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Bathula Venkata Subbaiah - Blog
Sunday, 29 January 2006
Maheswara Sutras
Topic: Sanskrit Literature
nR^ttAvasAne naTarAjarAjaH nanAda DakkAm navapanchavAram |
uddhartu kAmassanakAdi siddhAn etadvimarSe SivasUtrajAlam ||
nR^tta = dance
avasAna = end
naTarAja rAjaH = Lord of dance
nanAda = sounded
DakkAm = damaru
nava pancha = nine and five = fourteen
vAram = times
kAma = for the sake of / with the desire to
uddhartu = upliftment
sanakAdi = sanaka etc
siddhAn = sages
etat = this
jAlam = web (of)
shiva sUtra = sUtras of Lord Shiva
vimarshe = (I) examine
At the end of the cosmic dance Lord Shiva the Lord of dance, sounded his damaru fourteen times. For the sake
of the upliftment of sages like sanaka. I wish to examine this web of Siva sUtras.
The name Shiva or Maheshvara sutras coms from the tradition that Panini heard them from the sounds of Shiva
Bhagavans' damaru (drum.) The 14 sutras are (in ITRANS format):
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aiuN
R^iL^ik
eo~N
aiauch
hayavaraT
laN
~nama~NaNanam
jhabha~n
ghaDhadhaSh
jabagaDadash
khaphaChaThathachaTatav
kapay
shaShasar
hal
Sounds like gibberish right? Actually they are a clever rearrangement of the alphabet. The letter at the end of
each sutra is called an it. A letter followed by an it specifies all the letters in between. For instance, aN
represents a, i, and u. ak represents a, i, u, R^i, and L^i. This enables grammatical rules to be specified in a
concise, algebraic form.
Heres an example. In Sanskrit words can merge together in a process called sandhi. E.g. devi + uvAcha =
devyuvAcha ("Devi said.") In the western method of learning Sanskrit, you just have to memorize a table of the
different letter combinations. Panini simply says:
iko yaN achi |
"ik is replaced by yaN when ach follows"
In other words, ik (i, u, R^i, L^i) is replaced by yaN (ya, va, ra, la) if a vowel (ach or a, i, u, L^i, R^i, e, o, ai,
au) follows.
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:45 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 3:03 PM
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Vedic Knowledge
Topic: Vedic Wisdom
sanksipa caturo vedams caturdha vabhajat prabhuh vasta-vedataa khato veda-vasa iti smrtah
The prabhu (master, lord, guru) who is most intelligent then divided the Vedas into four. He therefore became
known as Veda Vyasa.
He codified the Veda, the compilation of which was initiated by Maharshi Angiras two millennia back, into four
divisions ( 1131 Sakhas or Recensions divided into Rik (21 sakhas), Yajur(101=85+16 sakhas), Sama (1000
sakhas) and Atharva Veda (9 sakhas). For further re-organization and editing he entrusted the Books to his
trusted disciples:
Rig Veda - Paila
Yajur Veda - Vaisampayana
Sama Veda - Jaimini
Atharva Veda - Sumantu
21(Rig)+101(yazur)+1000(Sama)+9(Atharv)=1131 Vedic branches had 1131 Samhitas, 1131 Brahmanas, 1131
Arynaks and 1131 Upanishads. These 1131x4 = 4524 scriptures together came to be known as Vedic wisdom.
But only the following parts are available now.
Rigveda (21)
Samhitas Sakala, Bashkala
Brahmanas Aitareya, Kaushitaka
Aranyakas Aitareya, Kaushitaka
Upanishads Aitareya
Krishna YajurVeda (85)
Samhitas Taittiriya, Maitrayaniya, Katha, Kapisthala
Brahmanas Taittiriya
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Aranyakas Taittiriya
Upanishads Taittiriya
Shukla YajurVeda (16)
Samhitas Madhyandina, Kanva
Brahmanas Satapatha
Aranyakas Brihadaranyaka
Upanishads Brihadaranyaka, Isa
SamaVeda (1000)
Samhitas Kauthuma, Jaiminiya, Ranayaniya
Brahmanas Tandya, Chandogya, Talavakara (part)/ Jaiminiya
Aranyakas Jaiminiya
Upanishads Kena, Chandogya
AtharvanaVeda (9)
Samhitas Saunakiya, Paippalada (part)
Brahmanas Gopatha (part)
Aranyakas ...
Upanishads Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya
And it can be seen that only about 1% our ancient knowledge is available. So some initiative should be taken to
protect these parts atleast..!
There are four Upvedas: Ayurved, Dhanurved, Gandharvved and Sthapathyaved.
