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GAS COMPRESSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

Oil & Gas

CONTROL SYSTEMS

Contents
1 Control System Overview .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................... 1 1.2 ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATED CONTROL ............................................................................ 2 1.3 OPEN ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................................................ 2 1.4 DISPLAY / OPERATOR INTERFACE .......................................................................................... 2 1.5 COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................. 2 1.6 VARIED COMPRESSOR CONFIGURATIONS............................................................................ 3 Control System - Old versus New....................................................................................................... 4 2.1 OVERVIEW................................................................................................................................... 4 2.2 SURGE LIMIT MODEL ................................................................................................................. 4 2.3 UNITIZATION FOR TUNING AND DISPLAY............................................................................... 5 2.4 CURVE FIT ................................................................................................................................... 5 2.5 COMPRESSOR OPERATION...................................................................................................... 5 2.6 TURNDOWN CALCULATOR ....................................................................................................... 6 2.7 SURGE MARGIN.......................................................................................................................... 7 2.8 TURNDOWN (RANGEABILITY)................................................................................................... 7 2.9 PROPORTIONAL AND INTEGRAL CONTROL ALGORITHM .................................................... 7 2.10 POSITIONED VALVES................................................................................................................. 8 Piping and Instrumentation ................................................................................................................. 9 3.1 TIME CONSTANT OF THE SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 9 3.2 COMPRESSOR DECELERATION............................................................................................. 10 3.3 HEAT BUILDUP IN UNCOOLED RECYCLE SYSTEMS ........................................................... 10 3.4 RECYCLE LINE PIPING............................................................................................................. 11 3.5 FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS .............................................................................................. 11 3.6 COMPRESSOR INSTRUMENTATION ...................................................................................... 11 3.7 CHECK VALVES ........................................................................................................................ 12 3.8 RECYCLE VALVES .................................................................................................................... 12 3.9 RECYCLE VALVE TYPES ......................................................................................................... 13 3.10 MULTIPLE RECYCLE VALVE ARRANGEMENTS .................................................................... 14 3.11 RECYCLE VALVE CONTROL.................................................................................................... 14 3.12 COMPRESSORS IN SERIES..................................................................................................... 15 3.13 GAS COMPOSITION CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................ 15 Valves and Associated Components................................................................................................ 16 4.1 SIZE AND CHARACTERISTIC................................................................................................... 16 4.2 TYPICAL VALVE ARRANGEMENTS......................................................................................... 17 4.3 SURGE CONTROL VALVE ACCESSORIES............................................................................. 17 4.4 POSITIONED VERSUS DIRECT CONTROLLED VALVES....................................................... 21 4.5 RECYCLING FOR PROCESS CONTROL ................................................................................. 22 4.6 INTERACTION BETWEEN SURGE AND PROCESS CONTROL............................................. 22 Flow-Measuring Elements and Transmitters................................................................................... 23 5.1 GENERAL SELECTION CRITERIA ........................................................................................... 23 5.2 COMPARISON OF COMMONLY USED FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS............................. 23

Contents, Contd
6 Process Control .................................................................................................................................. 25 6.1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................ 25 6.2 SUCTION PRESSURE ............................................................................................................... 25 6.3 DISCHARGE PRESSURE.......................................................................................................... 25 6.4 FLOW CALCULATOR ................................................................................................................ 25 6.5 FLOW CONTROL ....................................................................................................................... 26 6.6 SPEED CONTROL ..................................................................................................................... 26 6.7 PROCESS CONTROL USING ANTI-SURGE CONTROL VALVE ............................................ 27 6.8 SUCTION PRESSURE ............................................................................................................... 27 6.9 DISCHARGE PRESSURE.......................................................................................................... 28 6.10 COMMAND TO ANTI-SURGE VALVE ....................................................................................... 28 6.11 MULTIPLE UNIT LOAD SHARE CONTROLLER AND SURGE MARGIN EQUALIZER ........... 28

Appendix A Yard Valve Sequencing .................................................................................................... 30 A-1 MILESTONES............................................................................................................................. 30 A-2 SEQUENCING MATRIX ............................................................................................................. 31 A-3 VALVE OUT OF POSITION ....................................................................................................... 31 Appendix B Recycle System Design Check List ................................................................................ 34 B-1 RECYCLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS ............................................................................................... 34 B-2 RECYCLE LINE PIPING............................................................................................................. 34 B-3 FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS .............................................................................................. 34 B-4 COMPRESSOR INSTRUMENTATION ...................................................................................... 34 B-5 CHECK VALVES ........................................................................................................................ 35 B-6 RECYCLE VALVES .................................................................................................................... 35 B-7 PROCESS CONTROL VALVES................................................................................................. 35 B-8 COMPRESSORS IN SERIES..................................................................................................... 35 B-9 GAS COMPOSITION CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................ 35 Appendix C K-Value Definitions ........................................................................................................... 36 Appendix D Compressor Data Requirements ..................................................................................... 37 D-1 EXAMPLE OF ACCEPTABLE COMPRESSOR DATA .............................................................. 37 Appendix E - Surge Control Valve Accessories .................................................................................... 39 Appendix F Glossary of Definitions ..................................................................................................... 40

Caterpillar is a registered trademark of Caterpillar Inc. Solar, Titan, Mars, Taurus, Mercury, Centaur, Saturn, SoLoNOx, and Turbotronic are trademarks of Solar Turbines Incorporated. Specifications subject to change without notice. Printed in U.S.A. 2003 Solar Turbines Incorporated. All rights reserved. SPGCCS/203

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Anti-Surge and Process Control for Gas Compressor Applications 1.


1.1

Control System Overview


PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Solar Turbines Incorporated offers a control system for the avoidance of surge in turbine driven centrifugal compressors. The system creates a mathematical model of the compressor performance and monitors the actual operating point of the compressor against the model on a real-time basis. It establishes a surge line that indicates where surge is expected to occur and a control line that is at a fixed margin, typically 10%, from the surge line. If the compressors operating point reaches the control line, the system initiates corrective action. The hardware required includes a recycle piping loop with an anti-surge valve, the necessary valve accessories, and instrumentation to measure the flow through the compressor and the suction and discharge pressures and temperatures. Proper valve and instrumentation selection, coupled with a suitable piping layout, is critical to the successful operation of the system. The corrective action taken by the system is to open the anti-surge valve. This causes recycling of some of the process gas to increase the flow on the suction side of the compressor. This moves the operating point away from the surge line. Once the operating point is to the right of a "deadband" line (typically 12% from the surge line), the system instructs the anti-surge valve to close. Operation of the valve is asymmetrical in that it opens rapidly, but closes slowly. Solars system scope typically includes the following:

Engineering to specify the flow-meter type and size Evaluation of purchaser's piping and instrumentation diagram and physical layout Documentation, including all surge control calculations and program constants Modified head-versus-flow control Automatic override of manual control mode Speed set point decoupling Surge detection with step valve opening On-screen, real-time graphic display On-screen, real-time control parameter setting Availability of all surge control parameters via serial communications link for remote monitoring Suction flow transmitter * Suction pressure transmitter * Discharge gas temperature RTD (100-ohm platinum) * Discharge pressure transmitter

* Shipped separately for installation by purchaser The following components and information are typically required from the purchaser in order to facilitate the surge control system design and onsite operation:

Engineering to determine the optimum control algorithms for the specific application Software programmed and tested for the selected compressor staging Engineering to specify the anti-surge control valve and accessories, including valve performance evaluation over the compressor performance map at varying valve positions

Expected compressor operating condition ranges for suction pressure (P1), suction temperature (T1), discharge pressure (P2), flow, and gas specific gravity Flow-meter specification sheet Purchaser piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) and physical layout drawing, including suction and recycle pipe sizes and schedule

Anti-surge control valve and its specification sheet, unless included in Solar's scope Suction gas temperature signal (100-ohm platinum RTD preferred) ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATED CONTROL

1.5

COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT

Solar has made and continues to make a significant investment in the development of surge control components. 1.5.1 Control Processor

1.2

Solars anti-surge control system is fully integrated in the turbine unit control panel (UCP). This integration allows for better interface with the capacity and/or fuel control loops for optimum performance and compressor safety. All unit parameters are available to the station process control system for station optimization based on compressor performance and optimum envelopes. Because the anti-surge control is part of the control processor program, all parameters and status indications are available via a serial link, e.g., transmitters, control parameters, PV, SP, OUTPUT, SM and status variables. Integration of the process control, anti-surge control, and the unit control minimizes interaction complications. A seamless process provides control from a reactive mode to a coordinated mode of surge and process control. With an integrated control system, the antisurge, process and station control valves can all be used to avoid surge. This results in superior performance through better resolution, faster response (reduced risk of surge), and significantly less noise. Also, redundant components are eliminated, reducing cost. 1.3 OPEN ENVIRONMENT

Solar uses control processor hardware and software produced by Allen-Bradley. Solar works closely with Allen-Bradley on the development of hardware and software specifically for turbomachinery control. This has enabled the surge control algorithms to become faster, more accurate, and more sophisticated. 1.5.2 Instrumentation

Solar works continuously with instrumentation manufacturers to improve the performance of the instrumentation components. In flow measurement, Solars primary focus is on the low delta-P transmitters used with orifice plates and venturis, since the speed of response of these devices tends to be inversely proportional to their range. 1.5.3 Control Valves

Solar's anti-surge control system is easy to modify by changing the source code (changing assigned K-values). This feature is important when gas conditions are expected to change or if the compressor is restaged. 1.4 DISPLAY / OPERATOR INTERFACE

Solar works continuously with valve manufacturers to improve the performance of anti-surge control valves. Solar-specified anti-surge control valves employ asymmetrical stroking operation. This enables the valve opening response to be tuned beyond critical damping without producing instability. Solar currently supplies valves with opening speeds of less than 100 milliseconds per inch of port size. Future plans call for doubling that performance; i.e., reducing the time to 50 ms. 1.5.4 Flow Measurement Elements

Solars system provides real-time indication of all variables associated with anti-surge control on one screen. The anti-surge control screen also provides indication of the compressor operating point relative to the recycle and surge lines. This feature allows the operator to see how close the compressor is operating to the unstable region. The system has a manual mode, enabling the operator to operate the recycle valve manually. However, the system will automatically override the manual mode if the operating point reaches the control line.

Solar has worked with a wide variety of flowmeasuring elements, such as orifice plates, flow tubes, and venturis. Solar has also worked with compressor impeller eye flow measurement with both Solar's compressors and other manufacturers' compressors. Solar is currently working on error correction schemes based on compressor speed and pressure ratio when using impeller eye flow measurement. 1.5.5 Tailored Algorithm

Solar provides anti-surge control in many different forms. The anti-surge control algorithm is often tailored to the application. This provides uniformity with other compressor anti-surge control

systems at the site, changes in gas conditions, and changes in compressor configurations. Solar regularly examines several anti-surge control algorithms to identify which one best suits the application and minimizes gas recycle. 1.6 VARIED COMPRESSOR CONFIGURATIONS

1.6.1

Surge Detection

Anti-surge controls from Solar Turbines Incorporated are easily adapted to various arrangements of compressors (series, parallel, and combinations of both), varied piping arrangements, and process control schemes. The integrated control is clearly well suited to these applications due to the large number of potential control conflicts and interactions.

In addition to the primary anti-surge control, a surge detection algorithm is included. This software detects changes in flow that would indicate that a surge event has occurred. This algorithm provides a backup to the primary anti-surge control and as such is seldom activated. This feature will protect the compressor against a faulty or incorrectly calibrated transmitter where the transmitter is functioning, but providing incorrect data. 1.6.1 Service

Solar provides worldwide service and technical support for all of its turbomachinery, compressors and controls.

2.

