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LESSON 3 THE U.S.

ARMY DETENTION AND CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Critical Task: None

OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION:

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: o o o o o o o CONDITION: STANDARD: REFERENCES: Demonstrate a working knowledge of terminology used in relation to a regional confinement facility (RCF). Determine specific command and staff responsibilities relating to management of an RCF. Identify the principal subdivisions and functions of an RCF. Identify principal functions of key RCF personnel. Demonstrate a working knowledge of the mission and the criteria for serving an executed sentence at the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks (USDB). Determine the objectives and correctional treatment available to military prisoners at the USDB. Identify the organizational structure and the duties and responsibilities of the correctional personnel assigned to the USDB. You will have this subcourse, pencil, and paper. You must demonstrate knowledge of the task by scoring at least 70 percent correct answers on the final subcourse examination. AR 190-47 FM 19-60

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INTRODUCTION The Army provides for the differing correctional needs of persons held for different periods confinement by maintaining a two-tiered correctional system. Although the mission at all levels of the Army Confinement System is to confine U.S. prisoners and to provide correctional treatment, the mission emphasis is based on the length of time prisoners are to be confined and the facilities and services such confinement requires. The RCF provides confinement for casual detainees and short term post trial prisoners. During an AirLand Battle scenario, Field Confinement Facilities may be utilized for temporarily confining soldiers during tactical situations until they can be evacuated to the rear. The RCF screens prisoners for transfer to the USDB, processes prisoners judged as punitive discharge and handles the orders and reassignment of prisoners released from confinement. On the second level is the USDB. Both the RCF and the USDB are full-scale correctional facilities. They both provide specialized correctional programs encompassing professional evaluation, counseling, training, custody, and personnel administration to prepare military prisoners for return to civilian life or to military duty. The USDB, because it holds prisoners in confinement longer than other facilities, places a correspondingly greater emphasis on the correctional portion of its mission. PART A - TERMINOLOGY Close confinement refers to the confinement of prisoners under increased supervision and separate from the main prisoner group in quarters especially designated by the correctional officer for that purpose. Administrative segregation refers to the close confinement of prisoners, separate from the main prisoner group, for purposes of control, safekeeping, prevention of injuries to the prisoners or to others, or for other administrative purposes. Disciplinary segregation refers to the close confinement of prisoners as a disciplinary measure. Class II installation refers to a continental U.S. (CONUS) installation not under the command of the commanding general, U.S. Army forces command. Inmate's welfare fund is a nonappropriated fund established and maintained from income derived primarily from revenue producing activities. It is used to supplement morale, recreational, and welfare activities required for the rehabilitation of prisoners. Personal deposit fund is a fund established at each correctional facility designed to accept and safeguard personal funds of prisoners.

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Management is a process of establishing and attaining objectives to carry out responsibilities and consists of those continuing actions of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling, and evaluating the use of men, money, materials, and facilities to accomplish missions and tasks. PART B - MANAGEMENT FOUNDATION As in any activity requiring positive management organization, the Department of the Army has set forth specific regulations to accomplish the proper management of the Army correctional system. The basic elements established for the Army confinement and correctional management are essentially command and staff responsibilities; organizational structures for each type of regional confinement facilities to include responsibilities and functions; and required confinement facility plant standards. The general role of these elements in the management foundation will be presented in the discussion that follows. Command and Staff Responsibilities Delineation of responsibility is fundamental in the Army confinement and correction function for it enters into and affects the performance of all organic management. Delineation of responsibilities in confinement and correction rests largely on prior Department of the Army determinations having to do with required policies, activities, organizational structures, and necessary operating procedures. The placement and delegation of Army confinement and correction responsibilities for the command and staff levels are fixed as follows: The Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. DCSPER has Department of the Army staff responsibility for policies and procedures concerning the Army correctional system and provides Armywide guidance and assistance in those matters. DCSPER is responsible for staff supervision of the administration and operation of all Army confinement and corrections activities including-o Developing, coordinating, and implementing Department of the Army policies and procedures concerning the confinement of military prisoners and the related activities pertaining to custody and control. o Furnishing advice and making recommendations, in coordination with the office of the chief of engineers, on matters related to planning, constructing, or converting structures or areas intended for use as confinement or correctional facilities. DCSPER provides advice and recommendations relative to hospitalized prisoner wards in coordination with the office of the surgeon general. o Determining requirements for special equipment for use in confinement and corrections operations.

