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Alvars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alvars
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The alwar or azhwars (Tamil: , zvrka [aar], those immersed in god) were Tamil poet-saints of south India who lived between the 6th and 9th centuries AD and espoused emotional devotion or bhakti to Visnu-Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[1] Sri Vaishnava orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and Madhurakavi, making the number twelve.[2] The devotional outpourings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his Avatars. They praised 108 A Temple having a separate shrine of this deity's holy abodes in their hymns, known as the Divya Desams. for the 12 Azhwars Vaishanava bhakti literature was an all-India phenomenon which started in the 6th or 7th century AD in the Tamil-speaking region of South India, with twelve Alvar (one immersed in God) saint-poets, who wrote devotional songs. The religion of Alvar poets, which included a woman poet, Andal, was devotion to God through love (bhakti), and in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions.[3] Together with the contemporary sixty three Saiva Nayanars, they are accounted as South India's 75 Apostles of Bhakti because of their importance in the rise of the Hindu Bhakti movement. The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha. The Bhakti literature that sprang from Alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit. [4] As part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[5]

Contents
1 Etymology 2 Legacy 3 Place, month and star of birth 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Etymology
Alvars or Azhwars literally means 'people who are immersed'. They are so called because they were immersed in their devotion and love to their Lord, Vishnu.[6] However recently S.Palaniappan has argued that what was originally vr got changed through hyper correction and folk etymology to zhvr.[7] Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence for a gradual sound change from vr to zhvr over a period of two centuries from the 9th
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to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaishnavism, Shaivism and even Jainism and to political personalities. He states: "zhvr is but a corrupt form of vr which has been used interchangeably with nyanr in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaishnava claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that Nathamuni has used the form vr but Pin [A disciple and younger cousin of Rmnuja] ended up using the form zhvr suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers. This error was obviously due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere"

Legacy
Azhwars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism from the 5th to 8th centuries AD. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[8][9] The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three azhwars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pei were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin community, Kulasekhara from Kshatria community, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the azhwars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Poigai is considered an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club), Pey of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus), Namm of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's necklace), Periy of Garuda (Vishnu's eagle), Andal of Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Saranga (Rama's bow). The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[9][10] According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). Modern historians place the period of azhwars from the 5th to 8th century AD, but there is dispute about the chronology and relation between each other. But it is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[8][9][11][12][13] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars of Saivism, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. The azhwars were also instrumental in promoting the Bhagavatha cult and the two epics of India, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[14] The azhwars were instrumental in spreading Vaishnavism throughout the region.[15] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824 - 924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda".[16][17]

Place, month and star of birth


The following table shows the place, century and star of birth of each Alvar. The traditional century of Alvars have been contested by historians as is the case for many Indian works and the British historians place the dates as in the table. Traditional dates take them to the age of Sukhaacharya from the period of Srimad Bhagavatham who while
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delivering the work to Parrekshit spoke of Alvars as Vaishnavaite saints and many are from Dwaparayuga, while Nammalwar belongs to the early part of Kaliyuga. <quote>Kalou Kalu Bhavishyanti narayana parayana. Kvachit Kvachin Mahabhago dramideshucha pureesha tamrabharani nadhi yatra kruta malaa payasvini kaavericha mahaabhago pradeeseecha mahaanadhi.(srimadh bhagvath purana)</quote> [18] Sl no Alwar Saint Period and Place 7th century, Kanchipuram Composition Month Nakshatra Avatar of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch) Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club)

1 Poigai Alvar

Mudhal Thiruvandhadhi, Thiruvonam Aiypassee 100 verses. (Sravana) Avittam Aiypassee (Dhanishta)

2 Bhoothathalvar

7th century, Irandam Thirukadalmallai Thiruvandhadhi, 100 (Mahabhalipuram) verses. 7th century, Mylapore 7th century, Thirumazhisai Moondram Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Nanmugan Thiruvandhadhi, 96 verses; ThiruChanda Virutham, 120 verses.

3 Peyalvar

Nandaka Sadayam Aiypassee (Vishnu's (Satabhishak) sword) Thai Magam (Magh) Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus)

Thirumalisai 4 Alvar

5 Nammalvar

9th century, Azhwar Thirunagari (Kurugur)

Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, Vaikasi 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses. Kanninun Siruthambu, 11 verses. Chitthirai

Vishaakam (Vishkh)

Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander) Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda)

Madhurakavi Alvar

9th century, Thirukollur

Chitthirai (Chithra)

King 7 Kulasekhara Alvar 8 Periyalvar

9th century, Thiruvanchikkulam, Perumal Thirumozhi, 105 Maasee Later Chera verses. kingdom 9th century, Srivilliputhur Periyazhwar Thirumozhi, Aani 473 verses.