Control System - Old versus New


where:

Solar's enhanced anti-surge control system provides fast system response without sacrificing controllability. Brief descriptions of several enhancements follow. 2.1 OVERVIEW

T = Temperature Z = Gas compressibility SG = Gas specific gravity


The resulting terms are as follows: Reduced Head

Solar's anti-surge control system determines the compressor operating point using pressure and temperature monitored at the suction and discharge sides of the compressor, along with flow monitored by a flow-measuring element and transmitter. In the earlier algorithm, only flow (Q) through the compressor and compressor head (P2 - P1) defined the compressor operating point. The new system compares the compressor operating point to a third-order polynomial model of the compressor's surge limit (theoretical surge line). The difference between the operating point and the surge limit model, minus the protection margin, is the control error. A proportional and integral (P+I) algorithm adjusts this difference, or error, to provide a control signal to the recycle valve. In the earlier system, the compressor surge limit was defined by a straight line (y = mx + b), as opposed to a polynomial equation. 2.2 SURGE LIMIT MODEL

P2 P -1 HR = 1 s
and Reduced Flow

QR =
where:

hW P 1

The surge limit of the compressor can be expressed in terms of mathematically reduced polytropic head and volumetric flow. The full expressions for polytropic head (Hp) and flow (Q) are as follows:
s P2 1 T Z P 1 Hp = k1 s SG

hW

= Flow element pressure differential

and, for ideal gases

T2 ln T s = 1 P2 ln P 1
Since the reduced terms have an equal impact on both head and flow, a model of the surge limit, in terms of reduced head and reduced flow, is insensitive to changes in these parameters. Since measured P1 is used in both terms, changing compressor suction pressure is accounted for. Prior to 1999, the surge limit model was based on DP versus hW, where DP is the pressure differential across the compressor and hW is the pressure differential across the flow-measuring device. While simpler and usually suitable for

Q 2 = k2

hW T Z P1 SG

Since a number of terms are common to both the head and flow equations, they can be reduced by:

T Z SG

pipeline applications, this was inadequate in an environment of changing gas conditions. Pressure, temperature, or specific gravity compensation was difficult and made the algorithm complex. 2.3 UNITIZATION FOR TUNING AND DISPLAY

2.5

COMPRESSOR OPERATION

The data ranges for reduced head and reduced flow are unitized; that is, they are expressed as percentages (0 to 100%) instead of dimensioned values for both the X and Y axes. This approach produces similar surge lines for a wide range of compressors. The gains for anti-surge control are similar for different installations and onsite tuning is simpler. With a dimensioned system, however, the gains for different installations can vary by orders of magnitude. 2.4 CURVE FIT

For a single-stage compressor moving light natural gas (pipeline, sales quality gas), a straight-line surge model was usually sufficient. However, multi-stage compressors running heavy gas produce a more complex curve. When surge limits for these complex curves are modeled with a straight line, the protection margin can be two times the actual requirement near the center of the curve. This causes unnecessary recycling. The new, third-order polynomial-based system models compressor surge limits accurately and does not recycle gas unnecessarily. From the compressor manufacturers surge limit data, coefficients for a third-order polynomial are developed for the operating range of the compressor using the equation listed below:

x = Ay3 + By2 + Cy + D
where:

x = Reduced flow (Q) element y = Reduced head (H) element of the


surge control algorithm The constants, A, B, C, and D are the constants or K-values defining the polynomial (see Appendix C). For display purposes (Figure 1), the surge line and the accompanying control and deadband lines are shown as straight lines. The surge line is a tangent to the actual curve defined by the polynomial, corresponding to the value of reduced head at the compressors operating point.

The operation of a compressor can be described in terms of three parameters: head, flow, and speed. The operating point is often defined in terms of its relationship to surge, typically as the ratio of any of these parameters to that parameter at surge, holding any of the other parameters constant. The three most commonly used values are turndown, surge margin, and head rise to surge. Turndown is the ratio of flow greater than surge to flow at the operating point, at a constant head (Figure 2.) It is often used to describe the margin of safety of operation of a compressor especially where only head and flow are monitored. It is typically expressed as a percentage. Another definition of turndown is used to describe the rangeability of a compressor; that is, the distance between surge and choke. In this case, turndown is often expressed as a ratio; i.e., 2:1. Surge margin is the ratio of flow greater than surge to flow at the operating point, at a constant speed (Figure 3.) This is the most common description of the margin of safety of operation of a compressor. It is usually expressed as a percentage. Head rise to surge is the ratio of operating head to head at surge, at a constant speed. Again, this describes the margin of safety of operation of a compressor. It is usually expressed as a percentage. Speed loss to surge, at constant head, defines how far speed can be reduced, at constant head, before the compressor surges. This relationship is useful in explaining the problem of avoiding surge during a shutdown. If the volume in either side of the compressor is maintaining the head across the compressor, reducing speed will induce surge. The remaining two relationships are head rise to surge at constant flow and speed fall to surge at constant flow. Neither of these relationships is very useful. Head across an operating compressor is set by the upstream and downstream system. Head changes slowly in direct proportion to the flow. Flow is only constant when speed, upstream and downstream resistances are held constant and the system has reached equilibrium. Relating a change in any parameter to a constant flow does not reflect an operating scenario. Solars control system uses the calculated value of turndown to protect the compressor against surge.

QR

SRG

hW P1 SRG

QR OP =

hW P 1 OP

Figure 1. Anti-Surge Control Display 2.6 TURNDOWN CALCULATOR

The turndown (TD) calculator takes inputs of pressure, temperature, and flow to calculate the turndown. Turndown is defined as the horizontal distance (i.e., at constant reduced head factor) between the reduced flow factor at the operating point and the reduced flow factor at the surge limit line, expressed as a percentage, shown graphically in Figure 2 and mathematically as:

REDUCED HEAD FACTOR

TD = 100
where:

QR OP - QR SRG QR SRG

QR

SRG

hW P1 SRG

REDUCED FLOW FACTOR

QR

SRG

QR OP

and:

Figure 2. Turndown

QR OP =

hW P 1 OP

HEAD

2.7

SURGE MARGIN

The surge margin is calculated in the same way except that the value of QRsrg is derived from the intersection of the constant speed line and the surge line, as shown in Figure 3:

SM = 100

QR

OP

- QR
OP

SRG

QR

REDUCED HEAD FACTOR

FLOW

Q SRG
Figure 4. Turndown (Rangeability) 2.9

MAXSPEED

PROPORTIONAL AND INTEGRAL CONTROL ALGORITHM

REDUCED FLOW FACTOR

QR

SRG

QR OP

Figure 3. Surge Margin 2.8 TURNDOWN (RANGEABILITY) When describing rangeability, turndown is defined as:

TD =
where:

QMAXSPEED QSRG

QMAXSPEED = Flow at maximum speed (See Figure 4.)

In any control system, the maximum control gain is limited by the time constant or system resonant frequency. If gains are continually increased to improve response, the system oscillates. Since many system components respond non-linearly, the system time constant changes. Even if the system is initially optimally tuned, process conditions and/or the equipment change over time, and the system can oscillate. An anti-surge control system must 1) avoid surge with severe process changes and 2) control continuous recycle without oscillation or hunting. Off-the-shelf valves and transmitters must be used in a piping system where flowmeter runs are not ideal and control volumes can be large. Often, performance requirements cannot be met with a conventional single gain system. To ensure surge avoidance, valve opening speeds far in excess of the system time constant can be required. To return to the normal process smoothly, a much slower closure rate is required. To achieve these conflicting objectives, Solar uses two gains: high gains for opening the recycle valve and low gains for closing the valve. Solar's anti-surge controller uses conventional proportional plus integral control with gains

modified, depending on the location of the compressor operating point relative to the control line. Variable gains allow the recycle valve to open or close appropriately, depending upon process requirements. 2.10 POSITIONED VALVES

Until recently, Solar used only direct-acting valves; i.e., valves controlled via a current / pressure (I/P) transmitter, for anti-surge control. Earlier valve assemblies that included positioners were not judged acceptable due to their poor re-

sponse to commands from the control processor. However, improvements in valve technology and the use of ancillary components in the system, including for example, a one-way volume booster and a needle valve, now permit the successful application of positioned valves. Therefore, Solar now recommends the use of positioned valves. Solars anti-surge system responds faster than most, if not all, competing systems and provides precise control that allows continuous operation at the surge control line.

3.

Piping and Instrumentation


3.1 TIME CONSTANT OF THE SYSTEM For surge avoidance, the system time constant can be defined as a volume and a valve. In the simplest system, the volume is bounded by the compressor, discharge check valve, and recycle valve. The suction volume is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the discharge volume and, therefore, is ignored (considered infinite, constant pressure). The time constant t of a volume / valve system can be estimated by the formula:

Design of the piping and the selection and placement of instruments will significantly affect the performance of an anti-surge control system. The benefits of a good piping and instrument design cannot be overemphasized. The cost of correcting a poor design once the equipment is in operation can be extremely high. The following guidelines are provided to help ensure proper operation of the anti-surge control system. The typical simple recycle system is shown in Figure 5. The system includes a flow-measuring element in the compressor suction, a compressor, an aftercooler, a discharge check valve, and a recycle line and valve connected upstream of the discharge check valve and upstream of the compressor flow-measuring element. The control monitors the compressors operating parameters and compares them to the surge limit and opens the recycle valve as necessary to ensure the desired surge margin is maintained.

t
where:

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VP1 SG CV P2 ZT

t = Time constant in seconds

(63.2% decay in pressure)

ENGINE

COMPRESSOR VV

SV

AFTERCOOLER

DV

FT LV SCRUBBER

PT

TT

PT

TT

ANTI-SURGE CONTROLLER LIMIT SWITCH 4 - 20mA SOLENOID ENABLE 24VDC POSITION TRANSMITTER 4 - 20mA

SV LV VV DV

= = = =

SUCTION VALVE LOADING VALVE VENT VALVE DISCHARGE VALVE TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER FLOW TRANSMITTER PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

TT = FT = PT =

FAIL OPEN ANTI-SURGE CONTROL VALVE

Figure 5. Typical Piping and Instrumentation Outline

CV = ISA flow coefficient for the recycle valve P1 = Inlet pressure of the recycle valve P2 = Outlet pressure of the recycle valve SG = Specific gravity of the gas T = Absolute temperature of the gas upstream of the recycle valve V = Volume bounded by the compressor, the check valve, and the recycle valve Z = Compressibility of the gas In a surge avoidance system, half of the valves capacity will be consumed recycling the compressor. Only the remainder can be used for depressurizing the discharge volume. Therefore, in the equation above, only that portion (CV) of the valve not consumed in recycling the compressor can be considered for depressurizing the discharge. Ultimately, this time constant will determine the fastest rate at which the surge avoidance system can operate. 3.2 COMPRESSOR DECELERATION

position). At some point, this becomes impractical in both size and cost. An alternative is a valve boosted only to open. This provides high opening speeds for surge avoidance, while avoiding oscillation by very slow closing. If the discharge volume / recycle valve cannot be designed to ensure surge is avoided, a short recycle loop (hot recycle valve) may be considered. If only a single recycle valve can be used, a rotary valve typically has 50% more turndown than a globe valve. Subsequently, use of a ball valve can cut the depressurization time by 50% over a globe valve. 3.3 HEAT BUILDUP IN UNCOOLED RECYCLE SYSTEMS

The worst-case scenario is when the compressor is operating near surge, without any recycle, and an engine shutdown occurs. With the initiation of a shutdown, the compressor can be expected to decelerate approximately 30% in the first second. With a 30% loss in speed, the compressor's head capability at its surge limit will drop by approximately 50% (Fan Law). The surge control valve must, therefore, reduce the pressure across the compressor by one-half in that first second. To do this, the surge control valve must move a proportional amount of gas out of the discharge into the suction. This is in addition to the flow required through the compressor to avoid surge. The larger the volumes in the system, the longer it will take to equalize the pressures, the more sluggish will be the response of the surge control system, and the more likely the compressor will surge. The larger the valve, the better the potential of avoiding surge. However, the larger the valve, the poorer the controllability will be at partial recycle. The faster the valve, the quicker it can get to the position where the required flow can be achieved and the more likely surge will be avoided. However, the speed of a valve cannot simply be turned up infinitely. Increasing the gain of the valve positioning system will at some point produce instability. This can be overcome by increasing the power of the actuator (improving the relationship between the command and the valve

Virtually all of the energy put into the compressor is reflected as heat in the discharged gas. In an uncooled recycle system, this heat is recycled into the compressor suction and then more energy added to it. At 100% recycle, eventually this will lead to overheating at the compressor discharge. Low pressure ratio compressors often do not require aftercoolers. Compressors with only hot recycle systems are not intended to recycle at all during normal operation. The problem usually occurs when there is a long period between the initial rotation of the compressor and overcoming the pressure downstream of the check valve. A cubic foot of natural gas at 600 psi weighs about 2 lb (depending on composition). The specific heat of natural gas is about 0.5 Btu/lb (again depending on composition). 1 Btu/sec equals 1.416 hp. If the recycle system contains 1000 cubic feet, there is a ton of gas in it. 1416 hp will raise the temperature of the gas about 1 degree per second. This approximates what happens with 100% recycle. The analysis of the partial recycle scenario is more complicated. The compressor discharge temperature will rise asymptotically until the energy of the gas leaving the system equals the energy input to the compressor. Extending the length of the recycle line downstream of the recycle valve increases the total volume of gas in the recycle system, thus reducing the heat buildup rate. Some heat will be lost through the pipe walls. If the outlet is far upstream into a flowing suction header, dilution will occur. For start-up, a relatively small control valve can be placed across the discharge check valve. As compressor discharge temperature increases, this valve can be opened, pushing some of the hot recycled gas into the suction header temporarily.

