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RED TACTON

HUMAN AREA NETWORK USING HUMAN BODY AS A SIGNAL PATH REDTACTON

ABSTRACT:
Does the idea of using your body as a data transmission appeal to u? Then this paper will surely grab your attention. Te hnology is ma!ing many things easier" # an say that our on ept is standing e$ample for that. %o far we ha&e seen 'AN (AN)*AN) #NTERNET + many more here is new on ept of ,RED TACTON ,whi h ma!es the human body as a ommuni ation networ! by name .... -AN .-uman Area Networ!/. 0o using on the naturalness )ine&itability and sense of se urity on&eyed by tou hing whi h we all Redta ton 1Red2*armth )T2Tou h )A ton2A tion3whi h ould let

people transfer data to ea h others handhelds by means of handsha!e or a slap on the ba !. 4sing a transmitter embedded in say) a 5DA.5ersonal Digital Assistan e/) Redta ton sends a 6 &olts pulse along the surfa e of body. The human body shunts most of ele tri ity to ground resulting in wea! ele tri field that an be modulated to arry signals .As the re ei&er is lo ated either on another part of the body )the omponents of a hand free handset or in an a 7uaintan e 5DA as it senses modulation in the ele tri field the re ei&er de odes them to re o&er the data) -uman Area Networ! is an important o&er urrent wireless te hnologies su h as 8luetooth be ause users an narrowly limit signal re ipients rather than broad asting to all de&i es within gi&en range. 4sing Redta ton enable de&i es musi from our digital audio player in your po !et would pass through your lothing and shoot o&er your body to headphones in your years. #nstead of fiddling around with the able to onne t your 299:229;9

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RED TACTON digital amera to your omputer you ould transfer pi tures <ust by tou hing the 5C while the amera is around your ne ! and sin e data an pass from one body to another you ould also e$ hange ele troni s business ards by sha!ing hands) trade musi files by dan ing hee! to hee! or swap phone numbers <ust by !issing.

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RED TACTON

INTRODUCTION

HUMAN AREA NETWORK TECHNOLOGY:


-uman area networ! te hnology for ommuni ation between mobile terminals and between terminals that are embedded in the en&ironment has be ome important.when ables are used for ommuni ation between terminals) the routing of the ables is learly in on&enient .*hen &ery wea! radio signals are used for the ommuni ation) data speeds are redu ed by pa !et ollision and other su h problems in rowded pla es su h as e$hibition sites and se urity ris! from unwanted signal inter eption is another problem.Te hnology for sol&ing su h problems in ludes the use of the person=s body as a signal path for ommuni ation. A transmission path is formed automati ally when a person omes into onta t with a de&i e and

ommuni ation between mobile terminals begins. -ere) the human body a ts as a transmission medium supporting #EEE >92.? half2duple$ ommuni ation at ;9(bit@s.

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RED TACTON

4bi7uitous ser&i es that are genuinely user2friendly to e&eryone will re7uire te hnologies that enable Communi ation between people and ob<e ts in lose

pro$imity.0o using on the naturalness) ine&itability and sense of se urity on&eyed by tou hing in e&eryday life) this arti le des ribes human area net2wor!ing te hnology that enables ommuni ation by tou hing) whi h we all RedTa ton.

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WHAT IS REDTACTON?
RED A *AR(T-

T 2 TO4CACTON 2 ACT#ON RedTa ton is a new -uman Area Networ!ing te hnology that uses the surfa e of the human body as a safe) high speed networ! transmission path. RedTa ton uses the minute ele tri fieldemitted on the surfa e of the human body. Te hni ally) it is ompletely distin t from wireless and infrared.

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RED TACTON A transmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body omes in onta t with a RedTa ton trans ei&er. 5hysi ally separating ends the onta t and thus ends ommuni ation. 4sing RedTa ton) ommuni ation starts when terminals arried by the user or embedded in de&i es are lin!ed in &arious ombinations a ording to the userBs natural) physi al mo&ements. Communi ation is possible using any body surfa es) su h as the hands) fingers) arms) feet) fa e) legs or torso. RedTa ton wor!s through shoes and lothing as well.

HOW REDTACTON WORKS?


RedTa ton an a hie&e duple$ ommuni ation o&er the human body at a ma$imum speed of ;9 (bps.

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The RedTa ton transmitter indu es a wea! ele tri field on the surfa e of the body. The ele tri field sensor .transistor or photoni ele tri field sensor/ dete ts ele tri field that rea hes the RedTa ton re ei&er. %ignals are pro essed in the re ei&er ir uit and the data is downloaded.

Today people an ommuni ate anytime) anywhere) and with anyone o&er a ellul ar phone networ!. (oreo&er) the #nternet lets people download immense 7uantities of data from remotely lo ated ser&ers to their home omputers. Essentially) these two te hnologies enable ommuni ations between terminals lo ated at a distan e from ea h other. (eanwhile) all

!inds of ele troni de&i es in luding personal digital assistants .5DAs/) po !et &ideo games) and digital ameras are be oming smaller) so people an arry around or e&en wear &arious personal information and ommuni ation applian es during their

e&eryday a ti&ities. -owe&er) user2friendly ubi7uitous ser&i es in&ol&e more than <ust 299:229;9

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RED TACTON networ!ing between remotely lo ated terminals. Communi ation between ele troni de&i es on the human body .wearable omputers / and ones embedded in our

e&eryday en&ironments su h as illustrated in Fig. 1 is also riti al) so this has dri&en e$tensi&e resear h and de&elopment on human area networ!s. *ired onne tions between ele troni de&i es in human area networ!s are umbersome and an easily be ome entangled. %hort2range wireless ommuni ation systems su h as 8luetooth and wirel ess lo al area networ!s .#EEE >92.;;b) et ./ ha&e some problems. Throughput is redu ed by pa !et ollisions in rowded spa es su h as meeting rooms and auditoriums filled with people and ommuni ation is not se ure be ause signals an be inter epted. The prin iple drawba ! of infrared ommuni ations .#rDA/ is the tight dire tionality of beams between terminals needed for the system to be effe ti&e.