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o Coordinating, through the commanding general, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, with the U.S. Army Military Police School to provide training literature and training films. This furnishes guidance and promotes uniformity in the administration and operation of confinement and correctional facilities. This also provides courses of instruction to train personnel in the administration and operation of confinement and correctional facilities. o Furnishing to installation commanders, upon request, qualified personnel or other assistance to resolve local problems related to the confinement and corrections function. o Furnishing guidance on the organization and utilization of personnel at the RCF. DCSPER has specific Department of the Army responsibility for policies and procedures concerning the Army correction program and provides Armywide guidance and assistance. Major Commands. Commanders of CONUS armies, heads of technical services, and major overseas commanders are responsible for actively supervising the administration and operation of correctional facilities within their command, with staff supervision exercised by their respective staff provost marshals. In addition, major command staff elements include a field grade officer for duty as a correctional officer where there are regional confinement facilities within the command. Installation Commanders. Installation commanders command RCFs located on their installations. They are responsible for the direct administration and operation of these facilities. This responsibility is discharged in part through a required weekly command inspection of facilities to ensure that they are administered and operated in accordance with established policies and procedures of the Department of the Army and are consistent with requirements of the installation. Tactical Commanders. Commanders of tactical organizations in the field are directly responsible for the administration and operation of confinement and correctional facilities operated by their organizations. In garrison, such commanders participate in the confinement and correction activities of the installation on which their organization is stationed only so far as personnel of their respective organizations are directly affected. Subordinate Unit Commanders. Commanders of subordinate units with personnel in confinement are responsible for supporting confinement and correction policies so far as they affect personnel of their units. They should visit each prisoner from their units at least once a month in order to assist personnel of the facility in matters relative to the welfare and morale of the prisoner. During these visits it will be necessary that they observe the prisoner and evaluate his attitude as a basis for a decision whether to recommend return to duty or elimination proceedings. During initial orientation, newly assigned commanders of units often visit the area confinement facility to be briefed by the officer in charge of confinement procedures and the correctional MP 1025 3-4

treatment program. This briefing should emphasize to unit commanders their continuing responsibility to unit personnel who are in confinement. Major Command Provost Marshals. Major command provost marshals are responsible for the staff supervision of confinement facilities located within their respective jurisdiction. Their specific responsibilities include-o Advising the commander as to Department of the Army policies and procedures affecting military prisoners. o Planning, in coordination with other staff members, all aspects of the confinement and correction policies within the command. o Performing periodic staff visits to confinement facilities of the command to assure that policies and procedures affecting military prisoners are being properly implemented. o Assisting installation provost marshals in problems relating to confinement and correction. Installation Provost Marshals. Installation provost marshals are responsible for staff supervision of regional confinement facilities located on an installation under their jurisdiction. They supervise the implementation of all regulations pertaining to the administration and operation of such facilities. Their specific responsibilities include the following: o Through personal knowledge of approved and doctrine, to provide guidance and assistance to the correctional officer and his staff in interpreting and implementing headquarters, Department of the Army programs. o To conduct the command weekly inspection of the facilities in the company of a medical officer. o To accomplish, at least once each month, a detailed inspection of all regional confinement facility training activities. Their inspection reports will normally be forwarded to the installation commander and will include recommendations and/or actions taken to correct all deficiencies and irregularities. o To determine, by inspection and observation, that personnel assigned to the facilities are qualified in their duties. o To review periodically the program of training for custodial personnel.

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o To review the prisoner employment and retraining programs periodically to ensure compliance with applicable regulations. Where necessary, to assist the correctional officer by obtaining work projects for prisoners from other elements of the command. o To assist the correctional officer in the implementation of emergency plans. o To assist the correctional officer in obtaining necessary personnel, equipment, and supplies for operating the facility. o To maintain liaison and coordination with other staff members of the installation. Tactical Organization Provost Marshals. Provost marshals of tactical organizations exercise staff supervision over regional facilities located within their jurisdiction. These facilities are established by the organizations when in the field. When in garrison and when facilities are provided by the installation on which the tactical organization is stationed, tactical organization provost marshals advise their commanders and staffs on current policies and procedures pertaining to prisoners. They maintain liaison with installation provost marshals to provide assistance as may be required. An example is training personnel from their organization who may be detailed for duty with the regional confinement facility. The staff officers referred to in the following paragraphs have specific responsibilities and functions relative to confinement and correction activities which directly affect the operations of a facility and the correctional treatment process. Adjutant. The adjutant and others concerned with personnel actions are responsible for the processing of recommendations for the administrative elimination of prisoners from the service. The contribute advice to the officer in charge of a facility and the unit commander concerned relative to processing these recommendations. Chaplain. The chaplain's ministry to the spiritual and moral welfare of the prisoners includes the following: o Worship services held in the detention facility chapel. Experience has indicated that it is inadvisable to escort prisoners under guard to post, camp, or station chapels for worship services, as it may represent hazards to other worshippers and embarrassment to the prisoners. o Participation by prisoners in chaplain sponsored activities such as choirs, group discussions, and welfare operations. o Work in both individual and group counselling. The chaplain is a trained counselor in religious, personal, and social matters. He is frequently able to establish a mutual understanding with individual prisoners more rapidly and effectively than other personnel. MP 1025 3-6