There are six Angas or explanatory limbs, to the Vedas:
1.The Siksha of Maharshi Panini (Phonetics)
2.Vakarana of Maharshi Panini (Sanskrit Grammar)
3.The Chhandas of Pingalacharya (Prosody metre)
4.The Nirukta of Yaska (Philosophy or etymology)
5.The Jotisha of Garga (Astronomy and astrology)
6.The Kalpas (Srauta, Grihya, Dharma and Sulba)
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:40 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 3:04 PM
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Vedic Numerical Code
Topic: Vedic Wisdom
In Sanskrit, the following Vedic Numerical code was used in many slokas.
"Kaadi nava
Taadi nava
Paadi panchaka
Yadyashtaka
Kshah sunyam"


H 7
Means...
Kaadi Nava Starting from ka, the sequence of 9 letters represent 1,2,..9.
Similarly Taadi Nava , starting from ta,
Paadi panchaka (1-5), starting from pa,
Yadyashtaka(1-8) starting from ya.
And ksha represents 0.
In detail,
ka()-1, kha()-2, ga()-3, gha()-4, gna()-5, cha()-6, cha()-7, ja()-8, jha()-9.
ta()-1, tha()-2, da()-3, dha()-4, ~na()-5, Ta()-6, Tha()-7, Da()-8, Dha()-9.
pa()-1, pha()-2, ba()-3, bha()-4, ma()-5.
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ya()-1, ra()-2, la()-3, va()-4, Sa()-5, sha()-6, sa ()-7, ha()-8.
kshah()-0.
Based on this code there are many slokas in mathematics.
e.g., For PI value, a sloka is as folows..
d |
||
gopeebhaagya maDhuvraathaH shruMgashodhaDhi saMDhigaH
khalajeevithakhaathaava galahaalaa rasaMDharaH
ga-3, pa-1, bha-4, ya -1, ma-5, Dhu-9, ra-2, tha-6, shru-5, ga-3, sho-5, dha-8, Dhi -9, sa-7, Dha- 9, ga-3, kha-
2, la-3, jee-8, vi-4, tha-6, kha-2, tha-6, va-4, ga-3, la-3, ha-8, la-3, ra-2, sa-7, Dha-9, ra-2
3.1415926535897932384626433832792...
The above sloka has actually 3 meanings.
1. In favor of Lord Shiva
2. In favor of Lord Krishna
3. The value of PI upto 32 decimals.
Series of PI There is also a sloka for expanding the series of PI. It's given below.
F(
E 1 4H
vyAse vaariDhinihathe rUpahtRthe vyasasAgarAbhihathe
thrisharAdhiviShamasMkhyAbhakthM TRNM svM ptRThakkramAth kuryaath
Meaning: When the circumference/perimeter of the circle is given in terms of a series (containing d=diameter)
then the diameter term is divided by the odd numbers (like 1, 2, 3...) and alternately added/subtracted from the
rest (of the summation of series)
i.e.,
Circumference = 4d/1 - 4d/3 + 4d/5 4d/7 + ...
which is basically the same series as
PI/4 = SUMOF [(-1
i+1
)/(2i-1)] /* over i from 1 to infinity */
It is rather interesting how they got this series...
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:38 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 2:51 PM
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Classical Language - Telugu ?
Topic: Telugu
The criteria for a language to be considered "Classical" are:
1. The language should have "early texts or recorded history" of at least a thousand years; (Earlier, they
had to be at least 2,000 years old. Now, languages that are over 1,500 years old will be eligible for being
included in that category.)
2. It should have a body of ancient literature or texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by a
generation of speakers;
3. And its literary tradition should be original and not borrowed from another speech community.
In addition, since classical language and literature may be distinct from the modern ones, it would not be a
disqualification if there is discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or offshoots, like Latin
versus Roman, Sanskrit-Pali versus Prakrits and the modern Indo-Aryan language.
The benefits to the language declared classical
Two major international awards would be given annually to scholars of eminence in classical Indian
languages.
A centre of excellence for studies in classical languages would be set up and the University Grants
Commission will establish a number of Professorial Chairs for Classical Languages for scholars of
eminence
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India had last year decided to create a classical language category and Tamil was the first language to be
accorded the status (Friday, Sept 17 2004). And recently the Sanskrit (Thursday, Oct 27 2005). And Telugu &
Kannada are in Q.
Telugu satisfies all the criteria mentioned above.
1.Atleast 2000 years old with more than 1000years literature
2.No doubt, ancient literature and texts, is considered a valuable heritage (e.g.,Considered Italian of the east by
westeners.)