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3.4 3.4.1

RECYCLE LINE PIPING Compressor Suction Side

The suction side of the recycle system is bounded by the compressor suction, the suction block valve or inter-stage check valve, and the outlet of the recycle control valve. The connection of the recycle line outlet should be as far away from the compressor as possible. Conversely, the flow-measuring element should be as close to the compressor suction as possible. With this arrangement, the introduction of recycle flows will not overly adversely affect flow measurement. 3.4.2 Compressor Discharge Side

Flow-measuring elements that create an abrupt restriction or expansion to the gas, such as orifices, cause turbulence and, subsequently, create noise. 3.5.2 Placement

It is preferable to place the flow-measuring element in the suction side of the compressor. Typically, variations in pressures, temperatures and turbulence of the gas are fewer upstream of the compressor. Also, the flow-measuring element must be inside the innermost recycle loop (Figure 6). 3.5.3 Reliability

The discharge side of the recycle system is bounded by the compressor discharge, the discharge check valve, and the inlet of the recycle control valve. This volume is critical to the performance of the surge control system and should be kept to a minimum. 3.4.3 Recycle Line Sizing

The recycle valve should have greater than 90% of the total pressure drop across the recycle system under maximum throttling conditions (maximum head and speed). For short recycle systems (<100 diameters), 1:1 line sizing (valve to pipe) should be adequate. For longer recycle systems (downstream of the recycle valve), larger pipe sizes may need to be considered. 3.4.4 Suction Strainers

Failure of the flow-measuring element will at least cause the compressor set to be shutdown until it can be replaced. If the failure results in pieces being ingested by the compressor, it will cause an expensive overhaul. Devices cantilevered into the gas stream are not recommended. Low cost flow-measuring elements do not always result in cost savings in the long run. 3.5.4 Permanent Pressure Loss

Strainers are often installed upstream of a compressor for obvious reasons. Often, since the compressor flow-measuring element is installed very close to the compressor, there will be a tendency to install only one pressure transmitter. If the strainer is installed between the flowmeasuring element and the compressor, and there is only one pressure transmitter, the pressure drop across the strainer will impact the margin of surge protection. Monitoring the pressure across the strainer will alleviate this problem and help avoid the possibility of collapsing the strainer. 3.5 3.5.1 FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS Performance

The power cost of operating a flow-measuring element is often highlighted by manufacturers of low permanent pressure loss (PPL) flowmeasuring elements. In some cases, this is overstated. The cost impact of operating a flowmeasuring element can be calculated. For example, a flow meter developing a 100 in. H2O signal and a 50% PPL flowing 100 MMSCFD (50 lb/sec) is equivalent to about 20 hp. 3.6 COMPRESSOR INSTRUMENTATION

Flow-measuring elements that develop high DP signals are desirable. Flow-measuring elements with low signal levels will often have low signalto-noise ratios. Pressure transmitters for low DP signal ranges typically have slow response times.

Optimal performance of any control system is dependent on the speed, accuracy, and resolution of the instrumented process conditions. To achieve optimal performance, the instruments should have performance specifications an order of magnitude better than the requirements for the system. Typical gas compressor systems have a first-time constant of about one second; hence, no instrument should have a first-time constant of greater than 100 ms. The surge control system is expected to discriminate between single-digit percentages of surge margin; hence, measurement of the process parameters should be accurate to 0.1%. The final control elements (recycle valves) probably can resolve 1% changes in their command signals; hence, the process variables should be resolved to at least 0.1% (10 bits) of their normal operating range. Over-ranging transmitters degrade resolution.

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ENGINE
SV

COMPRESSOR
VV

FM HBP

AFTERCOOLER

DV

LV

SCRUBBER

ASC

ENGINE
SV

COMPRESSOR
VV

FM HBP

AFTERCOOLER

DV

LV

SCRUBBER

ASC

SRV

HBP = Hot Bypass Valve ASC = Anti-Surge Control Valve

SRV = Station Recycle Valve FM = Flow Measuring Device

Figure 6. Typical Recycle Valve Configurations 3.7 CHECK VALVES control system, with a minimized discharge volume, cannot maintain enough energy to backspin the compressor. Premature compressor bearing failures have been attributed to a check valve being placed too close to the compressors discharge. If a check valve is to be placed at the discharge of the compressor, it should be at least 10 pipe diameters downstream of the compressor. 3.8 RECYCLE VALVES

A surge control system must contain at least one check valve. Typically, it is located in the discharge immediately downstream of the entrance to the recycle line. When hot and cooled recycle control valves are used, a second check valve may be added immediately downstream of the inlet to the hot recycle line. This second check valve serves to reduce the effective discharge volume for the hot recycle valve. Reducing the volume to be depressurized improves the responsiveness of the surge avoidance system. Check valves at the discharge of the compressor do not lessen the impact of surge on the compressor. A check valve at the discharge of the compressor may actually increase the damaging effects of surge by decreasing the recovery time, subsequently increasing the repetition rate. A check valve at the discharge of the compressor will prevent backspin of the compressor. However, a properly designed surge 12

Recycle valves are used to allow the operation of a compressor at delivered flows lower than those within the operational boundaries of the compressor. A compressor driven by a two-shaft gas turbines can decelerate very quickly with a loss of power. The compressors ability to develop head varies with the square of speed (Fan Law). Loss of compressor speed will cause a very rapid approach to the compressors surge limit. To

avoid surge, the valve(s) must be able to respond accordingly. Conversely, when there is a gradual approach to the surge limit (line packing), the valve must be able to smoothly and precisely throttle recycle to maintain the desired margin. These demands push the valve size and positioning system in opposite directions. The valve(s) responsible for surge avoidance must meet two sizing requirements: 1. Capacity to recycle the compressor 2. Capacity to depressurize the discharge in less than one second If the capacity required to depressurize the discharge exceeds three times the size required to recycle the compressor, two valves should be used. If only one valve is to be used, an equal percentage characteristic will expand the throttling range. For equal percentage, characteristic globe valve capacity (Cv) is approximately equal to travel squared. Noise-attenuating ball valves have a characteristic where capacity (Cv) is approximately equal to travel cubed. As such, noise-attenuating ball valves are a superior single valve choice. Valves specified or supplied by Solar will be able to open in less than 50 ms per inch of port size. If the enable solenoid is de-energized, the valve should reach 63.2% open (first-time constant) in less than 50 ms per inch of port size. With a 50% step change in the input to the positioner (20 to 12 mA), the valve will reach 50% open in less than 50 ms per inch of port size. Throttling with large pressure drops across a valve can result in significant temperature drops. This can cause freezing both inside and outside the valve, if sufficient water vapor is present. Freezing can render the recycle valve inoperable. These conditions most often occur with capacity or station control valves around multiple compressors in series with aftercoolers. In most cases, the throttling process takes place so rapidly and in such a small space that there is neither sufficient time nor a large enough area for much heat to transfer. Therefore, we assume the process to be adiabatic. Since h = f(T) for an ideal gas, we could expect no temperature change during this constant h process. However, even for nearly ideal gases, T2 will differ from T1. This is known as the Joule-Thomson effect. The Joule-Thomson coefficient (Uj) is defined as:

The Joule-Thomson coefficient can be derived from the gas composition and characteristics. For typical natural gas compositions, the temperature can be expected to drop 1F for every 20 psi. 3.9 3.9.1 RECYCLE VALVE TYPES Start Bypass Valves (on / off)

The start bypass valve is an on / off valve connected across the compressor inside the block valves and upstream of the check valve. It is open during start-up and shutdown. It is fail open. It is configured for fast opening so that it can bleed down the discharge to prevent surges in the event of unscheduled shutdowns. A start bypass valve is seldom used alone. It is usually used in conjunction with a surge control valve. 3.9.2 Surge Control Valves Modulating

The surge control valve is a modulating valve connected across the compressor inside the block valves and upstream of the check valve. It is open during start-up and shutdown. It is fail open. It is configured for fast opening so that it can bleed down the discharge to prevent surges in the event of unscheduled shutdowns. A surge control valve is often used alone. When the surge control valve is used alone, its sizing becomes a compromise between an appropriate size for throttling recycle around the compressor and depressurizing the head across the compressor. As such, the noise-attenuating ball valve should be the first choice. With its exaggerated equal percentage characteristic (70% travel is only 1/3 of the fully open flow), it can best address both approaches to surge problems. 3.9.3 Capacity Control Valves

Capacity control valves are in parallel with the surge control valves. They are fail open. The capacity control valve typically utilizes noiseattenuating trim. If they are to be used to aid the surge control valve and vice versa, the capacity control valve must also have fast open capability. This approach will reduce the size of both valves, improve controllability, and reduce valve response time in the event of a shutdown. 3.9.4 Station Recycle Control Valves

Uj =

dT dP
13

Station control valves are connected outside the unit check valves and block valves. They are fail closed. The station control valve typically utilizes noise-attenuating trim. The flow capacity of the station control valve cannot be considered for surge protection.

