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*Professor, Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Garia, Kolkata , India (nath_sudipta@yahoo.com) M. Tech. student, Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Garia, Kolkata, India (shrabani.diatm@gmail.com)

Abstract

The growing concern about wide area power system disturbances and their impact on power systems have reinforced interest in the new generation of power system modelling. In recent years economical and environmental reasons have forced the transmission systems to be operated closer to their security limits. This has increased the importance of implementing suitable and efficient techniques for online monitoring and prediction of possible voltage collapse in the system prior to its occurrence. During large scale power system disturbance the last line of defense is the load shedding at the stations where the stability margin becomes dangerously low. To do this there is need to use automatic devices which process local signals, detect the decreased margin and activate the load shedding. In this paper a novel method for determination of voltage stability margin in power systems is presented. This method calculates the derivative of apparent power against the admittance. The application of artificial neural network for voltage stability evaluation is also proposed that could be used as early warning system to the power system operator so that necessary action could be taken in order to avoid occurrence of voltage collapse. The developed system has been tested using IEEE-14 bus reliability test system. The proposed technique is able to predict the voltage stability condition of a power system and therefore could be a valuable tool for fast real time voltage stability assessment.

1 Introduction

Voltage stability is concerned with the ability of a power system to maintain the acceptable voltages at all system buses under normal operating conditions as well as when the system is being subjected to a disturbance [11]. Voltage collapse is a dynamic phenomenon [19]. The nature of voltage stability can be investigated from perspective of load dynamics. The presence of harmonics has negative effects on the voltage stability [16]. The bus which has the nonlinear load is the most affected bus in the system. Perfect compensation cannot be achieved when the effects of harmonics are not taken into consideration [15]. Load shedding often becomes the last line of defense to prevent the voltage collapse. Voltage stability

improvement may be obtained if the adaptive voltage criterion, with operation levels adapted to the load phase angle, is used [18]. Visualization of voltage stability in large electric power systems is discussed in [13] for the direct use of measured system data by the self-organizing feature map, which allows the stability assessment to be made independent of indicators, after dealing with some general aspects of visualization and the suitability of self-organising map for visualization. The method is applied to a real voltage-critical power system. Turan et al. [14] explained voltage stability evaluation by using maximum power transfer phasor diagram. Ajjarapu et al. [1] have demonstrated a systematic methodology to allocate reactive power output of device in a power system. This was achieved through the application of an active set analysis based on linear programming technique. An auxiliary optimization problem of minimizing the fictitious reactive power injection placed at all the buses which help the users to determine the candidate buses for reactive power allocation has been discussed in [7]. Due to the nature of the problem, voltage stability analysis has been computationally challenging. With some modifications, voltage stability index for stressed power system has been derived by Dey et al. [4] from a reduced system model, and this index could identify how far a system is from its point of collapse. Several analysis methods are available for long term voltage stability. Though V-Q curve power flow method is widely used but results obtained from this method can be misleading [3]. The IEEE/CIGRE joint task force report [8] aims to define power system stability more precisely, provide a systematic basis for its classification and discuss linkages to related issues such as power system reliability and security. A versatile voltage stability index has been developed in [5] which incorporates robust features so as to guarantee the optimal utilization of the various voltage collapse indices to predict, monitor and detect the status of power system both on line and off line. ANN and Fuzzy logic has been successfully applied for power system problems including load forecasting [2], [12]. El-Keib et al. [6] have reported on an investigation on the application of ANN in voltage stability assessment. An approach for online network reconfiguration for enhancement of voltage stability in distribution systems using ANN has been proposed in [9]. Fuzzy logic control has been successfully applied in [10], [17] to solve load flow problem and predict steady state voltage stability conditions in transmission network. In this paper a method for online estimation of voltage stability margin by

measuring the variation of the apparent power with respect to the load admittance has been proposed. ANN model has been developed to predict the voltage stability of power system. The parameters affecting voltage stability of power system are identified and then they are used to train ANN model which is successfully able to predict voltage stability margin of power system.

The local voltage stability monitoring and control method is based on a two-bus equivalent, where one of the buses is the slack bus supplying a load over a single branch as shown in Fig. 1. The line and source system is represented by impedance ZS and voltage phasor E respectively. E and ZS represent the equivalent of the network seen from the terminals of the load bus of interest. E ZS VR

As the condition for maximum load apparent power is dS/dY =0, it confirms the well-known fact that at critical point of voltage instability Z=ZL. At no load i.e. when load admittance Y=0, dS/dY 1, whereas, when Z=ZL, dS/dY=0. Therefore, maximum loading point can be accurately monitored on-line just by computing the factor dS/dY. The operating points below the maximum permissible loading point represent the satisfactory operating condition. Therefore, dS/dY close to zero also indicates the proximity to voltage collapse point.