3.Possess independent scripts and literary histories dating from the pre-Christian Era. (Telugu & Kannada may
have similar lipi; but the grammer, literature, culture is different, and again the same case with tamil &
malayalam). Telugu is also known as "Ajantha Bhasha". Telugu, Tamil, kannada, ....etc more than 40 modern
Indian alphabets are descendants of the Brahmi script of ancient India.
Telugu exhibits a dichotomy between the written and the spoken styles. So, there is nothing to do with the
influnce of other languages on Telugu for "Classical Language", as it's only effecting the spoken Telugu and
modern culture, but not the literature & tradition. (Tamil has abundant sanskrit words in it as well as they use so
many Telugu words in Chennai.)
Some statistical Facts:
- Morethan 8 crore people speak Telugu
- 2nd most spoken language in India (Hindi, Telugu)
- 3rd most spoken Indian language in the World (Bengali, Hindi, Telugu)
- 15th most spoken language in the World.
- Worldwide it is spoken in Malaysia, Fiji, Singapore, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, South-Africa, U.S.A. etc...
So, if Telugu is declared as a Classical Language, more research can be done on Telugu Literature.
But the problem is - There is no much demand to declare Telugu as classical language from politicians. AP gave
the majority for the center but bagged only few ministerial berths and grants. Tamil is declared as a classical
language much before Sanskrit only because of political factors. So, A.P. politicians should take more interest in
this regard than the scholars.
Here, I'm posting some history and literature of Telugu.
Evolution of the language:
Andhra was originally the name of a tribe. This tribe was a nomadic one and the hills and rivers adjacent to the
habitat of this tribe were named after the tribe - Andhra. Gradually the area where this tribe settled was called
"Andhra". There is a valley near Bombay called the "Andhra Valley". There is a small river in Maharashtra called
"Andri" (anDri). A subriver of Tungabhadra is also called "Handri" (handri). During 220 AD the word
"Andhrapathamu" was used in the inscriptions in Ballari district. This is the evolutionary sequence of the word
"Andhra". The language spoken by Andhras was given the name "Andhra Bhasha" finally.
Different tribes used to speak different languages (dialects). The tribes of Andhra such as Dravida, Yaksha, and
Naga spoke "Telugu" or "Tenugu". Andhras from North India used to speak another language called "Desi".
Telugu belongs to the family of Dravidian languages. Telugu has resemblances (close) with Tamil, Kannada, and
Tulu. Basic vocabulary, verbs, sentence synthesis, and grammar dictate the architecture of the language (any
language). Even till today, the basic vocabulary in Telugu language is intact. "amma", "akka", "ceTTu", "puTTa",
"niiru", "pa'mu", "tElu", "ga'li" - these were the words the ancient Telugu man used while started saying for the
first time. "tinu", "koTTu", "tiTTu", "naDu", "koorcO", "veLLu", "ra'" - these are the most ancient verbs. These
ancient words share resemblances with some words in Tamil and Kannada.
TELUGU -- TAMIL -- KANNADA
---------------------------------------
tala -- talai -- tale
nela -- nila -- nila'
puli -- puli -- puli, huli
Uru -- Ur -- Ur
magava'Du -- magas -- magan
uppu -- uppu -- uppu
pappu -- parupu -- papu
paTTi -- paRRu -- paDe
ekku -- ERu -- ERu
------------------------------------
The nominative case (karta), object of a verb (karma) and the verb are some what in a sequence in Telugu
sentence construction. The same trend (pattern) is seen in other Dravidian languages. Sanskrit does not follow
this rule. "Vibhakti" (case of a noun) and "pratyayamulu" (an affix to roots and words forming derivs. and
inflections) depict the ancient nature and progression of the language. The "Vibhaktis" of Telugu language "Du,
mu, vu, lu" etc are different from those in Sanskrit and have been in the usage for a long time. Based on these
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above features, linguists unanimously classify Telugu language as a member of the Dravidian languages.
Satavahana kings' official language was "Prakrut". Prakrut was also the language used by kings those days -
Royal Language. For the first time Telugu words can be observed in the Ikshavakula inscriptions after
Satavahana's rule. The Nagarjuna Hill inscriptions of 250 AD contain Telugu words like "na'gamna", "viiramna",
and "maha'talavara". "talavara" is a Telugu word in "maha'talavara". "tala'ri" or "talavara" means
"gra'ma'dhika'ri" (head of the village or town). In Tamil, "talaiva'r" means "pedda adhipati" (big boss). This
Telugu word was combined with a Sanskrit word "maha'". Telugu language spoken by people contains some
original words and some sanskritized words (as in inscriptions). People those days used to speak Telugu and
rulers spoke Prakrut. The following is from the inscriptions of Pallava King, Sivaskandavarma:
"ka'nciipuratO yuvamaha ra'jO Ba'rada'yasa gotto palava'nam navaKandavammO dharmaKDe va'ptam
a'napayati. andhapatiiyaga'mO..... viriparam amhEhi Udaka'dim sampadato Etasa ga'mana virivarasa nava
bamhadEya pariha'lO vitarama."