3.10

MULTIPLE RECYCLE VALVE ARRANGEMENTS

3.11.2 Cooled Recycle Control Valve (CRCV) The valve will begin opening at less than 11% surge margin (control line) and begin closing with greater than 11% surge margin. 3.11.3 Station Recycle Control Valve (SRCV) The valve will begin opening at less than 12% surge margin (control line) and begin closing with greater than 14% surge margin. Between the control line and the deadband line, the valve control signal will not change. 3.11.4 Deadband Valves, as with all mechanical devices, have friction, sticktion, and inertia. As such, there is a minimum control signal change that will cause any movement at all (resolution). In any control system, there is always some error. With an integrating control system, this will be reflected as a continuous change in the control output. This will result in hunting of the valve. If rather than the control responding to the sign and magnitude of the error it responds to <10% for opening and >12%, there will be a 2% region or deadband where the control system does nothing at all. With cascaded recycle valves, it is desirable to have only one valve throttling at steady state. To ensure this, a deadband is only incorporated into the outermost loop (the valve that will be in control at steady state). This allows the difference between the set points of the cascaded valves to be infinitely close together and ensures that two valves will not be open in steady state. 3.11.5 Ramp for Initial Closure Oftentimes, valves are ramped closed initially rather than simply operating on the piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). This provides for much smoother onloading of the equipment. With cascaded valves, the valves should be ramped closed individually rather than simultaneously. This can be accomplished as simply as ensuring the next innermost valve is completely closed before the ramp for a valve is released. In the case of a system with hot and cooled recycle valves, it may be desirable to close the hot recycle valve much earlier in the start sequence to avoid unnecessarily heating the compressor. 3.11.6 Cascaded Recycle Control Valves Compressor recycle valves are operated in cascade to optimize various aspects of the compres-

3.10.1 Parallel Valves, One Control Valve, One On / Off This combination (valves properly sized) provides good protection for the compressor along with good controllability at partial recycle. This is typically a rotary valve for the on / off and a globe as the control valve. The control valve is sized to flow at least the surge conditions. The on / off valve is sized for discharge volume depressurization. The on / off valve is often grossly oversized, since it is not used for throttling. Both valves must be configured for fast opening. 3.10.2 Parallel Control Valves (Globe) This arrangement strives to achieve the turndown and noise control of a noise-attenuating rotary valve. This combination (valves properly sized) provides good protection for the compressor along with good controllability at partial recycle. The two valves are sized to flow at least the surge conditions. A piping analysis may show that the capacity needs to be larger. Optimally, the valves should be cascaded by the control, one having a slightly higher surge protection margin (set point) than the other. This enables both valves to open with large movements of the process. 3.10.3 Station Control Valve The station control valve is placed across multiple compressors in parallel. It enables the operator to continue operation of the current number of compressors on line during periods of reduced demand or supply. The arrangement of multiple units with on / off surge avoidance valves (see Section 6) at the unit level and a station control valve will provide maximum protection for the compressors, along with excellent controllability at partial recycle with minimum piping and instruments. 3.11 RECYCLE VALVE CONTROL

3.11.1 Anti-Surge Control Valve (ASCV) The valve will begin opening at less than 10% surge margin (control line) and begin closing with greater than 12% surge margin. High gains would be employed if the operating point is to the left of the control line. Low gains would be employed if the operating point is to the right of the control line.

14

sor control that would be a compromise using a single valve. Additionally, properly cascading the control of the valves can significantly reduce the sizes of the individual valves. Hot recycle valves (directly around the compressor) will provide the control system with very fast response, since the controlled volume can be very small. (A check valve must be installed immediately downstream of the hot recycle loop). However, continuous operation at significant percentages of recycle will overheat the compressor. Cooled recycle valves allow continuous operation at 100% recycle, but the impact to the process variable lags behind the valve position due to the size of the control volume (discharge piping and cooler). Station control valves typically provide recycle for several compressors (either series or parallel). Station control valves are used to avoid interaction between the unit recycle control systems. Again, the compressors can be recycled continuously and the impact to the process variable lags behind the valve position due to the size of the control volume. Cascading is accomplished by slightly increasing the set points for the control of each succeeding outer loop. The gains for each succeeding outer loop should be significantly lower than the preceding inner loop. This occurs naturally because the time constant of each succeeding outer loop is greater since the volume of its system is larger. At steady state, the outer loop will integrate out its entire error, causing the error of the inner loop to become positive and, subsequently, closing its valve completely. 3.11.7 Cooled Recycle Valves with a Hot Bypass (on / off) In this arrangement, the cooled recycle valve provides all the modulating control and the bypass valve is used only during start-up and shutdown. This combination (valves properly sized) provides the maximum protection for the compressor along with good controllability at partial recycle. This approach does not require a control as complex as the cascaded valve arrangement; however, the size of the valves cannot be reduced since the valves operate independently (one does not aid the other). 3.12 COMPRESSORS IN SERIES

ments, recycling one compressor drives the others into surge before their controls can react. A single control valve can be used around the entire series. By cascading this valve with the unit surge control valves, interaction between units is avoided as long as the unit valves are kept from opening. This approach works well, as long as there are no side streams. The control of the single valve is much simpler than controlling the unit valves. The valve will be smaller than any of the unit control valves due to the increased pressure drop. The increased pressure drop leads to an increased temperature drop at the outlet of the valve. If the inlet to the recycle valve is downstream of an aftercooler, freezing may occur downstream of the recycle valve. To ensure this does not happen, a heater line may be added between the inlet of the valve and the discharge of the compressor. The other approach is some form of control anticipation. If any unit in the series begins recycling, the outputs to the other recycle valves can be forced open in some proportion to the amount and speed at which the initial valve was opened. This is not a form of feed-forward control since the processes are interactive. An improperly designed anticipation system will drive all the valves fully open due to wrap around. 3.13 GAS COMPOSITION CONSIDERATIONS

3.13.1 Corrosives The presence of various chemicals in the gas may attack the piping and components. Generally, the recycle system is designed and fabricated to the same requirements as the main piping. However, since the recycle system is only used intermittently, it may not need to meet the same requirements as the piping for continuously flowing gas. 3.13.2 Hydrate Formation and Temperature Drop at the Outlet of the Surge Valve In cases where the pressure differential across a recycle valve is sufficiently high, hydrates (formation of water vapor) may drop out of the gas. If this occurs and the outlet temperature of the gas is too low, ice may form at the outlet of the valve, restricting recycle flow back to the compressor. For these cases (usually occurring in multi-body compressor sets), a temperature control valve may be necessary to heat the recycle valves inlet gas to levels high enough to prevent ice formation at the outlet of the valve.

Compressors in series can be treated just as though they were individual compressors. However, due to the close coupling and slow instru-

15

4.

Valves and Associated Components


ability at partial recycle throttling. In order to avoid surge during a shutdown, the valve must open to the required capacity in significantly less than one second. Solar recommends surge control valves that meet the following: 4.1 SIZE AND CHARACTERISTIC

Surge control valves are primarily sized to fit the compressor. During steady-state recycling, the required capacity of the recycle valve can be directly derived from the compressor map. To handle transient conditions, the required capacity must be greater to allow for the volumes on either side of the compressor. With the initiation of a shutdown, the compressor can be expected to decelerate approximately 30% in the first second. With a 30% loss in speed, the head the compressor can develop at its surge limit will drop by approximately 50%. The recycle control valve must, therefore, reduce the pressure ratio across the compressor by one-half in that first second to avoid surge. The following guidelines pertain to a typical one valve, one compressor arrangement. More complex systems of cascaded valves or valves around multiple compressors require a more detailed analysis. To facilitate both precise throttling at partial recycle and the need to reduce the DP across the compressor quickly during a shutdown, Solar recommends surge control valves with an equal percentage characteristic (Figure 7). The equal percentage characteristic spreads the first 2 of the valve's fully open capacity over the first b of the valves travel. This greatly improves control-

Surge control valves are sized to meet two diverse objectives. During steady-state recycling, the required capacity of the recycle valve can be directly derived from the compressor map: the smaller the valve, the smoother the control. During transient conditions, the required capacity increases due to the volumes on either side of the compressor. Therefore, to avoid surge during a shutdown, the bigger the valve, the better. To facilitate both smooth throttling at partial recycle and the need to reduce the pressure differential (DP) across the compressor quickly during a shutdown, control valves with an equal percentage characteristic are recommended. With an equal percentage characteristic, the more the valve is opened, the greater the increase in flow for the same travel. Solar recommends two types of valves for surge control: globe valves and noise-attenuating ball valves. The globe valves capacity (Cv) varies with the

GLOBE VALVE EVALUATION EQUAL PERCENTAGE CHARACTERISTIC (Percentage Open)


3.5

60%
3.0

70%

RATIO, P2/P1

2.5

100%

2.0

1.5

1.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

FLOW, acfm

Figure 7. Typical Globe Valve Flow Characteristics (% Open) versus Compressor Map 16

square of the percentage travel. The noiseattenuating ball valves capacity (Cv) varies with the cube of the percentage travel. Both valves are sized to be throttling at about two-thirds open at surge conditions. As such, the noiseattenuating ball valve will have 50% more capacity to depressurize the discharge volume than the globe valve. This additional capacity makes the noise-attenuating ball valve the better choice in installations where there is a single surge control valve, which means there is no hot bypass and the discharge volumes are large; e.g., the discharge system includes an aftercooler. 4.1.1 Operation 4.2

Rotary valves with noise-attenuation trims that are within the rotating element and that rotate out of the flow path are unlikely to become clogged. Globe valves with noise-attenuation cages can have full-size ports for the last 50% of the plug travel. This way, the cage should not become completely clogged. Inverted construction globe valves (push down to open) allow access to the trim for cleaning and inspection without removing the actuator. TYPICAL VALVE ARRANGEMENTS

The surge control valve assembly should be increasing signal to close. The surge control valve assembly should be fail open. The valve should open with loss of either electrical signal or control air supply. 4.1.2 Interface Definition

The following figures illustrate typical valve and accessory instrumentation arrangements that Solar recommends for accurate control of:

Globe valve (Figure 8) Ball valve with single spring and piston actuator (Figure 9) Ball valve with double spring and piston actuator, which may be used with larger ball valves (Figure 10) SURGE CONTROL VALVE ACCESSORIES

The surge control valve closure should be enabled by supplying 24 volts to a three-way solenoid. Removal of the 24 volts should cause the valve to open. Solenoid valves with opening speeds of less than 20 ms and a Cv of greater than 0.6 are recommended. The surge control valve assembly should transmit a 4-to-20 mA signal corresponding to the position of the valve, ranging from fully open to fully closed. The surge control valve assembly should provide isolated contact closures, representing fully open (contact closure >2% travel, contact open <7% travel) to fully closed (contact closure <98% travel, contact open >93% travel). Noise attenuation should not be employed unnecessarily. Where high noise levels are predicted, conditions should be realistic; i.e., 100% recycle at full speed of the compressor is not very likely. Noise-attenuating trims typically consist of small holes that can collect deposits and, subsequently, block the flow path. Since this will nullify surge protection, they are not recommended. If noise-attenuation trims must be used, the following are suggested:

4.3

The accessories required for these instrumentation arrangements include:


Electro-pneumatic positioner, yoke mounted Pressure regulator (for globe valves only) Three-way 24-Vdc solenoid valve Exhaust booster Position transmitter, 4 to 20 mA, proportional to percent closed with fully open and fully closed relay outputs Needle valves

For current recommended part numbers, refer to Appendix E.

17

24 VDC EXHAUST BOOSTER THREE-WAY 24-VDC SOLENOID VALVE

NEEDLE VALVE AND CHECK VALVE

POSITION TRANSMITTER 4-20 mA 4-20 mA LIMIT SWITCH CLOSED ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC POSITIONER YOKE-MOUNTED 4-20 mA, 6-30 psig LIMIT SWITCH OPEN 4-20 mA

INSTRUMENT AIR SUPPLY PRESSURE REGULATOR (AIRSET 35-50 psig)

Figure 8. Instrumentation for Globe Anti-Surge Valve

18

4-20 mA CLOSED LIMIT SWITCH OPEN LIMIT SWITCH F5 THREE-WAY 24-VDC SOLENOID VALVE 4-20 mA EP5 80-100 psig EXHAUST BOOSTER POSITION TRANSMITTER 4-20 mA 24 VDC

ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC POSITIONER YOKE-MOUNTED 4-20 mA, 6-30 psig

NEEDLE VALVE AND CHECK VALVE

Figure 9. Instrumentation for Ball Anti-Surge Valve with Single Spring and Piston Actuator

19

POSITION TRANSMITTER 4-20 MA

ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC POSITIONER YOKE-MOUNTED 4-20 mA, 6-30 psig

THREE-WAY 24-VDC SOLENOID VALVE

4-20 mA CLOSED LIMIT SWITCH OPEN LIMIT SWITCH F5 4-20 mA 24 VDC 80-100 psig VOLUME BOOSTER

EP5 80-100 psig NEEDLE VALVE AND CHECK VALVE

EXHAUST BOOSTER

EXHAUST BOOSTER

Figure 10. Instrumentation for Ball Anti-Surge Valve with Double Spring and Piston Actuator

20

4.3.1

Performance
20 0 VALVE POSITION, % open

The following minimum requirements apply to the opening of the valve. Valve closing performance should not exceed 10 times slower than the opening time under positioner control. With the valve command at 20 mA, removal of power from the solenoid should cause the valve to reach 63.2% of full open in less than 50 ms per inch of port size (Figure 11). With a step change from 20 to 12 mA, the valve should reach 50% open in less than 50 ms per inch of port size (Figure 12). The exhaust booster or quick exhaust should be tuned to minimize opening time without excessive overshoot. Responding to a step change to half open (20 mA to 12 mA), the valve should not overshoot its ultimate position by more than 10% of the total valve travel. The valve's minimum resolvable position (stick and slip) should not exceed 2% of the total travel. Shutoff classifications are per ANSI / FCI 702-1991, Class V for soft seated valves and Class IV for metal seats. 4.3.2 Testing

CURRENT, mA

12

50

Opening Time 4 100

TIME

Figure 12. Valve Response to 50% Step Change Command 4.4 POSITIONED VERSUS DIRECT CONTROLLED VALVES

All surge control valves provided by Solar are tested to ensure performance requirements are met. Solar recommends periodic testing of surge control valves to ensure required performance is maintained.