o Character guidance instruction. Effective application of the character guidance program to the correctional treatment activities is requisite to successful accomplishment of correctional efforts. Inspector General. The inspector general may assist the officer in charge of a detention facility by investigating and making recommendations regarding complaints, allegations, and charges of prisoners. Such actions frequently provide a basis for corrective action as well as serving to discourage the making of unfounded allegations. The officer in charge of the facility must establish close liaison with the inspector general. At times it will be desirable to have investigation of incidents occurring in detention facilities conducted by an agency other than one under supervision of a provost marshal. In such cases, the officer in charge of the facility should initiate a request for investigation by the inspector general to the commanding officer of the facility. Staff Judge Advocate. The staff judge advocate, through his proceedings and handling of military justice and legal matters pertaining to prisoners, has a major role in the correctional treatment of prisoners and the administration of the activities of detention facilities. One of the significant factors affecting prisoners' morale is the uncertainty they may have concerning the status of their cases or sentences or other pending local matters, either official or personnel. Surgeon. The surgeon aids the correctional program of a facility by providing the services of medical personnel, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers for the professional evaluation and correctional treatment of prisoners. Specifically, the surgeon provides officers-o Of the mental hygiene consultation service to assist in the professional evaluation of prisoners, especially those who manifest difficulty in their adjustment to confinement. These officers render guidance on individual and group correctional treatment. They also did training custodial and security personnel to recognize symptoms of abnormal behavior, to report such behavior, and to realize the limitations to be placed on the counseling of prisoners by custodial personnel. o For the examination and treatment of prisoners at sick call. o To assist the facility commander in an inspection of the entire facility at least once each week. o To inspect each prisoner in close confinement daily and to examine, approve, and sample portions of restricted diets. o To accomplish the medical examination of newly confined prisoners and prisoners being placed in disciplinary segregation.

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The surgeon also coordinates the operation of a hospitalized prisoner ward and the medical examination and treatment of prisoners with the correctional officer to ensure that the required custodial and control measures are compatible with medical requirements. Regional Confinement Facility Organization The command and staff responsibilities discussed in the preceding paragraphs are primarily of a supervisory nature. The following paragraphs will identify the various subdivisions of an RCF and explain the duties and responsibilities of the personnel assigned to those sections. (See Figure 3-1.) Detention Facility Commander (Confinement Officer). The confinement officer is a member of the staff of the installation provost marshal. He is responsible for the administration and operation of the detention facility and for custodial aspects of installation hospitalized prisoner wards. His major functions include the following: o Supervision of personnel assigned or detailed to the facility during their duty hours. o Custody, control, administration, and correctional treatment of prisoners. o Safeguarding and disposition of prisoner's personal property and funds. o Providing for the employment and training of prisoners. o Providing for the training of personnel assigned or attached to the facility. o Coordination and liaison with unit commanders to obtain their assistance in the correctional treatment and training of prisoners who may be later returned to duty. o Coordination, liaison, and mutual assistance to command staff members relative to the confinement and correction program. o Serving as commanding officer, U.S. Army Correctional Holding Detachment (CHD).

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FIGURE 3-1. RCF ORGANIZATION

COMMANDER SENIOR CORRECTIONS NCO

PRISONER ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES BRANCH

CORRECTIONAL SUPERVISION BRANCH

RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING AND POSTAL SECTION

SUPPLY SECTION

PROPERTY AND FUNDS SECTION

FOOD SERVICE SECTION

CORRECTIONAL SUPERVISOR SECTION

PRISONER GUARD SECTION

COUNSELING AND EVALUATION SECTION

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Senior Corrections NCO. The senior corrections NCO is the senior noncommissioned officer assigned to the facility. He assists the correctional officer in the administration and operation of the facility. His major functions include the following: o General supervision of assigned or detailed enlisted personnel. o Administration of the facility and enforcement of pertinent regulations. o General supervision of prisoner employment assignments. o Reporting of incidents which affect the custody or morale of prisoners. o Daily checking control measures within the facility and hospitalized prisoner wards. o Serving as First Sergeant of the U.S. Army Correctional Holding Detachment. Counseling and Evaluation Section. This section performs correctional evaluation of prisoners. It maintains frequent contact with the prisoners through counseling. It is also responsible for monitoring the installation parolee program, scheduling installation restoration and clemency boards, and providing a member of the section to act as recorder for those boards. The major functions of this section are discussed below. Correctional evaluation. The counseling and evaluation section performs correctional evaluations to determine if the individual has the potential for restoration to duty if his separation from the service is indicated. A determination is also made as to appropriate disposition with respect to restoration to duty and mitigation, remission, or suspension of the sentence. Information is also gathered to aid in developing an individual correctional treatment plan which will include the following: o Planning the program to achieve the desired results, to include necessary counseling, training, and employment. o Dealing with the personal problems of the prisoner. o Reviewing and modifying the plan when necessary. An individual correctional treatment file will be established for each prisoner to enable the counseling and evaluation section to perform continuous correctional evaluation of the prisoners on the basis of all pertinent available information. This file will be initiated by the prisoner service branch when the prisoner is processed into confinement. This file will contain facts concerning the prisoner's offense, habits, discipline, intelligence, aptitudes, personality, and potential for military service. The recorded results of all interviews, observations, training, and employment involving the prisoner will be incorporated into the file as the basis for developing