The meaning of the above inscription: The Viripara (Epparru) village of Andhra is being donated by
Sivaskandavarma.
The inscription of Chalkya Jayasimha Vallabha (in Telugu) is the following:
"jayasimhavallaBa maha'ra'ju la'kun pravardhama'na vijayara'jya samvatsarambuLa - eNumbOdi anmENNa
ammin pooNNamana'NNum mla'vinDi ra'jula muTlu kalimuDira'jul mla'vinDi samudrarakai na'ku baNisEsina kalci
viiRuruRla maddi kadu mooTiki vitaRti Uttarambuna pulOmbuna CeRuvu paDuma'Ri kOTan eRRumBOdi puTlu
aRla paTTu sEnuta'Rii tOmTa la'yu paDuva'rambu icciri."
The above two inscriptions depict the differences between Telugu and Prakrut languages.
The ancient inscriptions contain the names of villages ending in a word "Uru" e.g. "kooDoorE", "ELoorE". The
word "Uru" is close to the word "Ur" in the Southern languages. "Elooru" is the other name for "ELoorE".
"kODooru" in Krishna District is the other name for "kooDoorE". These village names confirm the relationship of
the Telugu with the Dravidian languages.
Telugu language spoken by the Dravidians, Yakshas, and the Nagas was influenced by Desi, Sanskrit, and
Prakrut. Sanskrit and Prakrut belong to the same group. Literary language is Sanskrit and spoken one is
Prakrut. There is no difference in basic vocabulary or style of sentence construction among Sanskrit and Prakrut.
The preachers of Buddhism wrote their books in Prakrut for easy understanding. The language of Andhra was
not Prakrut. While writing Bruhatkadha, Gunadya said the following:
"samskruta, pra'kruta, dESi Ba'sha lanu parityajimci nEnu paiSaci Ba'shalO bruhatkadhanu vra'stunna'nu."
Till today, languages called "bra'huyi" in Beloochisthan and "ka'nDu" "ma'rTu", "Oreya'n" in Vindhya exist. These
languages belong to family of Dravidian languages. Dravidians inhabited North India prior to Aryan aggression.
On the banks of river Sindhu, Aryans created the Harappa and Mahenjadaro cultures. Eventhough Dravidians
came and settled in South India, their relatives (some tribes) still remained in the North India. Their languages
belong to the family of Dravidian languages. "Papai" in Afganisthan, "shiina" in Kashmir, and "bra'huyi" in
Beloocisthan share similarities (resemblances) with Dravidian languages. All these languages are classified in
"Dardik Class" of languages by linguistics experts.
"dESi" of Andhras belongs to this class of languages (Dardik). Before settlement in South India, Andhras lived in
the Vindhya for some time. Hill tribes of Vindhyas still speak Dravidian languages like "ka'nDu", "ma'rTu", and
"oriya'n". Before arriving at the banks of Ganges and Jamuna, Andhras might have visited Beloochisthan,
Afganisthan, and Kashmir. This is what historians propose.
Paisachi is an offshoot of Desi. What was the nationality of Gunadya? Was he a Kashmiri or Nepali or an Andhra?
This is a debate among historians and linguistics experts. Desi was the ancient language of Kashmiris and
Nepalis.
Andhras' Desi Tenugu and Telugu of Nagas and Yakshas combined together into one language. Both belong to
the Dardik class of Dravidian languages. That is the reason why this alliance between these two languages was
possible.
Linguistics experts showed that languages belonging to the same class can combine into one and languages
belonging to different classes eventhough can survive in hormony, the strongest language survives and the
weaker one dies. Languages belonging to two different classes can not combine.
The history of Telugu language offers a nice example for the above statement. For about 500-600 years during
the Satavahana's rule, Prakrut was used as the royal language in Andhra. Tadbhavas from Prakrut infiltrated the
Telugu language. But Telugu did not die. Telugu incorporated the required words from Prakrut and discarded the
rest. Guptas of North India and Pallavas of South India fought battles in 400-500 AD. These battles killed the
royal language, Prakrut. Finally, Prakrut rested in the Buddhism books in Tibet. Following, Sanskrit influenced
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Telugu of Andhras for about 500 years. During 1000-1100 AD, Nannaya's Telugu in Bharatam, Telugu in several
inscriptions, Telugu in poetry reestablished its roots and dominated over the royal language, Sanskrit. Telugu
absorbed the Tatsamas from Sanskrit only. The marriage between "Desi" and "Telugu" was possible.
