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"A method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities." The Grammar Translation Method was the traditional way in which Latin and Greek were taught in Europe. In the 19th century it began to be used to teach modern languages such as French, German, and English, and it is still used in some countries today. The Grammar Translation Method emphasizes on reading rather than the ability to communicate in a language.

Features of the Grammar Translation Method In this method mother tongue is involved. Vocabulary items are taught in the form of word lists. Elaborate explanations of grammar. Focus on the morphology and syntax. Reading of difficult texts early in the course. Practice focuses on exercises translating sentences or texts from mother tongue to the
target language and vice versa. Grammar Translation Method was still in use in some classrooms during the late decades of the 20th century because it bears some advantages.

Advantages of the Grammar Translation Method

This method saves teacher time. It is an easy method child learns through mother-tongue. It is a practical method. It takes minimal time for higher classes. And made teacher work easy. This method is not expensive and it does not take any audio-visual aids. It made English grammar easy. Child compares English grammar with the grammar of mother tongue. Through this child memorize language easily.

Disadvantages of Grammar Translation Method

The children loss free expression in English. They first think in mother-tongue and then
translate their ideas into English.

This method encourages word for word translation. The student learn to keep the
translation and kill the sense.

There is no scope of creative writing in this method. It binds language in the grammar rules. There is no conversation in target language. It neglects speech. It makes teacher work boring Activity of the Grammar Translation Method
Miss Sadaf uses Grammar Translation method in her class room. She asks her student to read out passage from their text book and translate into Urdu. She ask student to read out passage bit louder. At last Napoleon made a terrible mistake. He led his army into Russia. The Russian people fled before him burning their corn and carrying off their cattle so that he and his men might have nothing to eat. They even set fire to the city of Moscow rather than let the French find a refuge there. The soldiers were half starved, and with starvation came sickness; yet Napoleon stayed on up to autumn. At length, in October, he determined to France. After reading this passage teacher ask student to translate this passage in to mother tongue. Teacher help student with new vocabulary item. Student translates in this way. Akher kar Napoleon say aik khofnak galti sarzad howe. Iss ny Russe per foje kashi ki. Ahle Russe bheroon ki terhan un k agey bhag nikaly ur jaty howy anaj ko nazer-e-atish krty ur mowasheon ko apny sath lety gaey take usy ur iss k satheon ko wahan khany ko kuch na mily. Unhon ny tu Masco k sheher ko bhe agg laga di ur yh bhe na gawara kea k francesseon kowahan panah mily. Sepahe mary bhok k adh mohe ho k reh gaye. Iss faqa kasha sy who bemaar ho gaye. Iss k bawajod Napoleon musam-e-khezan tk wahan parha raha. Liken akher kar October k meheny main uss ny France jany ka fesala kea. Student read and translates this passage in this manner. Teacher asks some question regarding this passage from the class. Students answered the questions in mother-tongue. Teacher gave

students exercises of synonyms and antonyms, cognates, fill in the blanks and use words in sentences. At the end of this activity teacher gives the student a topic to write about in the target language.

The Direct Method

The Direct Method is also called Natural Method. The Direct Method was established in Germany and France around 1900. It appeared as an answer to the Grammar Translation Method. It is a method for teaching foreign languages that uses the target language, discarding any use of mother tongue in the classroom. This method for teaching English was introduced in Subcontinent in the early 20th century. The Direct Method is based on the direct involvement of the student when speaking, and listening to, the foreign language in common everyday situations. Consequently, there is lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation, and little if any analysis of grammar rules and syntax. The focus of the lessons is on good pronunciation, often introducing learners to phonetic symbols before they see standard writing examples.

Principle of direct method

The principle of direct method is establishing a direct bond between the English word, phrase or idiom and its meaning. The principle of direct bond implies that the mother tongue of learner does not intervene. The learner tries to understand the foreign word or expression as it stands, without learning over the native language.

Features of direct method

By this method it is possible to establish a direct association between the experience and expression, which should be one of the features of direct method. There should be no use of mother tongue. It should be reduced to a minimum or almost the hearing and speaking of English.

The third quality of this method is that every sentence, which is complete, is a unit only; it is a means of expressing ideas. The direct method emphasizes the oral aspects of teaching. Spoken words should be made the basis and as far as possible the medium of instruction. In the direct method grammar is taught inductively rather than deductively. There is a focus on everyday vocabulary. Visual aids are used to teach vocabulary. Particular attention is placed on the accuracy of pronunciation and grammar. A systematic approach is developed for comprehension and oral expression.

