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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY PROCEDURES


DEPART.ENT/ SUB%ECT/

Edited from existi ! do" #$ %.R. B&r '&rt


APPRO1ED BY

A(ri) *+, -+++

PROCESS ENG0NEER0NG

%RB
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.0N0.U. TEST PRESSURE CA2CU2AT0ON DES0GN GU0DE

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1.0

SCOPE

This design guide 1 presents the procedures for calculating minimum test pressure for piping subjected to internal or external pressures. 2.0 RESPONSIBILITIES

The process engineer is responsible for calculating the minimum test pressure for lines shown on the piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) and in the line summar . The line summar will print the minimum test pressures based on the information pro!ided for each line. The basis for calculations are standard piping material specifications and the codes and standards identified in "ection #.$ of this document. The test pressures in the line summar should be the calculated test pressures rounded to the nearest highest % pounds per s&uare inch gage (psig). 3.0 CODES AND STANDARDS

The latest issue of the following codes and standards are referenced in this design guide. 1. '"()*'merican +ational "tandards Institute ('+"I) ,#1.1 ,#1.,#1.# ,#1.2 ,#1.% ,#1.6 ,#1.7 ,#1.11 Power Piping .uel /as Piping 0hemical Plant and Petroleum 1efiner Piping 3i&uid Transportation " stems for 4 drocarbons5 3i&uid Petroleum /as5 'nh drous 'mmonia5 and 'lcohols 1efrigeration Piping /as Transmission and Distribution Piping " stems ,uilding "er!ices Piping "lurr Transportation Piping " stems

Table 1 cross references the pipe classification standards with nine different ser!ices.

Re4. + of t'e Desi! G5ide 6&s &d&(ted 6it' mi im&) "'& !es from & P&s&de & do"5me t, DSG-.P1*, 1137-

Table 1 8 Pipe 0lassification 0ross 1eferences


"er!ice ,uilding ser!ices piping 0hemical plant and petroleum refiner piping .uel gas piping /as transmission and distribution piping s stem 3i&uid transportation s stems for h drogen5 li&uid petroleum gas5 anh drous ammonia5 and alcohols Power piping 1efrigeration piping "lurr transportation piping s stems Pipe 0lassification '"()*'+"I ,#1.7 '"()*'+"I ,#1.1 '"()*'+"I ,#1.'"()*'+"I ,#1.6 '"()*'+"I ,#1.2 '"()*'+"I ,#1.1 '"()*'+"I ,#1.% '"()*'+"I ,#1.11

4.0

TEST PRESSURE

In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1 (.15 .-5 .#5 .25 .%5 .95 .65 .75 and .11)5 the test pressure setting falls into two main categories: 1. Internal Pressure Internal pressure includes h drostatic testing and pneumatic testing. -. )xternal Pressure )xternal pressure includes h drostatic testing and pneumatic testing. 4.1 Internal Press re Test Pr!"e# re

The following guideline shall be used to calculate the minimum test pressure subject to internal and*or external pressure.

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2.1.1 Power Piping In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.15 the following re&uirements of h drostatic testing appl to power piping: 1. The h drostatic test pressure at an time shall not be less than 1.% times the design pressure for design temperature at or below the test temperature. -. .or design temperature abo!e the test temperature5 the minimum test pressure shall be calculated b )&uation %825 except that the !alue of " *" shall not exceed 9.% (for the !alue of " 5 see '"()*'+"I ,#1.15 "tress Table '81).

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2.1.- Pneumatic Testing Pneumatic testing shall not be used unless the Purchaser specifies pneumatic testing or permits its use as an alternati!e. Pneumatic testing is recommended for use onl when one of the following conditions exists: 1. ;hen piping s stems are designed so that the cannot be filled with water -. ;hen piping s stems are to be used in ser!ices where traces of the testing medium cannot be tolerated

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The pneumatic test pressure shall not be less than 1.- times the design pressure. The test pressure shall not exceed the maximum allowed test pressure of an nonisolated component in the s stem (see )&uation %8-). Test temperature must be considered when the designer chooses the construction material. 2.1.# .uel /as Piping