Words like "Telugu", "Tenugu", and "Andhramu" were used in several instances in the "Tenugu Bharatam"
written in 1050 AD. The name for a tribe is "Andhra" which is also used to call the language that had evolved
over 1000 years. "Andhrulu", "Andhradesam", "Teluguvaru", "Telugudesam", "Tenugudesam", and "Tenugu
Bhasha" are used as synonyms
60 Telugu years list
Here is the list of 60 Telugu years.
01.Prabhava
02.Vibhava
03.Sukla
04.Pramodoota
05.Prajothpatti
06.Angeerasa
07.Sreemukha
08.Bhaava
09.Yuva
10.Dhaata
11.Eeswara
12.Bahu Dhaanya
13.Pramaadi
14.Vikrama
15.Vrusha
16.Chitra Bhaanu
17.Swabhaanu
18. Taarana
19.Paarthiva (Current Year 2005-2006)
20.Vyaya
21.Sarvajittu
22.Sarvadhaari
23.Virodhi
24.Vikruti
25.Karma
26.Nandana
27.Vijaya
28.Jaya
29.Manmatha
30.Durmukhi
31.Hevilambi('l' as in Kaalika)
32.Vilambi('l' as in Kaalika)
33.Vikaari
34.Sarvari ('Sa' as in saree)
35.Plava
36.Subha Krutu
37.Sobha Krutu
38.Krodhi
39.Viswaa Vasu
40.Paraabhava
41.Plavanga
42.Keelaka
43.Soumya
44.Saadhaarana
45.Virodhi Krutu
46.Pareedhaavi
47.Pramaadeecha
48.Aananda
49.Raakshasa
50.Nala
51.Pingala ('l' as in Kaalika)
52.Kaala Yukti
53.Siddhaardhi
54.Roudri
55.Durmathi
56.Dundubhi
57.Rudhirodhgaari
58.Raktaakshi
59.Krodhana and
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60.Kshaya
Regards,
B V Subbaiah
S.V.N.I.T. Surat
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:30 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 2:46 PM
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Yoga - Kundalini Energy
Topic: Yoga
We know that Om, "" is the sound of the cosmos. We can regenerate this sound within ourself and resonate
along with the universe. The energy created will be tremondous.
The "Chakras" are the seven main energy centers in the body. They are located along the Spine, starting at the
base and running upwards to the crown of the head. The Chakras are described as "whirling disks of light", and
each Chakra radiates a specific color and energy. As each Chakra relates to specific spiritual, emotional,
psychological and physical issues, the conscious awareness and the balancing of these energy centers lead to
well-being.
1.Muladhara: coccyx, base of the spine, at the perineum
2.Svadhistana: sacral plexus, genital area
3.Manipura: solar plexus, navel center
4.Anahata: cardiac plexus, heart center
5.Visshuddha: thoracic plexus, throat center
6.Ajna: pituitary center, eyebrow center
7.Sahasrara: crown of the head
Kundalini is an enormous reserve of untapped potential within each of us. At the base of the spine (@Muladhara
Chakra), subtler than the physical body, lies the Kundalini energy, or spiritual energy, in a latent form.
Yogic Power or perfection in Yoga is achieved by arousing this Supreme Force. After awakening this Kundalini
Shakti, you have to take this Supreme Power upward, through the Sushumna Nadi by Yogic method, from
Muladhara Chakra to the crown of the head (Sahasrara). Then you will get various Yogic powers. The six stages
in Kundalini Awakening are:
1.Prana usually flow in Ida or Pingala
2.Prana is made to flow (causing balance) in Ida and Pingala
3.Prana is made to flow in Sushumna
4.Kundalini energy is awakened
5.Kundalini is lead upwards
6.Kundalini rises to Sahasrara
The ability to balance Ida and Pingala, and cause Prana to flow in Sushumna is the most essential preparation
for Meditation and Kundalini Awakening. After the upward journey of Kundalini, coursing through the Sushumna
channel and the chakras along the way, it is finally brought to the crown chakra, Sahasrara.
This union is the Realization of the Absolute, and is the meaning of Yoga. An accomplished, Purnayogi in the path
of Kundalini Yoga is in possession of eight major Siddhis, viz., Anima, Mahima, Laghima, Garima, Prapti,
Prakamya, Vasitvam and Ishitvam.
1. Anima: The Yogi can become as minute as he pleases.
2. Mahima: This is the opposite of Anima. He can become as big as he likes. He can make his body assume a
very large size. He can fill up the whole universe. He can assume a Virat Svarupa.