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or changing the individual's correctional treatment plan. The correctional treatment file will contain, as a minimum, the following: o The prisoner's confinement order. o The prisoner's court-martial order. o A record of the admission interviews with the prisoner. This includes information on his background, offense, personality, aptitude, and interest. It also includes other pertinent matters that contribute to the development of a sound correctional treatment plan. Where practicable, trained social worker assistants (supervised by a social work officer) or counselors will conduct admission interviews. o Recorded information from the prisoner's unit commander. This provides, as available, a summary of the prisoner's performance of duty, discipline, character, and attitudes while in the unit; his relationships with other members of the unit; and other factors pertinent to the prisoner or his offense. o Recorded observations of correctional personnel who come in contact with or observe the prisoner which would help to summarize the prisoner's attitude and behavior. Correctional personnel will be required to record and submit observations as soon as practicable after the observation is made. o Reports of mental, hygiene, surgeon, chaplain, and judge advocate activities which concern the prisoner. o Correspondence from individuals and agencies interested in or concerned about the prisoner. o Records relative to previous offenses when obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other law enforcement or correctional agencies concerning the prisoner. o Pertinent extracts from the prisoner's military 201 file and other applicable records. o Reports of administrative disciplinary measures imposed on the prisoner and reports of incidents involving the prisoner. o DD Form 508 (Report of/or Recommendations for Disciplinary Actions). All available data in the correctional treatment file will be evaluated by the counseling and evaluation section and the correctional officer to determine the correctional treatment required for each prisoner and the specific course of action to be taken by the facility staff. The first consideration will be whether the prisoner has a potential for further military service. If the evaluation indicates that the prisoner is unfit or unsuited for military service, administrative 3-11 MP 1025

elimination may be considered, but the factors listed below should continue to be considered. If the evaluation indicates that the prisoner has potential for further military service, the following factors, among others, will be considered in determining the specific correctional treatment to be used. Employment program. Will the prisoner and the service benefit more from constructive group labor projects such as grading and installation maintenance, or from individual on-the-job training which combines useful labor with further training and experience in his MOS or a different MOS? o Training. Does the prisoner require individual training in some areas in addition to group retraining? o Education. Does the prisoner have an educational deficiency which can be remedied by available course and facilities? o Medical. Does the prisoner possess physical deficiencies which can be readily corrected by medical treatment? Is it considered advisable for him to participate in programs of the mental hygiene consultation service? o Religion. Does the prisoner need individual religious or character guidance counseling? o Leisure activities. Does the prisoner's personality and attitude indicate that he should be guided into a particular leisure activity? o Military and civilian welfare agencies. Does the prisoner have family or financial problems which can be assisted by welfare agencies such as Army Emergency Relief or Red Cross? When a specific correctional treatment plan has been established, continuous review of the plan is still required. The correctional evaluation process conducted by the counseling and evaluation section must continue throughout the prisoner's confinement. Changes in the prisoner's correctional treatment program must be made when warranted, particularly after sufficient time has elapsed to allow an adequate evaluation of the prisoner's response to counseling, training, and employment. Prisoner counseling. The counseling and evaluation section uses counseling to assist prisoners in identifying and solving their problems and as a means of aiding them to change their attitudes and behavior. The counseling to be used consists of a series of contacts with a prisoner in which the prisoner is offered assistance in defining his problems, seeking solutions, and changing his attitude and behavior. From a technical standpoint, behavior-centered individual counseling will be used in preference to group counseling.

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Corrections noncommissioned officers, MOS 95C, with training and experience in counseling will perform most of the prisoner counseling at RCFs. Social work specialists, MOS 91G, under the supervision of a social work officer, will also be used to ensure a well-balanced counseling program. Correctional personnel are developed as counselors through training programs, participation in military and civilian resident or extension school courses, and by attendance at regional and national correctional conferences sponsored by federal, state, and other public agencies. Those prisoners in need of special professional guidance are referred to professionally trained personnel by the correctional officer. Only members of the installation mental hygiene consultation service may perform psychiatric counseling of prisoners. Prisoner Administration Services Branch. As a minimum, prisoner administrative services will include the following sections: Records and administration section. This section provides for prisoner services activities and performs administrative functions required in the operation of the facility to include records and reports. This section ensures that all records and reports prescribed for administration tasks at Army detention facilities are prepared and maintained with the utmost accuracy, completeness, and attention to detail. The section establishes standardized operational criteria and procedures to ensure the effective preparation and maintenance of all records and reports. As a minimum, this section must ensure that its criteria and control procedures include the following: o Privacy to preclude interruptions while personnel are interviewing prisoners to prepare records and reports. o A complete set of current regulations pertaining to all phases of confinement and correction, management, administration, and operation. o Policies and procedures that prevent correctional records from being left in the reach of prisoners. They must ensure that prisoners are not allowed to work with those records. o Records storage area readily available to administrative personnel. o A processing guide developed to list pertinent references and necessary forms for assisting the entire administrative staff and to simplify control of records. o A well-defined records and reports control system for assisting in the timely processing of records and reports. A visual control chart would also assist in training new personnel and simplify the delegation of duties within the administrative staff. o Filed copies of all records and reports, particularly those in daily use. Procedures for achieving an efficient file system are as follows:

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- Restricting the number of persons permitted to administer and handle the correctional treatment files. - Requiring that receipts be signed for files taken out of the records storage area. - Securely fastening all papers in the correctional treatment file jackets with metal fasteners. - Ensuring that each file is accurately and clearly identified. - Exercising care in filing papers in the proper jacket. A complete and accurate log should be maintained on inspections. The log should contain the date and time of each inspection; the names, grades, and organizations of inspecting persons; and pertinent comments made by inspecting personnel. Prisoner processing section. This section provides for the administrative processing of prisoners upon confinement, release, or transfer. Postal section. This section provides postal services for prisoners, maintains prisoners' mail and correspondence records, inspects incoming and outgoing mail as required, and maintains prisoners' stamp accounts. Property and funds section. This section provides the accounting for, safeguard of, and control of prisoners' personal property and funds. Prisoner's personal property and funds not authorized for retention inn their possession are taken from them immediately after their acceptance into confinement, receipted, and processed as soon as possible. These items are held in trust for them during their confinement or disposed of as will be discussed later. Food service section. This section provides food services for all prisoners and such other personnel as may be authorized to dine at the facility. The food served to prisoners is important for their morale, welfare, and discipline; therefore, the highest possible food service standards should be observed. Rations issued for use in prisoners messes will be of the same type, quantity, and quality as those furnished for other enlisted personnel on the installation. Supply section. This section provides all supply services necessary in the facility. This includes the procurement, storage, security, maintenance, issue, and accounting of all supplies, clothing, and equipment required. Supply functions in a confinement facility are basically the same as those in any military unit; however, there are additional requirements peculiar to the facility. These requirements include procuring and issuing health and comfort supplies and using more stringent security measures to prevent supplies and equipment from getting into the hands of personnel not authorized these items.

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Correctional supervisor section. This section supervises those prisoner custody and control functions performed by correctional supervisors and guards at main gates, vehicle gates, sally ports, and entrances to close confinement areas or installation hospitalized prisoner wards. It also supervises those custody and control functions within close confinement areas, prisoner barracks or congregate cells, hospitalized prisoner wards, prisoner messes, visiting areas, and exercise yards. This section is also responsible for the control of the circulation of individuals, conduct of necessary searches, shakedowns, inspections, and the security of gates, locks, and similar equipment. Other duties of the correctional supervisor section include-o Attending prisoner training for the purpose of submitting reports of observation regarding prisoner conduct during training. o Observing the prisoner work programs for the purpose of submitting reports regarding conduct and progress on work projects. Prisoner guard section. This section supervises those prisoner control functions performed by tower, perimeter, and detail guards. These functions include preventing escapes, guarding the perimeter of the facility, supervising prisoner work detail guards, and providing alarms in the event of emergencies. Personnel utilized by the prisoner guard section may be detailed for duty at the regional confinement facility from other units located at the installation. They will be detailed for a minimum period of one month and, where practicable, for a three month period. Only personnel who are physically qualified and meet certain mental standards will be detailed as prisoner guards. Prior to commencing duties as prisoner guards, detailed personnel must qualify with the weapon with which they are to be armed. Confinement Facility Standards Facility management entails implementing or maintaining the standards required for the buildings and areas used for the administration of the facility and for the housing, training, and recreation of the prisoners. It is not possible or necessary to include a full discussion of architectural standards for new plant construction or modification of existing structures. Those standards are based on standard designs and construction criteria contained in Department of Army technical manuals as approved by the chief of engineers. It is, however, possible to present the following detention facility plant standards that have practical management applications. Installation detention facilities will be maintained at a level equal to that of standard troop housing. Criteria to be used in determining space allocation for prisoners in an RCF are as follows: Standard Allocation. The standard space allocation for prisoners confined in an RCF is 72 square feet of sleeping space for each prisoner, except those in close confinement.

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Reduced Allocation. Under certain conditions, the standard allocation may not be possible. A reduced allocation of 55 square feet of sleeping space per prisoner, except those in close confinement, is authorized when priority conditions preclude the use of standard allocations. Emergency Minimum Allocation. Under conditions of temporary peak population periods, not to exceed seven consecutive days, an emergency minimum allocation of 40 square feet of sleeping space per prisoner is authorized, excluding close confinement. The prisoner capacity of an regional confinement facility for planning will be based on approximately one percent of the planned troop strength for the installation and area to be served. Cells or rooms to be used for prisoners in disciplinary or administrative segregation requiring close confinement will be at least 6 feet wide, 8 feet long, and 8 feet high (inside measurements). Design and construction of close confinement cells should be adequate to house a number of prisoners equal to 15 percent of the facility's capacity. Means for artificial lighting (a minimum of 10 footcandles) will be provided to the same extent provided prisoners not in close confinement. A minimum of 10 cubic feet of air per minute will be circulated per cell. The temperature in each cell will be maintained per installation standards. A prison type toilet and lavatory will be provided in each cell, where practicable. The floors, walls, and ceilings of these cells will be smooth and free of physical hazards. Windows and doors will be the maximum security type specified in standard design drawings approved by the chief of engineers. The chief of engineers is responsible for establishing standards for locking devices which meet the requirements of the law enforcement division, DCSPER. In combustible buildings used for the confinement of prisoners, manually operated limited gang locking devices which permit the opening or closing of cells simultaneously or individually will be installed on each line of six or more cells. Exit or corridor doors which are not connected with gang locking devices will be fitted with heavy prison-type locks. Lightweight locks in the buildings hardware class (such as asylum or hospital deadlocks) or padlocks on doors are not authorized for use in security prisons. Prisoner's quarters, latrines, dining facilities, laundry rooms, processing area, chapel, training classrooms, and exercise yard will normally be located within the facility fenced yard. Administrative offices and supply, arms, tools, visitors, and guard rooms should be located outside the facility fenced area. The following standards apply to these offices and rooms: o The arms room will be protected in accordance with appropriate regulations. Under no conditions will the arms room be located within the facility fenced area. o Facilities will be provided for the safeguard of tools and equipment. o In facilities of permanent construction where the arms, tools, and supply rooms are in the secured area, security doors will be used to isolate prisoners from these rooms.