Punar Kaustubha Poosam (Vishnu's (Punarvasu) necklace) Swathi (Swaathee) Pooram (Prva Phalgun Garuda (Vishnu's eagle) Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in
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9 Andal
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9th century,

Nachiyar Thirumozhi, 143 verses; Thiruppavai, Aadi

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Srivilliputhur

30 verses.

(Pubbha))

her form as Bhudevi) Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland) Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest)

Thondaradippodi 8th century, 10 Alvar Thirumandangudi

Thirumaalai, 45 verses; Thirupalliezhuchi, 10 verses. Amalan Adi Piraan, 10 verses.

Kettai Margazhi (Jyeshta)

11

Thiruppaan Alvar

8th century, Uraiyur

Karthigai

Rogini (Rohinee)

Thirumangai 12 Alvar

8th century, Thirukurayalur

Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 Krithika verse; Thiru Kurun Kaarthigai (Kttik) Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses.

Saranga (Rama's bow)

See also
Bhakti movements Tamil mythology Nathamuni

Notes
1. ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (http://www.mahavidya.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Nippard-Andrea-TheAlvars-Yes.pdf). Retrieved 2013-04-20. 2. ^ Flood 1996, p. 131 3. ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages" (http://ccrtindia.gov.in/literaryarts.htm). Indian literature , Govt of India. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 4. ^ "About Alvars" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070621230057/http://www.divyadesamonline.com/alwars.asp). divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original (http://www.divyadesamonline.com/alwars.asp) on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 5. ^ Mittal, S. G. R.; Thursby (2006). Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9780203970027. 6. ^ "Meaning of Alvar" (http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/alvars/). ramanuja.org. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 7. ^ Alvar or Nayanar : The Role of Sound Variation, Hypercorrection and Folk Etymology in Interpreting the Nature of Vaisnava Saint-Poets (http://www.linguist.univ-paris-diderot.fr/~chevilla/FestSchrift/supa_9d.pdf) (PDF). South-Indian Horizons, Institut Francais de Pondichry (French Institute of Pondicherry). 2005.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvars ^ a b Rao, P.V.L.

Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram Land of Legends, Saints & Temples

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8. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram Land of Legends, Saints & Temples (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=GTMTQLuCNSMC&pg=PA27&dq=poigai+azhwar&hl=en&sa=X&ei=kBxzUf2hD6ah2gX4uYGgDQ&ved=0C DMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=poigai%20azhwar&f=false). New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 9. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21 10. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=H4q0DHGMcjEC&pg=PA14&dq=poygai&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mdR1UfhOePR0wH1u4DYAw&ved=0CFAQ6AEwBjge#v=onepage&q=poygai&f=false). Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 11. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=X7u5N8vKoaoC&pg=PA17&dq=poigai+azhwar&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7C10UZLjJoeC9QSk7IDQBA&ved=0CF4Q 6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=poigai%20azhwar&f=false). Oxford University Press. pp. 1718. 12. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=g6FsB3psOTIC&pg=PA852&dq=poygai&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JTZ0UY6UEoqC8ATkloHgDA&ved=0CDoQ6AEw Ag#v=onepage&q=poygai&f=false). The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 13. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=f9cSlaLMlgEC&pg=PA136&dq=poygai&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JTZ0UY6UEoqC8ATkloHgDA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwB w#v=onepage&q=poygai&f=false). Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 14. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42 15. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 47-48 16. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=YCJrUfVtZxoC&pg=PA15&dq=poygai&hl=en&sa=X&ei=50R0UaefIZGy9gSDt4DoCA&ved=0CGEQ6AEwCT gU#v=onepage&q=poygai&f=false). Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 17. ^ Garg, Gag Rm (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq (http://books.google.co.in/books? id=WjDcd0cTFxQC&pg=PA352&dq=poygai&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mdR1UfhOePR0wH1u4DYAw&ved=0CC8Q6AEwADge#v=onepage&q=poygai&f=false). Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352354. ISBN 9788170223757. 18. ^ "Birth place and stars of Alvars" (http://srirangapankajam.com/Thirunakshtram.aspx). srirangapankajam.com. Retrieved 2007-06-20.

References
Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. Hymns For The Drowning by A.K. Ramanujan (Penguin), Nammalvar by A.Srinivasa Raghavan (Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi),1975, ISBN 81-260-0416 9 Alwargal - ^Or Eliya Arimugam by Sujatha (Visa Publications, Chennai, India)(in Tamil), 2001

External links
The Twelve Alvars (http://www.divyadesamonline.com) Alvars and Srivaishnavism (http://www.srivaishnavan.com) The Alvar Saints (http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/alvars/index.html) (ramanuja.org) The Alvar Saints of Tamilnadu (http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/alvars.htm) by Jyotsna Kamat Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alvars&oldid=566930681"
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Categories: Alvars Hindu devotees Sri Vaishnava religious figures Bhakti movement Vaishnava saints This page was last modified on 28 December 2013 at 15:50. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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