3. Laghima: He can make his body as light as cotton or feather. Vayustambhanam is done through this Siddhi.
In Jalastambhanam also the power is exercised to a very small degree. The body is rendered light by Plavini
Pranayama. The Yogi produces a diminution of his specific gravity by swallowing large draughts of air. The Yogi
travels in the sky with the help of this Siddhi. He can travel thousands of miles in a minute.
4. Garima: This is the opposite of Laghima. In this the Yogi acquires an increase of specific gravity. He can
make the body as heavy as a mountain by swallowing draughts of air.
5. Prapti: The Yogi standing on the earth can touch the highest things. He can touch the sun or the moon or the
sky. Through this Siddhi the Yogi attains his desired objects and supernatural powers. He acquires the power of
predicting future events, the power of clairvoyance, clairaudience, telepathy, thought-reading, etc. He can
understand the languages of the beasts and birds. He can understand unknown languages also. He can cure all
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diseases.
6. Prakamya: He can dive into the water and can come out at any time he likes. The late Trilinga Swami of
Benares used to live for six months underneath the Ganges. It is the process by which a Yogi makes himself
invisible sometimes. By some writers it is defined to be the power of entering body of another (Parakaya
Pravesh). Sri Sankara entered the body of Raja Amaruka of Benares. Tirumular in Southern India entered the
body of a shepherd. Raja Vikramaditya also did this. It is also the power of keeping a youth-like appearance for
any length of time. Raja Yayati had this power.
7. Vashitvam: This is the power of taming wild animals and bringing them under control. It is the power of
mesmerising persons by the exercise of will and of making them obedient to one's own wishes and orders. It is
the restraint of passions and emotions. It is the power to bring men, women and the elements under subjection.
8. Ishitvam: It is the attainment of divine power. The Yogi becomes the Lord of the universe. The Yogi who has
this power can restore life to the dead. Kabir, Tulsidas, Akalkot Swami and others had this power of bringing
back life to the dead.
Minor Siddhis
The Yogi acquires the following minor Siddhis also:
1. Freedom from hunger and thirst.
2. Freedom from the effects of heat and cold.
3. Freedom from Raga-Dvesha.
4. Doora Darshan, clairvoyance or Dooradrishti.
5. Doora Sravan, clairaudience or Doora Sruti and Doora Pravachana.
6. Mano-Jaya, control of mind.
7. Kama Rupa: The Yogi can take any form he likes.
8. Parakaya Pravesha: He can enter into another body, can animate a dead body and enter into it by
transferring his soul.
9. Iccha-Mrityu: Death at his will.
10. Devanam Saha Kreeda and Darshana: Playing with the gods after seeing them.
11. Yatha Sankalpa: Can get whatever he likes.
12. Trikala-Jnana: Knowledge of past, present and future.
13. Advandva: Beyond the pairs of opposites.
14. Vak-Siddhi: Whatever the Yogi predicts will come to pass by the practice of Satya, Prophecy.
15. The Yogi can turn base metal into gold.
16. Kaya-Vyuha: Taking as many bodies as the Yogi likes to exhaust all his Karmas in one life.
17. Darduri-Siddhi: The jumping power of a frog.
18. Patala-Siddhi: Yogi becomes Lord of desire, destroys sorrows and diseases.
19. He gets knowledge of his past life.
20. He gets knowledge of the cluster of stars and planets.
21. He gets the power of perceiving the Siddhas.
22. He gets mastery of the elements (Bhuta Jaya), mastery of Prana (Prana Jaya).
23. Kamachari: He can move to any place he likes.
24. He gets omnipotence and omniscience.
25. Vayu-Siddhi: The Yogi rises in the air and leaves the ground.
26. He can point out the place where a hidden treasure lies.
"Kundalini awakening and raising has never been easier"
Yoga Nadis
Nadis or channels are the Astral tubes made up of astral matter that carry psychic currents. Since they are
made up of subtle matter, they are not visible to the naked physical eye. It is through these Nadis that the vital
force or Pranic current flows in the body. These Yoga Nadis are not the ordinary nerves, arteries and veins. Our
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body is filled with innumerable Nadis. There are about 3,50,000 Nadis in the body.
Nadis play a vital role in Kunadalini Yoga. Kundalini, when awakened will pass through SUSHUMNA NADI and this
is possible only when the Nadis are pure. Therefore the first step in Kundalini Yoga is the purification of Nadis.
For this purpose, you have to do various Yogic Kriyas (practices) such as Dhauti, Bhasti, Neti, Tratak, Nauli,
Kapalabhati, Pranayama etc.
