.2-15 3.2-16 3.2-17 3.2-18 3.2-15 3.2-20 3.2-21

Eundle Average Nuclide Ratios, Comparison flodified POWDERPUFS-V and Experiment Power Density Fuel Pins Variation Fuel Djstribution In Single With

Pickering Irradiation

Of Lattice

Parameters

Temperature Change Temperature Change Oensity Void

Reactivity

Coefficient The

Reactivity Coolant Reactivity Including Coolant t?oderator Variation

Due To Changing Coefficient Due To Change Effect At Full

83 84

In Coolant Power At With Full

Temperature

85
86
Power

Reactivity

Temperature Of Boron

Coefficient Coefficient Face View View

87 88 85

Irradiation Adjuster Zone Controllers

600 t+J Reactor Rod Types

Node1

Showing Showing Showing

3.2-22
3.2-23 3.2-24 3.2-25 3.2-26

600 NW Reactor Model Face And Water Levels Assumed 600 HW Reactor Zone Controller Typical Kodel Supercell Used

50
Adjuster And

- Top View fiodal Locations Model Calculat;on

51 52 53

In Sample

Comparison Between Heasured And CaIcuiated Radial Flux Distribution In The Bruce A Core With 28 Shutoff Units Asyrmnetricaliy Inserted Transient After System Operating Reactor 30 Min. Foison A Refuelling During Perturbation, A Startup Zone Control

54

3.2-27

55
Following A

3.2-28
3.2-25 3.2-30

Power Transient Shutdown Injection Nozzles

56
57
For Studying Worth Of

CHEWY Full Core Poison Injection

Model Used System

98

TDAI-244

LIST

OF

FIGURES

(CONT'D)

NUMBER

TITLE

PAGE

3.2-31 3.2-32

SDS2 CANDU

Tess

6 Tanks
- Simplified And Flow Core Oiagram Reactivity For 100%

99
100 101 to2

Reactor

3.2-33
3.2-34

Coolant Density Change Break In Inlet Keader Hoc Bundie Power

Transient Excursions Excursion to I* After Fuel Inlet Versus Header Break

3.2-35 3.2-36 3.2-37 4..3-1


4.3-2

Hypothetical Sensitivity Dynamic

Reactivity Of Power

103
104 104A

3.ce_Reactivity Of j7-Element

vs Time Oepleted

Reactivity Irradiation

110
Excess Reactivity Simula:ions Bundie Bundle Power Power During lnitiai Burnup 111 Distribution Distribution at 0 FPD Distribution at at 40 40 FPD at at 0 FPO 0 FPD 112

Variation Of Period, FHDP Horizontal Vertical Axial

4.3-3 4.3-4 4.3-5 4.3-6 4.3-7


4-j.8

Radial Radial

113 114 115 116 117 118 119 I20 12OA

Bundle

Power Radial

Disiribution Bundle Power Power

Horizontal Vertical Axial

Radial

Bundle

Distribution At 40 FPD

FPD

Bundle

Power Radial

Distribution Bundle Power Power

4.3-Y 4.3-10 4.3-11 4.3-1.2 4.3-13

Horizoncal Vertical Axial Maximum 600 HW Loading

Distribution Distributio A: 100 at FPD

at IO0

IO0 FPO

FPD

Radial

Bundle

Bundle Bundle

Power

Distribution Versus Time View

Power

Reactor Model Face Of Depleted Fuel

Showing

Initial IZOB

5.2-1 5.2-1.1

Poison

Load

Versus Of

Inverse

Count

Rate,

Channel

135 136
For

Arrangement

Start-Up

Instrumentation Nuclear Instrumentation D, Incore BF

5:2-1.2
5.2-2

Range Of Sensitivity Of Reactor Power Heasurement First Counter Approach To

'137
CSannel

Critical,

138

TDAI-244 LIST OF FIGURES (CANTED)

NUMBE%

TITLE

PAGE

5.2-3 5.2-4 5.2-5 5.2-6 5.2-7 5.2-a 5.2-9 5.2~_10 5.2-11 5.2-12 5.2-13 5.2-i4 5.2-15 5.2-16 5.2-17

Channel

D Incore

BF3

139 140 141 SDS1 Test - 28 Rods I42 143. I44 145 14& 147 14a I49 150 Activation Data 151 152 153

SDS1 Test SDS1 Test CSannel

- 28 Rods - 28 Rods lo" Chamber

J SDS2

SDS1 Test SDS2 Test

- 28 Rods - 6 Tanks - 6 Tanks - 6 Tanks - 6 Tanks - Tank - Tank 7 Only 7 Only

SDS2 Test SDS2 Test SDS2 Test SDS2 Test

SDS2 Tesr Combined Comparison Comparison Zone

SDS1 + SDS2 Tast With With Copper Wire

Calculated Calibrations

Flux Distribution

Controller

TDAI -244

LIST

OF TA8LES

PAGE

2.3-1 3.2.3-1

Reactivity

Devices

Uorths

and Haximum Rates Neutron Irradiation For

Lattice Cross-Sections Fast and Slow Neutrons Measured Adjuster Heesured Control Heasured Pickering And CaJculaced Rods

Versus

43
Reactivity Worth Of RAPS

3.2.3-2

52
Worth Of Zone

3.2.3-3

And Calculated Reactivity Rods In Pickering A And Calculated Shutoff Rods Reactivity

53
Worth Of 54

3.2.3-4

Heasured And Calculated Shutoff Rods

Data

Relating

To Bruce 55