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6

Diagram 6 shows the structural formula for two types of hydrocarbon compound. Rajah 6 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi dua jenis sebatian hidrokarbon.

H H H H | | | | H C C C C H | | | | H H H H Compound A Sebatian A DIAGRAM / RAJAH 6 (a)

H | C | H

H H H | | | C C C H | | H H Compound B Sebatian B

What is meant by hydrocarbon? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan hidrokarbon? .............

..... [ 1 mark] (b) Namakan Siri Homolog bagi Name the Homologous Series for (i) Compound A Sebatian A : .................................................................................................................... (ii) Compound B Sebatian B : ................................................................................................................... [ 2 marks] (c) Compound B has isomers. Draw one structural formula for the compound rather than Diagram 6 and name it according to IUPAC nomenclature. Sebatian B mempunyai beberapa isomer. Lukiskan satu formula struktur bagi isomer sebatian tersebut selain daripada Rajah 6 dan namakannya mengikut sistem penamaan IUPAC. Structural formula Formula struktur :

Name Nama : [ 2 marks]

(c)

Compound A burnt completely produces carbon dioxide and water. Write the chemical equation for the reaction. Sebatian A terbakar dengan lengkap menghasilkan gas karbon dioksida dan air. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas tindak balas yang berlaku. .........

..... [ 2 marks] (e) When compound A and compound B burnt in air, soot is produced. Apabila sebatian A dan sebatian B dibakar dalam udara, jelaga terhasil. (i) Which compound produces more soot? Sebatian manakah menghasilkan jelaga yang lebih banyak? ......... ..... [ 1 mark] (ii) State the reason for your choice in (e) (i). Nyatakan sebab bagi pilihan anda di (e) (i). ......... ..... [ 1 mark] (d) Compound B can be converted to compound A through a reaction. Name the type of reaction. Sebatian B boleh ditukarkan kepada sebatian A melalui suatu tindak balas. Namakan jenis tindak balas penukaran tersebut. ......... ..... [ 1 mark] 6 The diagram 6 shows a flow chart of changes that occur on ethanol, C2H5OH. Rajah 6 menunjukkan carta alir perubahan-perubahan yang berlaku ke atas etanol, C2H5OH. Substance S and gas T Bahan S dan gas T Combustion Pembakaran Process I Proses I

C2H5OH

C2H4

+ Substance U Bahan U

Ethyl propanoate Etil propanoat

C2H5COOC2H5
Diagram / Rajah 6

(a)

(i)

State the homologous series for ethanol. Nyatakan siri homolog bagi etanol. ..... ...... [ 1 mark]

(ii)

Ethanol is soluble in water. Explain why. Etanol boleh larut di dalam air. Terangkan mengapa. ... ... [ 1 mark]

(b)

(i)

Name substance S and gas T. Namakan bahan S dan gas T. Substance / Bahan S : ... Gas T : . [ 1 mark]

(ii)

Write the equation for the production of substance S and gas T. Tuliskan persamaan bagi penghasilan bahan S dan gas T. ... [ 2 marks]

(c)

Draw the stucture formula and name the substance U. Lukiskan formula struktur dan namakan bahan U.

[ 2 marks] (d) (i) Name process I. Namakan proses I ...

[1 mark] (ii) Draw the diagram of apparatus set up for process I. Lukiskan gambar rajah susunan radas bagi menjalankan proses I.

[2 marks

Diagram 6.1 shows the changes of a carbon compound involving a series of reaction.
Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan perubahan suatu sebatian karbon yang melibatkan beberapa siri tindak balas.

Butanol
Butanol

Porcelain Chips Serpihan porselin Heat Panas

Butene
Butena

H2
Heat Panas

Butane
Butana

Diagram 6.1
Rajah 6.1

(a)

Write the molecular formula of butane.

Tuliskan formula molekul bagi butana.

.......................................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (b) Draw the structural formulae of two isomers of butane.
Lukiskan formula struktur bagi dua isomer butana.

[2 marks]

(c) butene.

Table 6 shows the results of a test to differentiate between butane and


Jadual 6 menunjukkan keputusan ujian untuk membandingkan antara butana dan butena.

Procedure
Prosedur

Observation
Pemerhatian

Bromine water is added to butene.


Air bromin ditambahkan kepada butena.

Brown colour is decolourised.


Warna perang dinyahwarnakan.

Bromine water is added to butane.


Air bromin ditambahkan kepada butana.

Brown colour remains.


Warna perang kekal.

Table 6
Jadual 6

Based on Table 6, explain why there is a difference in these observation.


Berdasarkan Jadual 6, terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian ini.

..........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]

(d) of the

Butene reacts with hydrogen to produce butane. Write the chemical equation reaction.