All the Nadis (channels) spring up from the KANDA (It is like a shape of an egg and it is covered with
membranes. This is just above the Muladhara Chakra). Out of the innumerable Nadis, Ayurveda mentions
72,000 different Nadis. Tantra Yoga identifies 14 principal nadis:
1.SUSHUMNA
2.IDA
3.PINGALA
4.GANDHARI
5.HASTAJHIVA
6.KUHU
7.SARASWATI
8.PUSHA
9.SANKHINI
10.PAYASWINI
11.VARUNI
12.ALUMBUSHA
13.VISHVADHARA
14.YASASVINI
IDA (moon), PINGALA (sun) & SUSHUMNA are the most important of the fourteen Nadis and SUSHUMNA is the
Chief Nadi. The other nadis are subordinate to Sushumna.
Sushumna
Passes through the spinal column, originating in the Muladhara Chakra and terminating in the Sahasrara Chakra,
diving in an anterior and posterior branch before reaching the Ajna Chakra. The Sushumna generally remains
dormant when the other Nadis flow strongly and is activated only when the breath comes through both nostrils
simultaneously. It can also be activated through pranayama and Swar Yoga and operates automatically at dawn
and dusk, calming down the system and making meditation easy.
Ida
The Ida Nadi starts and ends to the left of the Sushumna, but is also connected with the left testicle in males. It
terminates in the left nostril, stimulating the right side of the brain. It is feminine in energy, carries pranic energy
and is one of the most important mental nadis. As it nourishes and purifies the body and the mind, it is also
called Ganga in Tantric scriptures. When Sushumna is not working, activating the Ida Nadi is the best way to
facilitate meditation.
Pingala
The Pingala Nadi starts and ends to the right of Sushumna. It is the carrier of solar, male energy, adding vitality,
physical strength and efficiency. It is also purifying like Ida Nadi, but cleansing like fire. It is activated by the
breath in the right nostril where it stimulates the left side of the brain. Bhedana pranayama is used to activate
this nadi and is recommended for physical activities, debates and, indeed, duels.
Regards,
B V Subbaiah
S.V.N.I.T. Surat
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:27 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 2:46 PM
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Ancient Knowledge (Sanskrit Literature)
Mood: cool
Topic: Sanskrit Literature
Sanskrit literature can be classified under six orthodox heads and four secular heads. The six orthodox sections
form the authoritative scriptures of the Hindus. The four secular sections embody the later developments in
classical Sanskrit literature.
The six scriptures are: (i) Srutis, (ii) Smritis, (iii) Itihasas, (iv) Puranas, (v) Agamas and (vi) Darsanas.
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The four secular writings are: (i) Subhashitas, (ii) Kavyas, (iii) Natakas and (iv) Alankaras.
Srutis
The Srutis are called the Vedas, or the Amnaya. These are "Revealed Truths Without Beginning or
End."
The Veda is the source of the other five sets of scriptures, even of the secular and the
materialistic.
Smritis
These are the ancient sacred law-codes of the Hindus dealing with the Sanatana-Varnasrama-
Dharma
There are eighteen main Smritis or Dharma Sastras. The most important are those of Manu,
Yajnavalkya and Parasara. The other fifteen are those of Vishnu, Daksha, Samvarta, Vyasa,
Harita, Satatapa, Vasishtha, Yama, Apastamba, Gautama, Devala, Sankha-Likhita, Usana, Atri and
Saunaka.
The laws of Manu are intended for the Satya Yuga, those of Yajnavalkya are for the Treta Yuga;
those of Sankha and Likhita are for the Dvapara Yuga; and those of Parasara are for the Kali
Yuga.
Itihasas
There are four books under this heading: The Valmiki-Ramayana, the Yogavasishtha, The
Mahabharata and the Harivamsa.
The Ramayana is written in twenty-four thousand verses by Sri Valmiki ( studded with the letters
of Gayatri mantra)
Yogavasishtha is a classical treatise on Yoga, containing the instructions of the Rishi Vashista to
Lord Rama on meditation and spiritual life.
The Mahabharata is written in one hundred thousand verses by Sri Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa.
The Harivamsa is a celebrated poem of 16,374 verses (the adventures of the family of Krishna,
being divided into three parts)
Puranas
The Puranas are of the same class as the Itihasas. They have five characteristics (Pancha-
Lakshana) viz., history, cosmology (with various symbolical illustrations of philosophical
principles), secondary creation, genealogy of kings and of Manvantaras. All the Puranas belong to
the class of Suhrit-Samhitas.
Vyasa is the compiler of the Puranas from age to age; and for this age, he is Krishnadvaipayana,
the son of Parasara.
There are eighteen main Puranas and an equal number of subsidiary Puranas or Upa-Puranas.