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In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.-5 h drostatic test pressure and pneumatic testing for fuel gas piping shall meet the following re&uirements: 1. .or h drostatic test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.1. 4owe!er5 the test pressure !alue shall not be less than # psig. - .or pneumatic testing and test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.-. The test pressure shall not be less than # psig. 2.1.2 0hemical Plant and Petroleum 1efiner Piping

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In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.#5 h drostatic test pressure and pneumatic testing for chemical plant and petroleum refiner piping shall meet the following re&uirements:

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1. .or h drostatic test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.1. 4owe!er5 if the test pressure as defined in that paragraph would produce a stress in excess of the ield strength at test temperature5 the pressure ma be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the ield strength at test temperature (see '"()*'+"I ,#1.# and )&uation %82). .or pneumatic testing5 see Paragraph 2.1.-. The test pressure !alue shall be 11$ percent of the design pressure (see )&uation %81). 2.1.% 3i&uid Transportation " stems for 4 drocarbon5 3i&uid Petroleum /as5 'nh drous 'mmonia5 and 'lcohols

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In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.25 the h drostatic testing (for li&uid onl ) and the proof test for li&uid transportation s stems for h drocarbons5 li&uid petroleum gas5 anh drous ammonia5 and alcohols shall meet the following re&uirements: 1. The portion of piping to be operated at a hoop stress of more than -$ percent of the specified minimum ield strength of the pipe shall be subjected at an point to a h drostatic proof test not less than 1.-% times the internal design pressure multiplied b the lowest ratio of the permissible stress intensit !alue (see )&uation %8#). This re&uirement pertains to those piping s stems that are !isuall inspected.

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-. .or piping s stems that are not !isuall inspected5 the proof test shall be followed b a reduced pressure lea< test of no less than 1.1 times the internal design pressure for not less than 2 hours (see )&uation %81). 2.1.9 1efrigeration Piping

In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.%5 the h drostatic test pressure and the pneumatic testing for refrigeration piping shall meet the following re&uirements: 1. .or h drostatic test pressure5 see paragraph 2.1.1. 4owe!er5 if the test pressure defined in that paragraph would produce a stress in excess of the ield strength at

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test temperature5 the pressure ma be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the ield strength at test temperature (see '"()*'+"I ,#1.#). -. .or pneumatic testing5 see Paragraph 2.1.-. The test pressure !alue shall be 11$ percent of the design pressure (see )&uation %81). 2.1.= +uclear Power Piping

In accordance with '"() ,#1.=5 the h drostatic test pressure and pneumatic testing for nuclear power piping shall meet the following re&uirements:

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1. )xcept as otherwise permitted in '"() ,#1.15 Paragraphs 18=#=.1 and 18=#=.2.=5 piping s stems shall be subject to a h drostatic test pressure at e!er point in the s stem that is not less than 1.-% times the internal design pressure multiplied b the lowest ratio of the permissible stress8intensit !alue (see )&uation %8#). -. .or pneumatic testing and test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.-. 2.1.6 /as Transmission and Distribution Piping " stem

In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.6 and Table -5 the testing of gas transmission and distribution piping s stems shall meet the following re&uirements:

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1. 4 drostatic testing is re&uired for piping s stems operating at hoop stress of #$ percent or more of the specified minimum ield strength of the piping material. -. Pipeline and mains located in 0lass 1 locations shall be tested either with gas or air or h drostaticall tested at 1.1 times the maximum operating pressure. #. Pipeline and mains located in 0lass - locations shall be tested either with gas or air or h drostaticall tested at 1.-% times the maximum operating pressure. 2. Pipeline and mains located in 0lass # and 2 locations shall be tested h drostaticall at 1.2 times the maximum operating pressure.

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%. >ffshore platform piping and prefabricated portions of offshore platform risers shall be tested h drostaticall at 1.2 times the maximum operating pressure. 2.1.7 ,uilding "er!ices Piping

In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.75 h drostatic testing and test pressure and pneumatic testing and test pressure for building ser!ices piping shall meet the following re&uirements: 1. .or h drostatic testing and test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.1.