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o Rooms used for visitors will not be divided by a wire screen or any type of barrier to keep visitors separated from prisoners. Fencing. Fencing will be installed around the perimeter of regional facilities and will be constructed of the type indicated in standard engineering designs. At regional confinement facilities-o Permanent construction facilities normally consist of one building with inherent custody and control features to prevent escape. This type facility will require, as a minimum, a single fence around only the exercise yard and the rear entrance to the prisoner mess. o Temporary construction facilities normally consist of more than one building without inherent and control features to prevent escape. This type facility will require, as a minimum, a single fence surrounding the perimeter of the area, training classrooms, and the exercise yard. Guard Towers. Guard towers will be used where required and will be constructed in accordance with standard engineering designs. When used, towers will be spaced so that guards have an uninterrupted view of a minimum of 80 yards in any direction along the perimeter fence. Security lighting. Adequate outside security lighting will be provided for the regional confinement facility along the perimeter fence and will have wire mesh or safety glass covering for protection against breakage by small objects. Lights will be focused or shaded to prevent a glare in the eyes of the guards at fixed posts. An emergency power generator, located outside the perimeter fence, will be provided. A weekly test of the generator will be made a matter of record. Roads. Patrol roads or paths will be provided around the perimeter of the facility as required for access by motor or foot patrols. Equipment. Adequate equipment required for effective and efficient administration and operation of the regional confinement facility will be provided. Necessary tools and equipment for prisoner work and training activities will be maintained. Fire protection devices, alarm systems, and locking devices will be installed in accordance with applicable standards. Adequate means for identification photographs and fingerprinting will be available. An intercommunication system, to include an adequate telephone system will be provided for communication between guard towers, gates, segregation cellblock, prisoner processing area, mess, and a central communication station located in the main office or control center of the facility. Appropriate space will be set aside and necessary equipment provided for religious services to be conducted under the supervision of the chaplain. If possible, a separate chapel should be maintained and not sued for any other purpose. 3-17 MP 1025

Recreational equipment will be made available for prisoners recreation and training programs. An adequate supply of weapons, riot control agent, protective masks, police clubs, bayonets, and other necessary riot control devices will be maintained outside the facility for use in case of an emergency. At least one first aid kit and one litter will be provided and placed where they are readily available to custodial personnel. Fire prevention systems. Automatic sprinkler systems will be installed as set forth below. Both local and transmitted water flow alarm facilities will be provided for all automatic sprinkler systems except in patient-occupied areas of hospitals where local alarms will be emitted. Transmitted alarms will be provided to continuously attended duty desks (in addition to those to fire department headquarters). Automatic sprinkler systems will be installed in buildings of combustible construction where military prisoners are confined under lock and key. Automatic fire alarm systems will be installed for the protection of life, critical material, and high monetary value materials. They will be used at isolated small locations which require installed protection but where automatic sprinkler protection is not feasible. Fire alarm systems will be in stalled in combustible buildings where military prisoners are confined under lock and key, if automatic sprinkler protection is not technically feasible. (Both local and transmitted alarms will be provided for these systems.) Exterior fire reporting facilities, in all built-up areas, will normally consist of fire reporting telephone systems. Where economically justified, telegraphic fire alarm systems may be authorized in lieu of fire reporting telephones. Extensions of existing systems will be compatible with existing equipment. PART C - THE USDB Mission The missions and functions of the RCF and the USDB are similar. Both facilities provide a safe, secure environment in which confined prisoners can undergo correctional treatment. At both facilities, the mission emphasis is on correctional treatment and educational and vocational training. Both facilities are staffed with carefully selected, well-qualified correctional, supervisory, and professional personnel. The Army's correctional facilities provide for prisoners sentenced to what the Department of the Army classified as medium-term or long-term periods of confinement. The RCF provides custody and control of Army enlisted prisoners whose confinement will be medium-term and followed, usually, by a punitive discharge. The USDB, however, provides custody and control for military prisoners with long-term confinement sentences. MP 1025 3-18