The main Puranas are: Vishnu Purana, Naradiya Purana, Srimad Bhagavata Purana, Garuda
(Suparna) Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana, Brahma Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Brahma
Vaivarta Purana, Markandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Vamana Purana, Matsya Purana, Kurma
Purana, Linga Purana, Siva Purana, Skanda Purana and Agni Purana. Of these, six are Sattvic
Puranas and glorify Vishnu; six are Rajasic and glorify Brahma; six are Tamasic and they glorify
Siva.
The eighteen Upa-Puranas are: Sanatkumara, Narasimha, Brihannaradiya, Sivarahasya, Durvasa,
Kapila, Vamana, Bhargava, Varuna, Kalika, Samba, Nandi, Surya, Parasara, Vasishtha, Devi-
Bhagavata, Ganesa and Hamsa.
Agamas
The Agamas are theological treatises and practical manuals of divine worship. The Agamas include
the Tantras, Mantras and Yantras. All the Agamas treat of (i) Jnana or Knowledge, (ii) Yoga or
Concentration, (iii) Kriya or Esoteric Ritual and (iv) Charya or Exoteric Worship.
The Agamas are divided into three sections: The Vaishnava, the Saiva and the Sakta.
The Vaishnava Agamas are of four kinds: the Vaikhanasa, Pancharatra, Pratishthasara and
Vijnanalalita.
The Saivas recognise twenty-eight Agamas, of which the chief is Kamika
The Sakta: There are seventy-seven Agamas. Mahanirvana, Kularnava, Kulasara, Prapanchasara,
Tantraraja, Rudra-Yamala, Brahma-Yamala, Vishnu-Yamala and Todala Tantra are the important
works.
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Darsanas
Darsanas are schools of philosophy based on the Vedas. The Shad-Darsanas (the six schools of
philosophy) or the Shat-Sastras are:
1. the NYAYA, founded by Gautama Rishi,
2. the VAISESHIKA by Kanada Rishi,
3. the SANKHYA by Kapila Muni,
4. the YOGA by Patanjali Maharshi,
5. the PURVA MIMAMSA by Jaimini, and
6. the UTTARA MIMAMSA or VEDANTA by Badarayana or Vyasa.
Each set of Sutras has got its Bhasha, Vritti, Varttika, Vakhana or Tika and Tippani.
A Sutra or an aphorism is a short formula with the least possible number of letters, without any ambiguity or
doubtful assertion, containing the very essence, embracing all meanings, without any stop or obstruction and
absolutely faultless in nature.
A Bhasha is an elaborate exposition, a commentary on the Sutras, with word by word meaning of the aphoristic
precepts, their running translation, together with the individual views of the commentator or the Bhashyakara.
A Vritti is a short gloss explaining the aphorisms in a more elaborate way, but not as extensively as a Bhashya.
A Varttika is a work where a critical study is made of that which is said and left unsaid or imperfectly said in a
Bhashya, and the ways of making it perfect by supplying the omissions therein, are given.
A Vakhana or Tika is a running explanation in an easier language of what is said in the original, with little
elucidations here and there.
Tippani is just like a Vritti, but is less orthodox than the Vritti. It is an explanation of difficult words or phrases
occurring in the original.
Subhashitas
The Subhashitas are wise sayings, instructions and stories, either in poetry or in prose.
e.g., Subhashita-Ratna-Bhandagara, Katha-Sarit-Sagara, Brihat-Katha-Manjari, Panchatantra,
Hitopadesa, ...etc
Kavas
These are highly scholarly compositions in poetry, prose or both.
e.g., Raghuvamsa, Kumarasambhava, Kiratarjuniya, Sisupalavadha, Naishadha, Kadambari,
Harshacharita, Champu-Ramayana, Champu-Bharata, ...etc
Natakas
These are marvellously scholastic dramas embodying the Rasas of Sringara, Vira, Karuna,
Adbhuta, Hasya, Bhayanaka, Bibhatsa and Raudra. ( It is told that none can write on the ninth
Rasa, viz., Santi. It is attainable only on final Liberation.)
e.g., Sakuntala, Uttara-Rama-Charita, Mudrarakshasa, ...etc
Alankaras
These are grand rhetorical texts, treating of the science of perfection and beauty of ornamental
language and of effective composition with elegance and force, both in poetry and in prose. These
are the fundamentals of Sanskrit Sahitya, even superior to the Kavyas and the Natakas.
e.g., Kavyaprakasa, Rasagangadhara, ...etc
More literature on individual sections will be posted in different blogs.
Regards,
B V Subbaiah
Posted by bvsubbaiah at 1:22 PM
Updated: Sunday, 29 January 2006 3:00 PM
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