The proposed method for monitoring the voltage stability margin of a power system has been tested on IEEE 14-bus standard test system. The calculation is based on the actual value of load admittance and the apparent power supplied to the load. The results are obtained from Newton Raphson method of load flow simulations. For this study, all the loads were modelled as constant admittance at all the buses. The admittance has been gradually increased from the base value. For determining dS/dY only two successive data sets were used. The variation in total apparent power supplied to load with change in load admittance at various buses is shown in figures 2 to 8. Fig. 2 shows the variation of dS/dY with change in load admittance at bus 5.

1.2

ZL

Fig.1. Load bus and rest of the system represented with a source and a line To asses the proximity of the load bus to voltage collapse the user has to track the parameters of the equivalent source E and impedance Zs that model the rest of the system lumped together, and monitor the Impedance Stability Index (ISI) or Voltage Stability Index (VSI). ISI = ZS/ZL and VSI = V/V V and V represent high and low voltage solution at a load bus. When the values of these indices are close to 1 the system is in the proximity of voltage collapse. At the collapse point V = V. The power margin is equal to S = ZLI2 ZsI2 and represents the extra MVA that can be delivered to the load before voltage collapse occurs. The ratio between the power supplied by the source Seq =EeqI and the power actually consumed by the load Seq=VI reveals the power lost in the transmission. This ratio rapidly increases as the system approaches voltage collapse. In the present discussion the load model has been assumed to be of constant power injection as only such loads experiences voltage collapse at the peak of the power-voltage (nose) curve. The current in the circuit shown in Fig. 1 can be represented as I=E / (ZL2+ZS2+2ZLZScos) 0.5 (1) Hence load bus voltage VL=IZL= EZL / (ZL2+ZS2+2ZLZScos) 0.5 (2) where is the difference of the phase angles of the impedances ZS and ZL. The apparent power at the load bus is given by SL=I2ZL= E2ZL / (ZL2+ZS2+2ZLZScos) (3) The derivative of the apparent load power SL against the load admittance Y, dS/dY = E2(1-Y2Z2) / (1+Z2Y2+2ZYcos)2 (4)

0.8

ds / dy

0.4 0 0 2 4 6 8

Load admittance

Fig. 2. Variation of dS/dY with change in load admittance at bus 5. Fig. 3 shows that proximity to voltage collapse can be accurately detected by monitoring the value of dS/dY at bus 9. Fig. 4 and fig. 5 represent the variation of dS/dY with change in load admittance at bus 10 and bus 11 respectively. Fig. 6 shows the variation of dS/dY with respect to the change in load admittance at bus 12. The variation of dS/dY with

respect to the change in load admittance at bus 13 and bus 14 are represented by fig. 7 and fig. 8 respectively.

1.2

1.04

0.96

0.8

ds / dy

0.92 0.88 0.84 0 2 4 6 8

ds / dy

0.4

Load admittance

0 0 2 4 6 8

1.2

Load admittance

1.2

0.8

0.8

ds / dy

0.4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

ds / dy

0.4

Load admittance

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Load admittance

1.2

0.8

(Y2 Y1) where S1 and S2 are the apparent power at the load terminals at the beginning and end of the time interval and Y1 and Y2 are the load admittance at the beginning and end of the time interval. The time difference between the two measurements should be 500 ms [18]. For off line studies the necessary data is obtained by load flow simulation which helps the power system planners to identify the areas in the power system network that are prone to voltage collapse.