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-. .or pneumatic testing and test pressure5 see Paragraph 2.1.-. The following exceptions to Paragraph 2.1.- appl : a. The piping s stem should not contain cast iron piping. b. The piping s stem should not contain soldered joints o!er - inches in diameter. c. The test pressure should not exceed 1%$ psig. d. If the piping s stem is nonmetallic5 it should not be larger than - inches +ational Pipe Threads (+PT). 2.1.1$ "lurr Transportation Piping " stems

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In accordance with '"()*'+"I ,#1.115 h drostatic and lea< testing for slurr transportation piping s stems shall meet the following re&uirements:

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1. The portion of piping to be operated at a hoop stress of more than -$ percent of the specified minimum ield strength of the pipe shall be subjected at an point to a h drostatic proof test not less than 1.1 times the internal design pressure multiplied b the lowest ratio of the permissible stress intensit !alue (see )&uation %81). -. ;hen lines are tested at a pressure that de!elops a hoop stress based on nominal wall thic<ness (in excess of 7$ percent of the specified minimum ield strength of the pipe)5 special care shall be used to pre!ent o!erstrain of the pipe. #. .or piping s stems that are !isuall inspected5 no further test is needed.

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2. .or piping s stems that are not !isuall inspected5 the proof test shall be followed b a reduced pressure lea< test of no less than 1.1 times the internal design pressure for not less than 2 hours. %. ' 18hour h drostatic or pneumatic lea< test ma be used for piping s stems that will be operated at a hoop stress of -$ percent or less of the specified minimum ield strength of the pipe. The h drostatic test pressure shall not be less than 1.-% times the internal design pressure. The pneumatic test pressure shall be 1$$ psig or a pressure that would produce a normal hoop stress of -% percent of the specified minimum ield strength of the pipe5 whiche!er is less.

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4.2

H$#r!stat%" Test%n& !' E(ternal Press re P%)%n&

3ines in full or partial !acuum ser!ice shall be tested at a minimum internal pressure of ?1% psig5 unless limited to a lower pressure b design. @ac<eted lines shall be tested on the basis of the jac<et pressure in accordance with Paragraph 2.1. The internal line shall be tested on the basis of the internal or external pressure5 whiche!er is critical5 unless limited b design. 3ines in external pressure ser!ice shall be subjected to an internal pressure test at not less than the external design pressure. *.0 E+UATIONS

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The following e&uations are used in minimum test pressure calculation: 1. Pneumatic Testing PT = 1.1 x PS S ()&. %81)

-. Pneumatic Test Pressure

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PT = 1.- x

PS S

()&. %8-)

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Table - 8 Test 1e&uirements for Pipelines and (ains To >perate at 4oop "tresses of #$ Percent or (ore of the "pecified (inimum Aield "trength of the Pipe
Pressure Test Prescribed 0lass 3ocation Permissible Test .luid (inimum (x mop) (aximum (aximum 'llowable >perating Pressure5 the 3esser or

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;ater 'ir /as ;ater 'ir

1.1$ 1.1$ 1.1$ 1.-% 1.-%

+one 1.1 x dp 1.1 x dp +one 1.-% x dp

tp B 1.1$ or dp tp B 1.-% or dp tp B 1.2$ or

;ater

1.2$

+one

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dp 2 ;ater 1.2$ +one tp B 1.2$ or dp

"ource: '"()*'+"I ,#1.65 621.#--% mop dp tp C maximum operating pressure (not necessaril the maximum allowable operating pressure) C design pressure C test pressure

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This table brings out the relationship between test pressures and maximum allowable operating pressures subse&uent to the test. If an operating compan decides that the maximum operating pressure will be less than the design pressure5 a corresponding reduction prescribed test pressure ma be made as indicated in the Pressure Test Prescribed5 (inimum5 column. 4owe!er5 if this reduced test pressure is used5 the maximum operating pressure cannot later be raised to the design pressure without retesting the line to the test pressure prescribed in the Pressure Test Prescribed column.

#. 4 drostatic Testing PT = 1.-% x PS S ()&. %8#)

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2. 4 drostatic Test Pressure PT = 1.% x PS S ()&. %82)

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where: PT C P C " C " C minimum h drostatic gage pressure internal design pressure allowable stress at test temperature allowable stress at design temperatureD '+"I ,#1.#5 Table '81. .or high pressure (abo!e -5%$$8pound flange rating)5 use '+"I ,#1.65 Table E81.

%. 4oop "tress

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=
where:

PD -t

()&. %8%)

P C design pressure D C internal diameter t C wall thic<ness C ield stress

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