Historical Background In 1968 the U.S. Army Correctional Training Facility (CTF) was established in response to the public demands during the mid-1960s that society attempt to rehabilitate criminals in confinement rather than just confine them. The CTF's mission was to confine prisoners and retrain them for return to duty or, when necessary, to separate them from the Army. The CTF emphasized rehabilitation and retraining for return to duty. In 1973, the CTF was renamed the U.S. Army Retraining Brigade (USARB) to more accurately reflect its emphasis on retraining. Then in 1982, the USARB was redesignated the United States Army Correctional Activity to reflect the change in mission emphasis from retraining prisoners for return to duty to confining and preparing them for reentry into the civilian community life as productive citizens. In October of 1989, the United States Army Correctional Activity (USACA) was redesignated to the United States Army Correctional Brigade (USACB). The USACB mission remained the same, to retrain and return deserving soldiers to duty. In the early 1990s the USACB was deactivated and the facilities having medium-term prisoners were renamed Regional Corrections Facility (RCF) The USDB, located at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was first established as a military prison under the War Department in 1874. In 1895, its control was transferred to the Department of Justice for use as a federal penitentiary. Eleven years later, it was returned to the control of the War Department. From 1929 through 1940, the facility served as a penitentiary annex, again under the control of the Justice Department. Since 1940, the facility has been operating under military control as the United States Disciplinary Barracks. Organization The USDB is depicted in Figure 3-2. Functions of the various elements are discussed at length later in this lesson. Objectives Administration and operation of the USDB will be accomplished in a uniform manner to attain the following objectives: o To provide a secure environment conducive to a program for the correction of confined military prisoners. o To provide military prisoners whose sentences include a punitive discharge, the skills, proficiencies, and behavioral attitudes that equip them for restoration to duty or return to civilian life as useful citizens.

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o To provide military prisoners whose sentences do not include a punitive discharge, the skills, proficiencies, and behavioral attitudes that equip them for ultimate return to duty as effective soldiers. o To promptly identify military prisoners who meet the criteria for restoration, as established in AR 633-35, and recommend for restoration to duty those who have potential for further honorable service. Correctional Treatment The professional staff of the USDB includes education officers, training officers, chaplain, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, judge advocate officers, and medical and dental officers. Specialized Activities. Figure 3-3 illustrates and compares the various opportunities and activities available to the military prisoner sentenced to confinement. FIGURE 3-2. USDB ORGANIZATION.

COMMANDANT

D&A BOARDS

COMMAND JUDGE ADVOCATE

INVESTIGATIONS

DIRECTORATE OF PASTROAL CARE

DIRECTORATE OF CUSTODY

DIRECTORATE OF CLASSIFICATION

DIRECTORATE OF TRAINING

DIRECTORATE OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

705TH MP BATTALION

DIRECTORATE OF LOGISTIC

DIRECTORATE OF MENTAL HEALTH

MARINE DETACHMENT

AIR FORCE DETACHMENT

ASSIGNED ATTACHED

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FIGURE 3-3. USDB CORRECTION PROGRAMS.

Personal evaluation & professional counseling Employment program Vocational training Certified apprenticeship training Work release program Educational counseling and/or testing Academic classes Library Recreational facilities Clemency program (sentence reduction, restoration, return to duty) Temporary home parole Federal parole program Abatement program Correctional treatment program (eight weeks) Graduate evaluation

USDB YES YES YES YES YES* YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES

RCF YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO

*Restrictive USDB selection criteria; less than two percent of eligible USDB prisoners actually participate.

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Prisoner reception. Frequently a prisoner arrives at the USDB with feelings of fear, guilt, anxiety, and helplessness. Confinement personnel at the RCFs can assist in minimizing these feelings by orienting the prisoner to the positive aspects of the rehabilitation program. In addition, compliance with all of the requirements of processing at the USDB. This also reduces the administrative burden of the receiving facility and expedites the prisoner's entry into the correctional treatment program. The time immediately after a prisoner's arrival is of utmost importance to him and the institution. The attitudes and behavior patters developed at that time influence his adjustment to the correctional treatment program. In addition to completing routine admission processing, each prisoner is talked to be the commandant and key staff personnel shortly after arrival. These talks are designed to help the prisoner understand the institution's correctional treatment program and objectives, to correct misconceptions, to alleviate tensions, and to assure the prisoner of the staff's interest in wellbeing. The prisoner participates in a series of interviews with members of the professional staff and completes a series of tests on educational achievement, mechanical and technical aptitudes, and intelligence. This information is consolidated with additional information on the prisoner's background into a classification summary which is a concise, factual history and evaluation of the prisoner. Institutional Classification Program. This program is developed by the assignment board which is composed of officers, NCOs, and key civilians of various staff sections. This board develops an individual program for each prisoner designed to meet his needs. It includes custody grade, employment, education, vocational training, psychotherapy as required, religious guidance, continual individual counseling and guidance, and reclassification date for the prisoner's next appearance before the board. If a prisoner is considered to be a possible prospect for restoration to duty, his program is designed to provide him with, or to improve, skills that could increase his effectiveness as a service member. It is also designed to help the prisoner develop a high degree of motivation and a constructive attitude toward the military service. Classes are conducted in citizenship, rights and obligations, military justice, customs and traditions of the service, and advantages of an honorable discharge. If a prisoner is not considered to be a good prospect for return to duty, his program is designed to assist him in adjusting to civilian life. Restoration, Clemency, and Parole Program. This program is administered by the disposition board, which is formed in the same manner as the assignment board, in accordance with policies established by the Department of Defense. In addition, special board reviews may be directed by the Department of the Army or granted by the commandant of the disciplinary barracks. Final authority for approving recommendations for restoration, clemency, and parole is exercised by