24

Opening Time 63.2

0 100 TIME

Figure 11. Valve Response to De-Energization of Solenoid

With a direct controlled valve, a change in the control signal is converted into a pressure change at the actuator. This does not necessarily correlate with a change in the position of the valve. With a globe valve, a significant percentage of the pressure to the actuator is consumed driving the plug into the seat to achieve the desired shutoff. This introduces a significant lag in the response of the process variable to a control output change when the valve is fully closed. In a dynamic situation, the error continues to increase while the valve plug has not lifted off its seat and the control system output increases at a progressively higher rate. When the valve plug finally lifts off its seat, it will begin moving at an inappropriately high rate. With cascaded valves, there is the potential of two valve systems operating out of phase with lag and then overshoot. If this occurs, compensating valve control schemes can be incorporated to suppress the interaction. Positioned valves employ a second control at the valve to cause the valve position to correspond to the control signal. Selection of the positioner is critical where high-speed actuation of the valve is required. Most valve positioners will not provide the performance required for surge control applications. Excellent performance has been achieved with PMV EP5 positioners. Certain Fisher and Neles-Jamesbury electro-pneumatic positioners have also provided satisfactory performance. No manufacturer has demonstrated satisfactory performance with smart positioners.

VALVE POSITION, % open

VOLTAGE, VDC

21

Solar recommends positioned valves for all recycle applications. 4.5 RECYCLING FOR PROCESS CONTROL

be opened to ensure this distance from the set point is not further exceeded. If the engine power reaches the point where the compressor can meet the process conditions, the recycle valve will close. 4.6 INTERACTION BETWEEN SURGE AND PROCESS CONTROL

The majority of process control is managed by manipulating the power from the engine. When the process conditions change more rapidly than the engine can respond, recycling can be employed to ensure the minimum suction pressure is maintained, maximum discharge pressure is not exceeded, or the flow set point is not exceeded. If the process demands conditions below the minimum speed for the compressor, recycling can also be employed. This is achieved in the same way as cascading the valves. When the difference between the set point and the process variable exceeds some value, the recycle valve will

Surge and process controls operate continuously within the turbo-compressor control processor. The control demanding the recycle valve(s) to be the least closed will be in control. Each process control has gains best suited for that control mode. Surge control has different gains for opening and closing the recycle control valve(s) to ensure maximum protection for the compressor without the risk of control oscillation. Hand-off between any of the controls requiring recycle is bumpless.

22

5.
5.1 5.1.1

Flow-Measuring Elements and Transmitters


GENERAL SELECTION CRITERIA Cost an abrupt reduction in the flow area. The fluid velocity increases to pass through its bore; subsequently, the pressure at the orifice is reduced. The orifice is the most commonly used device for measuring compressor flow. It is probably more commonly used than all other types combined. Advantages Well documented, standardized, well understood, low initial cost, low cost to change. Disadvantages High permanent pressure loss. Deviation from typical Q is proportional to the square root of pressure differential. 5.2.2 Nozzles

The total life cost of the instrument should always be the deciding factor. Low acquisition costs may result in higher operating cost and low reliability. In a control system, slower response or poorer accuracy may increase costs due to their impact on the overall process controlled. 5.1.2 Permanent Pressure Loss (operating cost)

Ideally, the differential developed across a flow meter would be totally recovered downstream. With the best flow tubes, the pressure recovery is greater than 90%; with orifice plates, the pressure recovery is more likely to be about 50%. For comparison purposes, permanent pressure loss should always be expressed as a ratio. 5.1.3 Signal Level

High signal levels typically produce higher signalto-noise ratios. High signal levels are read by higher range transmitters, which typically have shorter time constants. 5.1.4 Reliability

A nozzle is a horn-shaped device that produces a gradual acceleration of the fluid. Flow nozzles have gradual reductions in the flow area. As the fluid is accelerated, it remains attached to the walls of the flow-measurement device. Advantages Well documented, standardized, understood. More accurate than an orifice when characterized by a single coefficient,

Devices installed perpendicular to the flow path may resonate at certain flow conditions, eventually leading to failure. Devices with ports facing into the flow path rather than perpendicular to it may be susceptible to clogging. Devices with fragile parts or moving parts in the flow stream are more likely to fail compared to those without such parts. 5.1.5 Characteristic

hw Q = C ' P 1

0 .5

when used over a wide range of flows. Disadvantages High permanent pressure loss. Higher initial cost than an orifice. 5.2.3 Compressor Suction to Impeller Eye

Typically, flow is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. Devices with more complex characteristics will produce a more inaccurate flow prediction or require complex compensation when used over a wide range of flows. 5.2 5.2.1 COMPARISON OF COMMONLY USED FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS Orifice Plates

An orifice plate is a plate mounted perpendicular to the flow path with a hole bored in it (typically in the center). The bore is sometimes chamfered from the downstream side, producing a sharp edge at the upstream face. An orifice produces

The issue of "compressor suction-to-eye flow measurement" has been confused by its names, including "impeller eye" and "eye of the volute." It is only a nozzle. In single overhung wheel compressors where the shaft does not extend through the impeller, this is easier to visualize. The pressures obey the same laws as those for a nozzle. The differential pressure is directly proportional to the increase in velocity resulting from the decreased flow area between the compressor suction flange and the pressure tap in the inlet

23

shroud near the impeller inlet: V2 = 2GH. Predicting the differential pressure across an orifice is much more complicated, although there are many inexpensive computer programs available to do it. Advantages "Suction-to-eye" is lower in initial cost. It is provided as standard on all of Solars compressors that have it available. It is not an option; there is no additional cost. The cost of providing an additional compressor flow-measuring device is avoided along with the cost of the additional permanent pressure loss (horsepower). "Suction-to-eye" provides a much higher signal level, typically four times that of an orifice. With the higher signal level, the signal response time is reduced. This is especially important in surge avoidance. With the higher signal level, the signal-to-noise ratio is often increased, reducing the need for filtering the flow signal. Solar's Surge Control Engineering has worked with "suction-to-eye" flow measurement on both Solar's compressors and compressors from other manufacturers. Solar's Surge Control Engineering recommends "suction-to-eye" flow whenever it is available. Disadvantages The compressor must be properly calibrated. This may require special testing. Deviation from typical Q is proportional to the square root of pressure differential. Often more difficult to calibrate initially. 5.2.4 Nozzles with Divergence Cones (Flow Tubes)

coefficient, {Q = C(hw/P1)0.5}, when used over a wide range of flows. Disadvantages High initial cost. 5.2.5 Venturi, ISO 5167 (Classical)

As with nozzles with divergence cones (flow tubes), the fluid is gradually accelerated to its maximum velocity in the throat and gradually decelerated back to its original velocity. The fluid flow remains attached to the walls of the flowmeasurement device. Subsequently, permanent pressure losses are often less than 20%. Advantages Low permanent pressure loss. More accurate than an orifice when characterized by a single coefficient, {Q = C(hw/P1)0.5}, when used over a wide range of flows. Disadvantages High initial cost. 5.2.6 Averaging Pitot Devices (Annubars and Verabars)

In the pitot flow-measuring system, the static and velocity heads are measured. The pressure differential between the pitot and static is proportional to the square of the flow. The same form of equation is used for pitot devices as is used for orifices and venturis. A flow coefficient (K) replaces the discharge coefficient and a pipe blockage factor replaces the d/D ratio (b). Advantages Low initial cost. Disadvantages Low differential pressure. Potential for failure especially if misapplied. Ports facing flow path rather than perpendicular to it may be susceptible to clogging.

In these devices, the fluid is gradually accelerated to its maximum velocity in the throat and gradually decelerated back to its original velocity. The fluid flow remains attached to the walls of the flow-measurement device. Subsequently, permanent pressure losses are often less than 10%. Advantages Low permanent pressure loss. More accurate than an orifice when characterized by a single

24

6.
6.1

Process Control
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
PIC-6102 KP

Solar offers a control system to control the process for gas compressors. The system maintains a desired process variable by automatically adjusting the speed of the turbine. For single turbine compressor packages, depending on the options chosen, control is available based on:

PIC-6102 KI R E M L O C GAINS NGP SP

PIC-6102 RSP

SP

PI

PIC-6102 OP

PIC-6102 LSP

Suction pressure Discharge pressure Suction or discharge flow A combination of any two of the above variables All three of the above variables

PV

PT-6102

Figure 13. Suction Pressure Control I/O NGP is modulated to control the PV of the compressor train to the desired set point. The PIC decreases the NGP when the pressure is above the set point. The PIC increases the NGP when the pressure is below the set point. PIC uses a PI algorithm to modulate NGP. KP and KI can be adjusted at the operator interface. The pressure set point can be adjusted locally at the operator interface. Alternatively, a remote pressure set point can be used by the PIC. The LSP or RSP can be selected at the operator interface. Figure 14 shows the specific I/O used with the PIC.
PIC-6104 KP

For multiple identical turbine compressor packages operating in parallel, the same types of control are available, including equal load sharing between compressor trains. Set points for the process variables may be entered at the unit control panel (UCP) or provided to the UCP from a remote location via serial link or hard wire connection. 6.2 SUCTION PRESSURE

A pressure-indicating controller (PIC) controls the suction pressure of the compressor train. Under this control mode, the gas turbine speed (NGP) is modulated to control the suction pressure (PV) of the compressor train to the desired set point. The PIC increases the NGP when the pressure is above the set point. The PIC decreases the NGP when the pressure is below the set point. The PIC uses a proportional-integral (PI) algorithm to modulate NGP. The gains (KP and KI) for the PI algorithm can be adjusted at the operator interface. The pressure set point can be adjusted locally at the operator interface. Alternatively, a remote pressure set point can be used by the PIC. The local set point (LSP) or remote set point (RSP) can be selected at the operator interface. Figure 13 shows the specific input / output (I/O) used with the PIC. 6.3 DISCHARGE PRESSURE

PIC-6104 KI R E M L O C GAINS NGP SP

PIC-6104 RSP

SP

PI

PIC-6104 OP

PIC-6104 LSP

PV

PT-6104

Figure 14. Discharge Pressure Control I/O 6.4 FLOW CALCULATOR

A PIC controls the discharge pressure of the compressor train. Under this control mode, the

A flow calculator (FC) generates a volumetric flow (Q) based on inputs of pressure (P), temperature (T), pressure differential across the flow meter (hW), gas specific gravity (SG), gas compressibility (Z), and design pressure (PD), design temperature (TD), design gas specific gravity (SGD), and design gas compressibility (ZD). The following equation is based on AGA Report 3:

25

Q = C'

hW P TD SG Z D T SG D Z

6.6

SPEED CONTROL

Figure 15 shows the specific I/O used with the FC. The units for Q are MMSCFD.
FT-6104 PT-6104 TT-6711 SG-6104 Z-6104 TO-6711 SG0-6104 Z0-6711 C-6711 hw P T SG Z TD SG D ZD C' FC Q FC-6104

The speed-indicating controller (SIC) selects the NGP set point that will be used to control the fuel actuator. The SIC has two operating modes: auto and manual. The output of these two modes are inputs to the SIC fuel control. 6.6.1 Auto Mode

Figure 15. Flow Calculator I/O 6.5 FLOW CONTROL

A flow-indicating controller (FIC) controls the flow of the compressor train. Under this control mode, the NGP is modulated to control the flow PV of the compressor train to the desired set point. The FIC decreases the NGP when the flow is above the set point. The FIC increases the NGP when the flow is below the set point. FIC uses a PI algorithm to modulate NGP. KP and KI can be adjusted at the operator interface. The flow set point can be adjusted locally at the operator interface. Alternatively, a remote flow set point can be used by the FIC. The LSP or RSP can be selected at the operator interface. Figure 16 shows the specific I/O used with the FIC.
FIC-6104 KP

In auto mode, the NGP set point output from the process controller described above is input to a rate limiter. If the compressor surge margin drops below an operator adjustable set point (typically 12 to 15%), then the rate limiter reduces the NGP acceleration and deceleration. The rate limiting prevents any interaction between the NGP control and recycle valve that will be modulating to keep the compressor away from the surge limit line. If the surge margin is greater than the set point, then NGP is allowed to accelerate or decelerate at its maximum rate of 0.5% per second. The NGP set point output of the rate limiter is an input to the load share controller (LSC) and surge margin equalizer (SME). Refer to Sections 6.11.1 and 6.11.2 for descriptions of these functions. If the LSC is off, then the NGP set point is input to the fuel control algorithm. If the LSC is on, then the NGP set point is compared with other units in the same group and the maximum value is selected. This base NGP set point is input to the SME. If the SME is off, then the base NGP set point is input to the fuel control algorithm. If the SME is on, then the surge margin equalization speed bias is added to the base NGP set point and is then input to the fuel control algorithm. 6.6.2 Manual Mode

FIC-6104 KI R E M L O C GAINS NGP SP

FIC-6104 RSP

SP

PI

FIC-6104 OP

FIC-6104 LSP

PV

FC-6104

Figure 16. Flow Control I/O

In manual mode, the NGP set point is adjusted directly by the operator (LSP) or by an RSP into the control system. If the compressor surge margin drops below an operator adjustable set point (typically 12 to 15%), then a rate limiter reduces the NGP RSP acceleration and deceleration. The rate limiting prevents any interaction between the NGP control and recycle valve that will be modulating to keep the compressor away from the surge limit line. If the surge margin is greater than the set point, then NGP RSP is allowed to accelerate or decelerate at its maximum rate of 0.5% per second. The manual mode NGP set point output is an input to the LSC. If the LSC is off, then the NGP

26

set point is input to the fuel control algorithm. If the LSC is on, the other units in the group follow the unit's NGP set point. Note that in NGP Master mode, the SME is automatically disabled. The NGP set point is then input to the fuel control algorithm. 6.6.3 Fuel Control

In the fuel control algorithm, the NGP set point is compared with the maximum NGP limit based on T5, the minimum power turbine speed (NPT), and the minimum NGP limit. The SIC selects the lowest set point from this group and generates the appropriate output signal to the fuel actuator controller. Figure 17 shows the specific I/O used with the SIC. 6.7 PROCESS CONTROL USING ANTI-SURGE CONTROL VALVE

The ASC can be coupled with up to two PICs: one for suction pressure and one for discharge pressure. The set point for the ASC suction pressure controller is the set point of the standard suction pressure controller subtracted by an operator-adjustable pressure offset. In turn, the set point for the ASC discharge pressure controller is the set point of the standard discharge pressure controller added to an operator adjustable pressure offset. Staggering the set points eliminates interaction between the speed and valve control loops. 6.8 SUCTION PRESSURE

In addition to anti-surge control duty, the antisurge control (ASC) can control the compressor train suction and discharge pressures as well.

The ASC suction PIC (designated here as PIC6102A) will modulate the anti-surge valve (ASV) if the suction pressure drops below its set point. When PIC-6102A is in control of the suction pressure, standard suction pressure control (PIC6102) will continue to reduce speed because its set point has not been achieved. As PIC-6102 reduces speed, PIC-6102A will detect a rise in suction pressure and begin to close the ASV.

DH+ FROM OTHER UNTS UNIT SM UNIT 2 SM UNIT 3 SM UNIT n SM UNIT 10 SM

SM-6511

DH+ TO OTHER UNTS PIC-6102OP PIC-6103OP FIC-6104OP A U T M A N LSC O F F O N

PV

SME

SP

A V E R A G E

SIC-6000RSP

RS P

XXXX.X

LSP

R E M L O C

DH+ TO OTHER UNTS UNIT SPD SP

+ +
SME O N O F F

FUEL VALVE FUEL CONT

UNIT 2 SPD SP UNIT 3 SPD SP UNIT n SPD SP

MAX T5 MAX NGP MIN NGP MIN NPT

>

DH+ FROM OTHER UNTS

UNIT 10 SPD SP

Figure 17. Speed Control I/O

27

PIC-6102 will continue to reduce speed until it satisfies its set point, which will cause PIC-6102A to close the ASV because the pressure will be above its own set point. At this point, the control system has recovered from the process transient. However, if PIC-6102 reaches the minimum NGP limit before achieving its set point, then PIC6102A will continue to recycle gas to maintain its pressure set point. Figure 18 shows the specific I/O used with the suction PIC.
PIC-6102AKP PIC-6102AKI GAINS PIC-6102OFS PIC-6102SP + SP PI PV PT-6102 ASV OP PIC-6102AOP

6.10

COMMAND TO ANTI-SURGE VALVE

The outputs of ASC suction PIC, ASC discharge PIC, and the ASC are, in turn, inputs to a minimum function that selects the most open valve command of the three controllers. This ensures that the ASV will open as necessary to satisfy any pressure or ASC requirements. The ASV will close if the pressure and ASC requirements are met. The final valve command is used as a reset for the three controllers to prevent wind-up. Figure 20 shows the specific I/O used with the min. function.
PIC-6102AOP PIC-6104AOP ASC-6511OP

<

ASV-6511CMD

Figure 20. Minimum Function I/O Figure 18. Suction Pressure Control I/O 6.11 6.9 DISCHARGE PRESSURE The ASC discharge PIC (designated here as PIC6104A) will modulate the ASV if the discharge pressure exceeds its set point. When PIC-6104A is in control of the discharge pressure, standard discharge pressure control (PIC-6104) will still reduce speed because its set point has not been achieved. As PIC-6104 reduces speed, PIC6104A will detect a fall in discharge pressure and begin to close the ASV. PIC-6104 will continue to reduce speed until it satisfies its set point, which will cause PIC-6104A to close the ASV because the pressure will be below its own set point. At this point, the control system has recovered from the process transient. However, if PIC-6104 reaches the minimum NGP limit before achieving its set point, then PIC-6104A will continue to recycle gas to maintain its pressure set point. Figure 19 shows the specific I/O used with the discharge PIC.
PIC-6104AKP PIC-6104AKI GAINS PIC-6104OFS PIC-6104SP + + SP PI PV PT-6104 ASV OP PIC-6104AOP

MULTIPLE UNIT LOAD SHARE CONTROLLER AND SURGE MARGIN EQUALIZER

A load share controller (LSC) and a surge margin equalizer (SME) manage the operation of multiple units to ensure stable load sharing of the process. One LSC and one SME reside in each of the UCPs. A dedicated link is used for communication of selected control variables. Units can be organized into load share groups. Each unit is assigned a load share group number. This number identifies which group the unit is currently configured to operate in a loadsharing scheme. For example, in a five-unit station, two units share the same suction and discharge headers. These two units are defined to be Group 1 and they load share. The remaining three units share the same suction and discharge headers, different from the first two. These three units are defined to be Group 2 and they load share as a group. Later on, the two units are switched over to operate in parallel with the other three. In this case, all the units' group numbers are set to "2" and they load share as a group. The group numbers are defined by the operator. Up to four groups can be used. 6.11.1 Load Share Controller The LSC has three modes of operation: off, on, and NGP master. Off. When the LSC is off, the UCP ignores the actions of the other units. Likewise, the other

Figure 19. Discharge Pressure I/O

28

units ignore the actions of the UCP. There is no load sharing. On. When the unit is under automatic control (under the control of a PIC or FIC) and the LSC is turned on, then the unit load shares with other units in the group. The units communicate their respective speed set point to the rest of the group. The highest of these is selected as the group's base speed set point. All the units in the group control on this base speed set point. Note that as process conditions vary, the base speed set point will change to keep the process variable in line with its process set point. NGP Master. When the unit is under manual speed control and the LSC is turned on, then the unit becomes an NGP master. The other units in the group will follow the speed of the NGP master unit. 6.11.2 Surge Margin Equalizer The SME has two modes of operation: off and on.

Off. When the LSC is off, the SME is automatically turned off. When the LSC is on, the SME can be turned on or off. When the SME is off, the bias added to the LSC base speed set point is zero. On. When both the LSC and SME are on, then individual biases are added to the base speed set points of each unit to equalize the group's compressor surge margins. The units communicate their respective surge margin to the rest of the group. In the case of multiple compressors, the lowest surge margin is used. An average of all the surge margins is calculated and used as the group's surge margin set point. Units operating below the surge margin set point automatically have their speed set point biased up to 2%, which increases the surge margin. Note that the speed set point communicated to the LSC above does not include the speed bias generated by the SME. Units above the surge margin set point have a bias of zero. A PI algorithm is used to generate the speed bias of each unit. KP and KI for the PI algorithm can be adjusted at the operator interface.

29

Appendix A Yard Valve Sequencing


The control system will sequence the yard valves during start-up, normal operation, and shutdowns. A-1 MILESTONES A-1.5 Compressor Purge The process piping and compressor are purged through their respective loading valve and vent or blowdown valve for a period of five minutes (adjustable). A-1.6 Pressurize Compressor Engine Lube Oil System OK. The UCP activates and checks the engine lube oil system. A successful check allows the start sequence to continue.

Sequencing of the yard valves is associated with certain milestones, which are defined below and used in Table A-1. A-1.1 Manual Yard Valve Sequence

The operator has manual control of the yard valves from the UCP. Manual operation of the yard valves is permitted only during pre-start. Manual operation of the suction and discharge valves is permitted only when the compressor is pressurized. A-1.2 Compressor Pressurized

The process piping and compressor are pressurized and the yard valves are positioned as shown in Table A-1. A-1.3 Compressor Depressurized

Process gas upstream of the suction valve is used to pressurize the process piping and compressor through their respective loading valve upstream of the compressor. If during the compressor pressurization sequence, the pressurized state is not reached within five minutes (adjustable), then the start is aborted and the unit is fast stopped pressurized. A-1.7 Depressurize Compressor

The process piping and compressor are not pressurized and the yard valves are positioned as shown in Table A-1. A-1.4 Start

Process gas is vented through the vent or blowdown valve(s) with the suction and discharge valves closed. A-1.8 Idle

A unit start is initiated when the following conditions have been met: Start Command. The command to start the unit is given at the UCP or from a remote input. Permissives OK. Interlocks from other systems, such as emergency shutdown (ESD) and fire and gas, must be OK to allow a UCP start. Automatic Yard Valve Sequence. The UCP has automatic control of the yard valves. Selection of automatic and manual yard valve sequence modes is performed at the operator interface. When a start is initiated, the UCP places the yard valves under automatic control. Compressor Seal System OK. The UCP activates and checks the compressor seal system. A successful check allows the start sequence to continue.