Advantages of direct method

One of its positive points is that it promises to teach the language and not about the language. More advantages can be listed as follows: It makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning. It is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started". In a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. This serves as a strong foundation of further learning. Due to application of the Direct Method, students are able to understand what they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about what they have read and learnt. Psychologically, it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to the abstract. This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class. Through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression are properly developed. It is a natural method which teaches language the same way the mother tongue is acquired. Only the target language is used and the learning is contextualized. Its emphasis on speech made it more attractive for those who have needs of real communication in the target language.

Disadvantages of Direct Method

Disadvantages of direct method are listed below: There are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in English and much time and energy are wasted in making attempts for the purpose. This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger that visual. But there are children who learn more with visual than with their oral- aural sense like ears and tongue. The method ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing. Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, difficulty is experienced in providing readers of such kind. There is dearth of teachers trained and interested in teaching English in this method. This method may not hold well in higher classes where the Translation Method is found suitable. In larger classes, this method is not properly applied and teaching in this method does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students in large classes. This method is expensive. It is depends upon the use of expensive aids such as projector, language laboratory, linguaphone etc. This method is useful in early stage. It does not work well in higher classes.

Activity of direct method

In private school, teacher made activities with the help of direct method to teach target language. Teachers made this activity for junior primary and senior primary classes. These activities are helpful in learning target language. Miss Saba made group activity for junior primary class. Teacher made activity of making fruit salad through this activity teacher teaches cleanness of food by using song. Teacher told learner about this activity at least a week in advance. Teacher divides learners into groups of six or seven. She asks every learner brings one kind of fruit from home. And ask learners what they

must do before they cut up the fruit. The learners first wash their hands and then wash the fruit to remove dirt and germs. Teacher discusses the importance of doing this. Each learner uses a knife, preferably a plastic knife and a plate. They cut their fruit in small pieces with the help of the teacher. The teacher sprinkles a little sugar over the fruit salad and each learner receives a helping of fruit salad. The learners enjoy their salad. Learners must be taught to help clean up after the activity. The teacher divides the class into groups. Each group sings a different part. One group sings the first verse twice. Another group sings the next two lines, the next group the next two and so on. This song can be sung with actions.

Bye Bye Germs I wash, wash, wash And I rub, rub, rub All the fruit in my tub (2) Hey germs, youve got to go! You want to stay, Oh no! The germs say, Bye, Bye, we are on our way. See you another day, if we may. No, No, we are sorry, You are not welcome, besides we really are in a big hurry. Miss Naghat made activity for senior primary class. She read story for learners about Healthy Toilet Habits.

Maryam learnt her lesson Maryam was very excited. She smelt noodles boiling. That was her favorite food. She kept asking her mother how much longer she had to wait before she ate her boiled noodles. She waited patiently on the steps outside. When it was done, her mother called out for her to come and help herself from the dish on the table. It looked delicious. Just then Maryam decided to go to the toilet. She rushed to the toilet with only the boiled noodles on her mind. She ran out and went inside the kitchen. She took the noodles from the plate and ate it hurriedly. She loved it. In the afternoon, Maryam suddenly felt her tummy ache. She began to feel sick. She had a runny tummy and suffered from stomach cramps. She felt weak and tired. Her mother said that she should drink more liquids and she would be fine. Maryam was not getting any better that day so her mother took her to the clinic the next day. The nurse said that Maryam was dehydrated and had diarrhea. She gave Maryams mother some tips on how to care for her. The nurse asked Maryam many questions. Maryam then realized the reason why she was ill. It was because she did not wash her hands after going to the toilet. She was in a hurry to eat the boiled noodles. Maryam could not believe how sick she felt. She blamed herself for being so careless. She did not realize that not washing her hands after visiting the toilet could make her so sick. After telling the story teacher asks many question about this story and discuss story in class room. And ask learners to answered question in target language.

In translation method student lose free expression in English. It neglects the speech. This method did not fulfill all the demands. In spite of its achievements, the direct method fell short from fulfilling the needs of educational systems. One of its major shortcomings is that it was hard for public schools to integrate it. Direct Method did not take well in public education where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use.

After a short popularity in the beginning of the 20th century, it soon began to lose its appeal because of these constraints. It then paved the way to the Audio-lingual Method.