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the department of the service involved in the case. (That is, Department of the Army or Department of the Air Force.) A prisoner who is granted a parole remains under the military jurisdiction of the commandant of the disciplinary barracks. However, he is under the supervision of a federal probation officer until he has reached his maximum release date. Prerelease Program. A prisoner enters the prerelease program 30 days before his release from confinement. It is designed to help him make a successful transition from the restraints of confinement to the freedom of society. Classes are conducted in such subjects as-o Employment and work supervision. o Pay and travel allowance. o Parole planning. o Ill effects of the excessive use of alcohol and unauthorized use of narcotics. o Problems of life. o Adjustment to civilian life. o Law in a democracy. o Family and religion. Orientation for Prisoners. The confinement officer should establish an orientation program for prisoners in RCFs who are being transferred to the USDB. This orientation should contain advice to prisoners about the benefits derived from their willing participation in the educational and vocational training activities of the facility. Prisoners should be informed that participation in these activities will aid them immeasurably upon restoration to duty or return to civilian life. Duties of Key Personnel General. All officers will be assigned by the commandant, except for the deputy commandant and director of custody who will be assigned by the commandant with concurrence of the Department of the Army. Each officer assigned as a director will be responsible to the commandant for the effective and efficient operation of the activities and functions under his organizational control. Deputy Commandant. The commandant may delegate to the deputy commandant any duties except those which are specifically imposed upon the commandant by the Uniform Code of

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Military Justice, appropriation acts, or other statutory provisions, or those which, because of their manifest importance or existing local conditions, may not be appropriately delegated. Director of Custody. Subject to the direction of the commandant, the director of custody will have immediate charge of all prisoners and will be responsible for the custody, control, discipline, care, and security of the prisoners. Director of Administration. This director formulates policy and coordinates administrative activities such as central filing, mailing, reproduction, publications, and forms management. He administers personnel actions and directs the maintenance of records for military personnel. The director of administration coordinates personnel actions for civilian personnel. He directs management and appropriated funds budget programming activities. He exercises staff supervision over receipt, disbursement and accounting for all nonappropriated funds, and related activities. Director of Supply and Maintenance. This director is responsible for the supervision and operation of all activities pertaining to training aids, maintenance, property, supply, and Federal Prison Industries, Inc. Director of Classification. This director is responsible for assignment and disposition programs. Director of Prisoner Training. This director is responsible for educational and vocational training activities and the prisoner information program. Director of Mental Health. This director is responsible for the disciplinary barracks psychiatric program and, when authorized, for the medical program. The senior medical officer is assigned to the commandant's staff. Chaplain. The chaplain will function under direct supervision of the commandant and will have direct access to all members of the facility. Staff Judge Advocate. The staff judge advocate (or legal officer) will function under the commandant and coordinate all legal activities as directed by the commandant. Parole Officer. The parole officer will be responsible for advising and assisting prisoners in filing requests for parole, preparing and presenting parole cases with recommendations to the Disciplinary Barracks Classification Board, investigating and processing parole plans, maintaining necessary records for parolees, and performing other functions. Custodian of Nonappropriated Funds. The custodian is responsible for safekeeping and accounting for all nonappropriated funds as prescribed in pertinent regulations and directives. If a single custodian of nonappropriated funds is not available to carry on the many and varied functions required of him in the administration and control of these funds, commandants are authorized to designate one officer as custodian of the vocational training fund and a separate

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officer as custodian of the inmate welfare fund and prisoner personnel deposit fund. When personnel are available, a separate custodian for each fund is authorized. Prisoner Program Officer. His duties will include immediate responsibility for the administration of the prisoner assignment and disposition program. He will be responsible for prisoner work in accordance with approved board actions and for the prisoner prerelease orientation program. Employment Officer. The employment officer works under supervision of the director of classification. He will be responsible for prisoner use in accordance with approved board actions, prisoner movements, and pass control. Supply Officer. The supply officer is responsible for procurement, storage, maintenance, and issue of all clothing, supplies, and equipment for the disciplinary barracks, other than that reported for use by guard companies and transportation. He will supervise and control the taking of technical service property inventories, maintenance of required stock records, and preparation of supply reports and requisitions. Special Services Officer. This officer plans, organizes, and supervises recreational activities for prisoners. He will be responsible for the procurement, issue, and proper maintenance and care of all special services equipment, including procurement of films and operation and supervision of motion pictures. He also will be responsible for supervision of the prisoner band, including proper maintenance and care of equipment. Commander, Headquarters MP Battalion. This commander exercises command, control, and provides discipline and personnel administrative support to all Army enlisted cadre of the confinement facility. He also provides morale, welfare, recreation, education, supply, and selected training support to all military personnel assigned to the USDB. Other Staff Officers and Enlisted Men. Personnel, other than those listed above, will be designated by the commandant on a functional basis to fit local conditions and to obtain the most efficient and effective use of personnel. SUMMARY Military prisoners serving sentences to confinement as punishment are available for overall correctional treatment activities comprised of useful work, training, and correctional motivation. The USDB provides the opportunity for prisoners to participate in intensive academic education and vocational training activities and to improve their skills and knowledge through useful and constructive employment of value to the Army. Training will be designated to provide prisoners an opportunity to improve their future value to the service if restored to duty as well as their abilities to make successful readjustment to civilian life. NOTE TO THE STUDENT: There is not a lesson review exercise for Lesson 3, continue to Lesson 4.

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