The unit is operating at the NPT idle set point (50 to 60% typical) or the NGP idle set point (72 to 78% typical), whichever is greater. NPT Idle Set Point. The lowest operating speed required to avoid power turbine and driven equipment critical speeds. NGP Idle Set Point. The operating speed for idling the gas producer. A-1.9 On Load Speed

The unit is operating above both the NPT load set point and the NGP load set point. NPT Load Set Point. The lowest normal operating speed for the driven equipment. For compressors, the set point is the last speed line of the performance map. NGP Load Set Point. The lowest speed required for normal operation of the gas producer.

30

A-1.10 Cooldown Lockout / Non-Lockout Shutdown A shutdown that causes the UCP to ramp the unit down to idle speed. The unit remains at idle for an operator-defined time period (typically 10 minutes) before the UCP automatically fast stops the unit. If during the cooldown idle time the operator acknowledges and resets the shutdown, then the cooldown timer is reset to its full period. If during the cooldown idle time the shutdown condition goes away and the operator acknowledges and resets the shutdown, then the unit may be reloaded. A lockout type shutdown does not allow remote acknowledge or reset of the shutdown. A non-lockout type shutdown allows remote acknowledge and reset of the shutdown. A-1.11 Fast Stop Lockout / Non-Lockout Shutdown A shutdown that causes the UCP to close the fuel valve to stop the unit. A lockout type shutdown does not allow remote acknowledge or reset of the shutdown. A non-lockout type shutdown allows remote acknowledge and reset of the shutdown. A-1.12 Fast Stop Pressurized Shutdown The unit is stopped with the compressor pressurized (the vent and/or blowdown valves remain closed). The unit remains pressurized during the pressurization hold time period (field adjustable). When the timer expires, the unit is depressurized. A-1.13 Fast Stop Depressurized Shutdown After the suction and discharge valves have closed, the vent and/or blowdown valves open. To minimize the flaring of gas, only the following fast stop shutdowns will cause depressurization:

Fire detected Manual fast stop SEQUENCING MATRIX

A-2

The yard valves are sequenced as in Table A-1. A-3 VALVE OUT OF POSITION

The control system verifies the correct position of all the valves described above with their respective commands. If a valve fails to transfer or hold its position, then the valve is considered out of position (OOP). Valve out of position logic is given in Table A-2. A-3.1 Valve Out of Position Checks

There are three types of possible valve checks that are performed: Both Limit Switches On (ZSC & ZSO On) If the valve's open and closed limit switches are both on, then the specified action is initiated. Command versus Limit Switches (Cmd vs ZSC/ZSO) If the valve's open or closed limit switch is inconsistent with the fully open or fully closed command for the specified time delay, then the specified action is initiated. After the specified time delay, if a valve falls out of position when its respective command is static at fully open or fully closed, then the specified action is executed immediately (without the time delay). Command versus Position (Cmd vs Pos) This criterion applies to valves with position transmitters. If the valve position feedback is inconsistent with the command ( the hysteresis) for the specified time delay, then the specified action is initiated.

Compressor seal system failure Engine lube oil system failure

31

Table A-1. Yard Valve Sequencing LV Suction Loading Valve SDV6211 O/C SV Suction Valve SDV6212 O/C C C C C O O C O O O O O C C C C C DV Discharge Valve SDV6217 O/C O/C C C C O O C O O O O O C C C C C LPVV Low Pressure Vent Valve SDV6214 O/C O/C O C C C C C C C C C C C C C O C HPVV High Pressure Vent Valve SDV6215 O/C O/C C O C C C C C C C C C C O O C C ASV AntiSurge Valve ASV6511 O/C O/C O C O O A/M O O A/M A O O O O O O O

Sequencing Description Manual Yard Valve Sequence Compressor Pressurized

Compressor Depressurized O/C Compressor Depressurized + Start Compressor Purge Compressor Purge Pressurize Compressor Compressor Pressurized On Load Compressor Pressurized + Start Pressurize Compressor Compressor Pressurized On Load Cool Down Shutdown Not on Load On Load Idle Fast Stop Pressurized Shutdown Shutdown Initiated SV and DV Confirmed Closed Depressurize Compressor Compressor Depressurized Fast Stop Pressurized Shutdown Shutdown Initiated
O C O/C A M A/M = = = = = = Open Close Open or close Automatic mode Manual mode Automatic or manual mode

O O O C C O C C C C C C C C C C

32

Table A-2. Valve Out of Position Logic Valve Tag No ZSC & ZSO On N/A LV SDV-6211 N/A Always Armed FS-LO N/A SV SDV-6212 N/A Always Armed FS-LO N/A N/A ASV ASV-6511 Always Armed FS-LO N/A DV SDV-6217 N/A Always Armed FS-LO N/A LPVV SDV-6215 N/A Always Armed FS-LO N/A HPVV SDV-6214 N/A Always Armed FS-LO N/A LCV LCV-6611 N/A Always Armed FS-LO Cmd vs ZSC/ZSO N/A 15 Always Armed FS-LO N/A 20 Always Armed FS-LO N/A 5 NGP<Load Speed SP FS-LO N/A 20 Always Armed FS-LO N/A 15 Always Armed FS-LO N/A 15 Always Armed FS-LO N/A 15 Always Armed FS-LO Cmd vs Pos N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 5 NGP>Load Speed SP Alarm N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 5 Always Armed FS-LO OOP Criteria Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action Hysteresis (%) Time Delay (sec) Arming Point Action

33

Appendix B Recycle System Design Check List


B-1

RECYCLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS Determine the discharge pressure decay time for the over-capacity of the recycle valve and the discharge pipe volume. If there is no aftercooler, determine the discharge temperature build up time at minimum compressor speed and the desired surge protection margin (nominally 10%). Determine the potential temperature drop across all recycle valves. RECYCLE LINE PIPING

B-2

Compressor Suction Side Volume (if determinable): Suction Side Recycle Line Gas Velocity: Compressor Discharge Side Volume: Discharge Side Recycle Line Gas Velocity: B-3 FLOW-MEASURING ELEMENTS

Description (orifice, venturi, or other): Location (suction, discharge): Signal Level at Minimum Compressor Flow (minimum speed at surge): If there is a strainer between the flow-measuring element and the compressor (not recommended), ensure the suction pressure transmitter for the compressor is downstream of it. Model Number Response Time (Damping)

Instrumentation Flow Transmitter B-4

Manufacturer

Location

Range

COMPRESSOR INSTRUMENTATION Manufacturer Model Number Location Range Response Time (Damping)

Instrumentation Suction Pressure Transmitter Discharge Pressure Transmitter Suction Temperature Transmitter Discharge Temperature Transmitter

34

B-5

CHECK VALVES Identify the purpose of each check valve within the compressors recycle system. Ensure that no check valve is within 10 pipe diameters of the compressor RECYCLE VALVES Specification Start Bypass Valve Surge Control Valve

B-6

ANSI Class Flange Size Style (globe, ball, other) CV Characteristic Fail Position (open, closed) Noise Attenuating? B-7 PROCESS CONTROL VALVES Specification
ANSI Class Flange Size Style (globe, ball, other) CV Characteristic Fail Position (open, closed) Noise attenuating? Capacity Control Valves Station Recycle Control Valves

B-8

COMPRESSORS IN SERIES Are there side streams? Does the gas composition change significantly in the process? Are there common coolers? Is there a flow-measuring element for each compressor? Are there pressure and temperature instruments at the suction and discharge of each compressor? Is there a surge control valve for each compressor? GAS COMPOSITION CONSIDERATIONS

B-9

Is a detailed gas composition available? Are there significant quantities of water, CO2, or H2S in the gas? Are there pressures high enough or temperatures low enough for hydrates to form? Will any components of the gas makeup liquefy at process temperatures and conditions? Is there a potential for ice formation in or on recycle valves?

35

Appendix C K-Value Definitions


K-Value HPC KPFAST HPC KIFAST HPC KPSLOW HPC KISLOW Definition These are gain values for the proportional and integral control. Fast gains are used when the operating point is to the left of the control line (yellow). Slow gains are used when the operating point is to the right of the deadband line (green). These gains are a reflection of the customers discharge piping volume and the size of the surge control valve. The larger the volume, the slower the system will be and the smaller the slow gains will need to be. The larger the surge control valve, the smaller the fast gains will need to be. In all cases, the fast gains should be at least 10 times larger than the slow gains. These are the set points for the control line and the deadband line. The control line is normally set at 10 (10% more flow than at surge) and the deadband line at 2 (2% more flow than at the control line). These K-values set the rate of opening and closing of the surge control valve in manual operation. These are the ranges for the compressor flow transmitter, the compressor suction pressure transmitter, and compressor discharge pressure transmitter. It is imperative that these values match the values of the scaled ranges of the transmitters in English units (in. H2O and psig). These are the coefficients for the third-order polynomial that models the surge control line: x = Ay3 + By2 + Cy + D where x is % reduced flow and y is % reduced head. These values are not field adjustable. This is the actual maximum value of reduced flow. Reduced flow values are divided by this number to unitize (reduce range to 0 to 1 or 0 to 100%) the values. This value is not field adjustable. This is the unitized minimum value of reduced head. It is expressed in %. This is the actual maximum value of reduced head. Reduced head values are divided by this number to unitize (reduce range to 0 to 1 or 0 to 100%) the values. This value is not field adjustable. This K-value controls the filter for the flow signal. It determines the weight of the incoming sample of the flow signal in the value being averaged. The Kvalue must be greater than 0 and less than or equal to 1. If the K-value = 1, no filtering takes place. Filtering the flow signal increases the response time of the surge control. This number should only be reduced from 1 if the flow signal is excessively noisy.

HPC_KCLFCT HPC_KDBFCT HPC_SCVOPN HPC_SCVCLS HPC_QXMTR HPC_SCVCLS HPCDISPXMTR HPCASC_A HPCASC_B HPCASC_C HPCASC_D HPCASCXMAX HPCASCYMIN HPCASCYMAX

HPCASC_KF

36

Appendix D Compressor Data Requirements


Compressor data are typically provided at constant suction conditions (typically normal operating conditions). Constant discharge pressure and discharge flow data are acceptable. The compressor data should contain at least six approximately evenly distributed speed lines between the minimum and maximum compressor operating speed. Each speed line should consist of at least six approximately evenly distributed data points. Each data point should provide the actual volumetric flow, head, and efficiency. The compressor data should contain at least three pairs of approximately evenly distributed constant efficiency lines intersecting the previously defined speed lines. Each constant efficiency line should consist of at least six approximately evenly distributed data points. Each data point should provide the actual volumetric flow, head, and speed. NOTE: If any paired efficiency lines fall to the left of the surge line, their corresponding data would not be listed. The surge line should span the minimum and maximum compressor operating speed. The surge line should consist of at least six approximately evenly distributed data points. Each data point should provide the actual volumetric flow, head, efficiency, discharge pressure, and discharge temperature. D-1 EXAMPLE OF ACCEPTABLE COMPRESSOR DATA
Q (ACFM) CONSTANT 2049.1 2287.3 2525.4 2763.5 3001.6 3239.7 3477.8 3715.9 CONSTANT 1785.5 2006.7 2227.9 2449.2 2670.4 2891.7 3112.9 3334.1 CONSTANT 1573.3 1773.4 1973.4 2173.4 2373.5 2573.5 2773.6 2973.6 HEAD (FT-LBF/LBM) ETA

Design Conditions
SG 0.6000 K1 1.295 K2 1.283 PCP 671.4 PSIA PCT 359.5 DEG R EMCH 0.980 K50 1.301 K300 1.238 P1 1012.00 PSIA P2 1307.00 PSIA H IS 10700.6 FT-LBF/LBM Q 2742.27 ACFM SQ 310.03 MMSCFD PWR 3865 HP RPM 9544 Z1 0.8609 Z2 0.8707 P/P 1.292 DEL T 38.3 T2 108.3 DEG F ETA 0.846 S MAR 0.355 T1 70.0 DEG F MN 0.481 Q (ACFM) CONSTANT 2157.8 2397.4 2637.0 2876.6 3116.3 3355.9 3595.5 3835.1 HEAD (FT-LBF/LBM) ETA