ds / dy

0.4

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Load admittance

This section reports an investigation on the application of ANN in voltage stability monitoring. A multi-layer feedforward artificial neural network with back propagation learning is proposed for calculation of voltage stability margin. Training data sets for training is generated by varying both real and reactive loads. The load is varied randomly at the constant power factor. Power flow program is conducted at all steps and corresponding values of dS/dY are noted for the strongest bus i.e. 5th bus of IEEE 14 bus system. Table 1 represents test result obtained from ANN model and the corresponding error for obtaining dS/dY of the strongest bus of IEEE 14 bus system. The test results from table 1 shows that the ANN based approach can provide quite accurate estimation for the voltage stability margin. Table 1: Test results obtained from ANN model to obtain dS/dY for 5th bus of IEEE 14 bus system. Error Input Data for Testing Target Output Output obtained (%) fromANN P 9.12 12.92 16.72 20.52 24.32 28.12 91.92 35.72 39.52 43.32 47.12 50.92 54.72 58.52 62.32 66.12 88.92 92.72 96.52 Q 1.92 2.72 3.52 4.32 5.12 5.92 6.72 7.52 8.32 9.12 9.92 10.72 11.52 12.32 13.12 13.92 18.72 19.52 20.32 V 1.0345 1.0336 1.0326 1.0316 1.0306 1.0296 1.0286 1.0270 1.0259 1.0249 1.0239 1.0229 1.0219 1.0208 1.0198 1.0187 1.0079 1.0068 1.0057 dS/dY 1.0639 1.0593 1.0552 1.0511 1.0471 1.0430 1.0279 1.0317 1.0295 1.0256 1.0216 1.0176 1.0107 1.0095 1.0023 0.9573 0.9644 0.9602 0.9561 dS/dY 1.0640 1.0593 1.0543 1.0533 1.0439 1.0440 1.0339 1.0370 1.0310 1.0244 1.0204 1.0171 1.0095 1.0067 1.0036 0.9725 0.9649 0.9590 0.9535 0.0094 0.0000 0.190 -0.30 -0.096 0.58 0.51 0.146 -0.12 -0.10 -0.049 -0.12 -0.28 0.13 1.58 0.05 -0.12 -0.27

1.2

0.8

ds / dy

0.4 0 0 4 8 12

Load admittance

Fig. 8. Variation of dS/dY with change in load admittance at bus 14 This method for estimation of voltage stability margin can be used for online as well as offline studies. For online measurement dS/dY can be obtained from dS/dY = (S2 S1) /

5 Conclusions

Voltage stability problems, once associated primarily with weak systems and long lines, are currently a source of

concern for highly developed systems as a result of heavy loading. Operators must be able to recognise voltage stabilityrelated symptoms so that appropriate remedial actions can be taken for improving voltage stability. The local voltage stability monitoring method based on a two-bus equivalent has been discussed in this paper, where of the buses is the slack bus supplying a load over a single branch. This method can be used for on-line monitoring of voltage stability margin as well as offline studies. For practical applications when the magnitude of dS/dY becomes lower than that of the normal operation condition an alarm should be actuated. Then if dS/dY goes on decreasing the operating tap changing transformers should be disconnected. Lastly if dS/dY falls below a critical value load shedding should be initiated. Artificial Neural Network has been implemented in this paper for the prediction of voltage stability margin. This technique is very efficient tool and can correctly estimate voltage stability margin under different operating conditions.

[10]

[11] [12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support given by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Govt. of India for sponsoring this research in the form of grant-in-aid to Career Award for Young Teachers to Dr. Sudipta Nath. [16]

[17]

References

[18] [1] V. Ajjarapu, P. L. Lau and S. Battula. An Optimal Reactive Planning Strategy against Voltage Collapse, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 9, pp. 906-917, (1994). [2] S. T. Chen, D. C. Yu and A. R. Moghaddaamjo. Weather sensitive short-term load forecasting using a non-fully connected artificial neural network, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 7, (1992). [3] B. H. Chowdhury and C. W. Taylor. Voltage stability analysis: V-Q power flow simulation versus dynamic simulation, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 15, pp. 1354-1359, (2000). [4] S. Dey, K. C. Chanda, A. Chakrabarti. Development of a Gklobal Voltage Security Indicator (VSI) and role of SVC on it in longitudinal Power Supply (LPS) system, Elsevier 2003. [5] D. O. Dike, S. M. Mahajan and G. Radman, Development of a versatile voltage stability index algorithm, IEEE Electric Power Conference, (2007). [6] A. A. El-Keib and X. Ma. Application of artificial Neural Networks in Voltage Stability Assessment, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 10, (1995). [7] S. Granvill. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch through Interior Point Methods., IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 9, pp. 36-146, (1994). [8] IEEE Joint Task force, Definition and classification of power system stability, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, volume 19, pp. 1387-1401, (2004). [9] A. M. Kashem, V. Ganapathy and G. B. Jasmon. On-line Network Reconfiguration for enhancement of voltage stability in distribution systems using artificial neural

[19]

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Sudipta Nath obtained PhD in Electrical Engineering from Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Kolkata, India. She is currently holding the position of Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Kolkata-700152, India. Her research interests include application of artificial intelligence in power systems. She has number of research papers published in national and international journals. Shrabani Pal obtained her B.Tech. degree from Durgapur Institute of Advanced Technology and Management. She is currently a M.Tech. student in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Garia, Kolkata-700152, India. Her research interest includes investigation on voltage stability problems in power system and application of artificial intelligence in power system.

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