Butena bertindak balas dengan hidrogen untuk menghasilkan butane. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini.

.......................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]

(e) process. experiment.

Butene can be obtained from the reaction of butanol through dehydration Draw a labeled diagram of the set-up of the apparatus for the

Butena boleh didapati daripada tindak balas butanol melalui proses penghidratan. Lukis gambar rajah berlabel susunan radas untuk eksperimen ini.

[2 marks] (f) Diagram 6.2 shows the burning of hexane and hexene in air.
Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan pembakaran heksana dan heksena dalam udara.

Soot
Jelaga

Filter paper
Kertas turas

Porcelain dish
Mangkuk pijar

Hexane
Heksana

Hexene
Heksena

Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2

Compare the sootiness of hexane and hexene. Explain.


Bandingkan kejelagaan bagi heksana dan heksena. Terangkan.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................... [2 marks]

[2 marks]

Table 5 shows molecular formulae of 4 carbon compounds. Jadual 5 menunjukkan formula molekul bagi 4 sebatian karbon. Compound Sebatian A B C D Molecular Formula Formula molekul C4H8 C4H10 C4H9OH C2H5COOH

(a)

Table 5 Jadual 5 Write the general formula of the homologous series of compound B. Tuliskan formula umum bagi siri homolog sebatian B.

........... [1 mark] (b) State the functional group of compound A and compound D. Nyatakan kumpulan berfungsi bagi sebatian A dan sebatian D. Compound A : Sebatian A Compound D : . Sebatian D [2 marks] (c) Compound B shows isomerism. Draw the structural formula of two isomers of compound B. Sebatian B menunjukkan isomerisme. Lukiskan dua formula struktur bagi isomer sebatian B.

[2 marks] (d) Compound D and compound C are reacted with the presence of the concentrated sulphuric acid. Sebatian D dan sebatian C bertindak balas dengan kehadiran asid sulfurik pekat. (i) Name the product formed from the reaction. Namakan hasil yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas .. [1 mark] (ii) State one special characteristic of the product formed. Nyatakan satu ciri istimewa bagi hasil yang terbentuk .... [1 mark] (e) Compound A burns in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Sebatian A terbakar dalam oksigen berlebihan menghasilkan karbon dioksida dan air. (i) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi tindak balas tersebut ................................................................................................................................ [1 mark] (ii) 11.2 g of compound A burns in excess oxygen, calculate number of carbon dioxide molecules formed. 11.2 g sebatian A dibakar dalam oksigen berlebihan, hitungkan bilangan molekul karbon dioksida yang terbentuk. [Relative atomic mass C = 12, O = 16 and Avogadro number = 6.02 x 1023] [Jisim atom relatif C = 12, O = 16 dan nombor Avogadro = 6.02 x 1023]

[2 marks]
] 5 Table 5 shows molecular formulae of 4 carbon compounds. Jadual 5 menunjukkan formula molekul bagi 4 sebatian karbon.

Compound Sebatian A B C D

Molecular Formula Formula molekul C4H8 C4H10 C4H9OH C2H5COOH Table 5 Jadual 5

(a)

Write the general formula of the homologous series of compound B. Tuliskan formula umum bagi siri homolog sebatian B.

.. [1 mark] (b) State the functional group of compound A and compound D Nyatakan kumpulan berfungsi bagi sebatian A dan sebatian D. Compound A : ..

Sebatian A Compound D : .. Sebatian D [2 marks] (c) Compound B shows isomerism. Draw the structural formula of all isomers of compound B. Sebatian B menunjukkan isomerisme. Lukiskan formula struktur bagi semua isomer sebatian B.

[2 marks]

(d)

Compound D and compound C are reacted with the presence of the concentrated sulphuric acid. Sebatian D dan sebatian C bertindak balas dengan kehadiran asid sulfurik pekat. (i) Name the product formed from the reaction. Namakan hasil yang terbentuk daripada tindak balas . [1 mark] (ii) State one special characteristic of the product formed. Nyatakan satu ciri istimewa bagi hasil yang terbentuk . [1 mark]

(e)

Compound A burns in excess oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Sebatian A dibakar dalam oksigen berlebihan menghasilkan carbon dioksida dan air. (i) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi tindak balas tersebut ............................................................................................................................ ...... [1 mark]

(ii) 11.2 g of compound A burns in excess oxygen, calculate number of carbon dioxide molecules formed. 11.2 g sebatian A dibakar dalam oksigen berlebihan, hitungkan bilangan molekul carbon dioksida yang terbentuk. [Relative atomic mass C = 12, O = 16 and Avogadro number = 6.03 x 1023] [Jisim atom relatif C = 12, O = 16 dan nombor Avogadro = 6.03 x 1023]

[2 marks]