RPM = 14000 6570.8 0.75369 6445.0 0.77418 6264.7 0.79023 5984.8 0.79698 5594.9 0.79326 5093.4 4450.3 3285.6 0.77790 0.74390 0.61005

RPM = 13000 5680.1 0.75535 5563.3 0.77637 5391.9 0.79189 5146.3 0.79863 4812.0 0.79572 4382.9 0.78077 3797.4 0.73867 2840.1 0.60928 RPM = 12000 4840.0 0.75997 4729.2 0.78033 4564.6 0.79359 4349.9 0.79949 4065.9 0.79639 3707.5 0.78210 3187.2 0.73118 2420.0 0.60759

MAX RPM = 14300 6838.9 0.75519 6707.9 0.77503 6522.7 0.79055 6225.8 0.79643 5817.1 0.79180 5300.4 0.77627 4639.3 0.74382 3419.8 0.60958

37

Q (ACFM) CONSTANT 1407.1 1582.5 1757.9 1933.3 2108.7 2284.1 2459.5 2634.9 CONSTANT 1247.2 1399.7 1552.1 1704.5 1856.9 2009.3 2161.7 2314.1 CONSTANT 1093.8 1225.4 1357.0 1488.7 1620.3 1751.9 1883.6 2015.2 CONSTANT 2336.7 2238.7 1939.7 1671.9 1435.4 1334.0 CONSTANT 2628.5 2522.0 2201.0 1919.3 1662.4 1415.4 1208.1 CONSTANT 2589.6 2576.2 2556.6 2498.9 2472.0 2090.1 1816.5 1556.7 1293.7

HEAD (FT-LBF/LBM)

ETA

Q (ACFM) CONSTANT 2589.6 2597.6 2580.5 2562.1 2300.8 2047.2 1793.4 1543.2 CONSTANT 3144.1 3052.2 2755.1 2462.9 2191.0 1902.0 1646.3 CONSTANT 3402.2 3295.0 2948.2 2621.1 2319.9 2021.1 1732.5 CONSTANT 3602.3 3484.7 3105.9 2738.9 2407.1 2097.5 1809.2 CONSTANT 3691.5 3573.7 3196.1 2840.2 2507.0 2194.7 1903.8

HEAD (FT-LBF/LBM)

ETA

RPM = 11000 4049.4 0.76710 3942.1 0.78509 3792.8 0.79586 3607.8 0.80075 3370.6 0.79677 3077.0 0.78235 2627.3 0.72195 2024.7 0.60405 RPM = 10000 3331.5 0.77344 3233.0 0.78916 3099.0 0.79727 2943.2 0.80090 2750.2 0.79647 2495.0 0.77463 2140.4 0.71480 1665.7 0.60019 MIN RPM = 9000.0 2684.3 0.77842 2596.6 0.79175 2484.0 0.79874 2354.9 0.80091 2200.3 0.79603 1980.5 0.76548 1707.6 0.70695 1342.2 0.59639 ETA =0.77000 6741.1 14300 6470.6 14000 5598.7 13000 4785.4 12000 4032.1 11000 3721.1 10543 ETA =0.79000 6529.4 14300 6267.2 14000 5412.8 13000 4609.2 12000 3874.1 11000 3219.2 10000 2608.2 9000 ETA =0.80000 5235.3 13396 5242.9 13230 5236.3 13200 5178.9 13118 5120.0 13000 4425.3 12000 3736.1 11000 3100.8 10000 2528.8 9000

ETA =0.80000 5235.3 13396 5177.3 13230 5064.2 13222 4986.2 13000 4180.3 12000 3488.3 11000 2864.0 10000 2311.2 9000 ETA =0.79000 5757.1 14300 5488.3 14000 4647.8 13000 3905.6 12000 3232.8 11000 2674.6 10000 2156.9 9000 ETA =0.77000 5172.6 14300 4943.9 14000 4233.1 13000 3583.8 12000 2985.1 11000 2467.6 10000 2013.0 9000 ETA =0.74000 4604.5 14300 4416.4 14000 3815.9 13000 3277.3 12000 2761.7 11000 2289.8 10000 1861.7 9000 ETA =0.69000 4150.3 14300 3981.3 14000 3437.3 13000 2931.5 12000 2464.0 11000 2037.7 10000 1651.6 9000 ETA P2 T2 (PSIA) (DEG F)

Q HEAD (ACFM) (FT-LF/LBM) CONSTANT 2157.8 2049.1 1785.5 1573.3 1407.1 1247.2 1093.8 SURGE 6838.9 6570.8 5680.1 4840.0 4049.4 3331.5 2684.3

0.75519 0.75369 0.75535 0.75997 0.76710 0.77344 0.77842

1283.4 1229.4 1062.4 921.3 802.1 704.4 624.5

302.6 294.9 267.4 240.5 214.6 190.9 169.6

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Appendix E - Surge Control Valve Accessories


The following accessories have been found to provide fully satisfactory performance when used in conjunction with a correctly specified anti-surge valve and Solars anti-surge control system. This information is provided for guidance and is subject to change. Users should consult Solar to confirm its validity. Description Electro-Pneumatic Positioner; Yoke Mounted, 4-20 mA, 6-30 psig Pressure Regulator (globe valves only) Three-Way 24-Vdc Solenoid Valve Exhaust Booster Position Transmitter, 4-20 mA, Proportional to % Close with Fully Open and Fully Closed Relay Outputs Needle Valve Check Valve NOTES

Supplier PMV Fisher ASCO Fisher PMV Swagelok Swagelok

Supplier Part No. EP5 67CFR EF8327G2 289RC F5

Solar Turbines Drawing No. 1032456 221784 1033516 1032456

For larger actuators, a larger capacity regulator may be required to achieve desired closing speeds, e.g., Fisher part number 64R /1041930. For larger actuators, a needle valve with greater free flowing capacity may be required to achieve desired closing speeds. Company Name Palmstiernas Mekaniska Verstad Fisher (Emerson Electric Co.) Automatic Switch Co. (Emerson Electric Co.) Internet Site http://www.pmvusa.com http://www.emersonprocess.com/fisher/index.html http://www.ascoswitch.com

Supplier PMV Fisher ASCO

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Appendix F Glossary of Definitions


Absolute Pressure. Arithmetic sum of gauge and atmospheric pressures. It must be used in all calculations involving the basic gas laws. Absolute Temperature. Temperature of a body referred to the absolute zero, at which point the volume of an ideal gas theoretically becomes zero. On the Fahrenheit scale, this is -459.67F; on the Celsius scale, it is -273.15C. (Engineering values of -460F and -273C are used herein.) Adiabatic Process. Process during which there is no heat added to or removed from the system. Aftercooling. Cooling of gas in a heat exchanger following the completion of compression to reduce the temperature and liquefy condensable vapors. Compressibility. Property of a gas or a gas mixture that causes it to differ in volume from that of a perfect gas when each is under the same pressure and temperature conditions. Occasionally, it is called deviation. It must be experimentally determined. Compressibility Factor (Z). Ratio of the actual volume of the gas to the volume determined according to the perfect gas law. It is a multiplier of perfect gas volume. Compression Efficiency. Ratio of the theoretical work (using a stated process, e.g., polytropic or isentropic) to the actual work required to be done on the gas for compression and delivery. Expressed as a %, compression efficiency accounts for leakage and fluid friction losses and for thermodynamic variations from the theoretical process. Compression Ratio. Ratio of the absolute discharge to the absolute intake pressure. Compressor Capacity. Quantity of gas actually delivered when operating between specified inlet and discharge pressures. Capacity is a volume measured at the conditions of pressure, temperature, gas composition, and moisture content existing at the compressor inlet flange. Corrosive Gas. Gas that attacks normal materials of construction. Water vapor when mixed with most gases does not make them corrosive within the sense of the above definition. In other gases, CO2, for example, it makes them corrosive. Note: The words "corrosive" and "noncorrosive" are of the relative type. They do not define with exactness and there are differences of degree in the application of these terms. Specifications must make clear what is meant by these terms if they are used. Critical Pressure. Saturation pressure at the critical temperature. It is the highest vapor pressure that the liquid can exert. Critical Temperature. Highest temperature at which a gas can be liquefied. Discharge Pressure. Total gas pressure (static plus velocity) at the discharge flange of the compressor. Note: Pressure may be expressed as gauge or absolute pressures: psig plus atmospheric pressure equals psia. Note: psig does not define a pressure unless the barometric pressure (atmospheric) is also stated. Discharge Temperature. Temperature existing at the discharge flange of the compressor. Note: In a multi-body compressor, the various bodies will have differing discharge pressures and temperatures. Inlet Pressure. Total pressure (static plus velocity) at the inlet flange of the compressor. Note: Pressure may be expressed as gauge or absolute pressures: psig plus atmospheric pressure equals psia. Note: psig does not define a pressure unless the barometric pressure (atmospheric) is also stated.

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Inlet Temperature. Temperature at the inlet flange of the compressor. Note: In a multi-body compressor, the various bodies may have differing inlet temperatures. Irreversible Process. Process in which a portion of the original system energy is dissipated and cannot be returned to the system through its own operation. The system and/or surroundings cannot be returned to their original state. Isentropic Head. The work required to compress a unit mass of gas in an isentropic compression process from the inlet pressure and temperature to the discharge pressure. Isentropic Process. Process wherein the entropy remains constant. This is a reversible process. Isothermal Process. Process in which there is no change in temperature. Polytropic Head. The reversible work required to compress a unit mass of the gas in a polytropic compression process. Polytropic Process. Process in which changes in gas characteristics during compression are considered. Process. Occurs whenever the system undergoes either a change in state or an energy transfer at a steady state. Psychrometry. Study of the properties of airwater vapor mixtures in the atmosphere. Ratio of Specific Heats. Ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume. It may vary considerably with pressure and temperature. Reduced Pressure. Ratio of the actual absolute gas pressure to the absolute critical pressure. Reduced Temperature. Ratio in absolute units of the actual gas temperature to the critical temperature.

Reversible Process. Ideal process that may be stopped and made to retrace its steps and restore to the system or surroundings all work and heat previously removed. It is frictionless. Specific Gravity. Ratio of the density of a given gas to the density of dry air, both measured at the same specified conditions of temperature and pressure, usually 14.696 psia and 60F. It should also take into account any compressibility deviation from a perfect gas. Note: Deviation is not accurately known for all gases, particularly certain hydrocarbons. Specific Heat (Heat Capacity). Rate of change in enthalpy with temperature. It is commonly measured at constant pressure or at constant volume. The values are different and are known as Cp and Cv, respectively. Standard Conditions. Unless specifically stated otherwise, standard conditions are: Pressure. 14.696 psia Temperature: 60F Suction Pressure. Absolute static pressure prevailing at the suction of the ejector. Super Compressibility. Used with various meanings, most frequently the same as compressibility, although this is not assured. A current ASME Power Test Code uses it as a ratio of gas densities rather than volumes; in this case, therefore, it is 1/Z. Super compressibility should never be used unless its meaning is clarified completely. Compressibility is much to be preferred and is used herein. Surge. Reversal of flow within a dynamic compressor that takes place when the capacity being handled is reduced to a point where insufficient pressure is being generated to maintain flow. Turndown. Also referred to as rangeability. A measure of the range of flows through a device, expressed as a ratio.

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FOR MORE INFORMATION Telephone: (+1) 619-544-5352 Telefax: (+1) 619-544-2633 Internet: www.solarturbines.com

Solar Turbines Incorporated P.O. Box 85376 San Diego, CA 92186-5376 U.S.A.

SPGCCS/203