The ultimate human area networ! solution to all these onstraints of on&entional te hnologies is ,intrabodyC ommuni ation) in whi h the human body ser&es as the transmission medium. #n ubi7uitous ser&i esb .whi h imply ommuni ation between

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RED TACTON ele troni de&i es embedded in the en&ironment in lose pro$imity to people/) if we ould use the human body itself as a transmission medium) then this would be an ideal way of implementing human area networ!s be ause it would sol&e at a stro!e all the problems in luding throughput redu tion) low se urity)and high net 2wor! setup osts. The on ept of intrabody ommuni ation) whi huses the minute ele tri field

propagated by the human body to transmit information) was first proposed by #8(. The ommuni ation me hanism has subse7uently been e&aluated and reported by se&eral resear h groups around the world. -owe&er) all those reported te hnologies had two limitationsD ;/ the operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of entimeters and 2/ the top ommuni ation speed was only E9!bit@s. These

limitations arise from the use of an ele tri al sensor for the re ei&er. An ele tri al sensor re7uires two lines .a signal line and a ground line/) whereas in intrabody ommuni ation there is

essentially only one signal line) i.e.) the body itself) whi h leads to an unbalan ed transmission line) so the signal is not transmitted orre tly.

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PRINCIPLE OF REDTACTON

NTT has had e$ ellent su ess with an ele tro2opti sensor ombining an ele troopti rystal with laser light and re ently reported an appli ation of this sensor for measuring high2fre7uen y ele troni de&i es 123) 1?3. The ele tro2opti sensor has three !ey featuresD .;/ it an measure ele tri fields from a de&i e under test .D4T/ without onta ting it) whi h minimiFes measurement disturban e) .2/ ultrawide2band

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RED TACTON measurement is possible) and .?/ it supports one2point onta t measurement that is independent of the ground) whi h is the most signifi ant feature in the present onte$t. NTT utiliFed this third feature to fabri ate an intrabody ommuni ation re ei&er for its human area networ!ing te hnology) whi h is alled RedTa tonG. The operating

prin iple of RedTa ton is illustrated in Fig. 2. The ele tri field indu ed toward the body by the transmitter=s signal ele trode is represented by Ea. The system re7uires a ground lose to the transmitter signal ele trode) so ele tri field Eb indu ed from the body an follow a return path to the transmitter ground.

(oreo&er) sin e people are usually standing on a floor or the ground) ele tri field E es apes from the body to ground) mainly from the feet. The ele tri field Es that rea hes the re ei&er is Es H EaA .EbI E /. #t ouples to the ele tro2opti rystal and

hanges the rystal=s opti al properties. This hange is dete ted by laser light and transformed into digital data by a dete tor ir uit.

THREE FUNCTIONALITIES OF REDTACTON:


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RED TACTON

Tou h 8roadband and #ntera ti&e Any media

TO4C-#NJD Communi ation with <ust a step or a tou h Tou hing) gripping) sitting) wal!ing) stepping and other human mo&ements an be the triggers for unlo !ing or lo !ing) starting or stopping e7uipment) or obtaining data.

4sing RedTa ton) ommuni ation starts when terminals arried by the user or embedded in de&i es are lin!ed in &arious ombinations through physi al onta t a ording to the humanBs natural mo&ements.

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8ROAD8AND AND #NTERACT#KED 8andwidth does not deteriorate e&en with duple$ operation and simultaneous a ess by many usersL

Duple$) intera ti&e ommuni ation is possible at a ma$imum speed of ;9(bpsG. 8e ause the transmission path is on the surfa e of the body) transmission speed does not deteriorate in ongested areas where many people are ommuni ating at the same time.

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RED TACTON (a$imum ommuni ation speed may be slower than ;9(bps depending on the usage en&ironment. Ta!ing ad&antage of this speed) de&i e dri&ers an be downloaded instantly and e$e ute programs an be sent.

ANM (ED#AD *or!s with many transmission media ommon in human lifeL #n addition to the human body) &arious ondu tors and diele tri s an be used as transmission media. Condu tors and diele tri s may also be used in ombination. A ommuni ation en&ironment an be reated easily and at low2 ost by using items lose at hand) su h as des!s) walls) and metal ob<e ts. There are limitations on the length of the ondu tor to be propagated) on installation lo ations) and on the

thi !ness of the diele tri to be passed through.

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COMPARISION WITH OTHER NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES:

The

hart below shows the positioning of RedTa ton with respe t to e$isting

ommuni ation te hnologies. The fo us on ubi7uitous ser&i e has brought about the shortening of distan es in ommuni ation. RedTa ton is positioned as the last ;m 299:229;9

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RED TACTON solution to ultimate lose2range ommuni ation. *ireless ommuni ation reates

onne tions when signals arri&e) allowing for easy onne tions be ause onne tors are unne essary. -owe&er) seen from another aspe t) the arri&ing signals an be inter epted) so se urity be omes an issue. *ired between two ommuni ation transmits data an be

onne tion points) so inter eption is diffi ult and se urity

onsidered to be high. -owe&er) onne tors and ables are a nuisan e. Ta!ing the abo&e points in a ount) RedTa ton is situated dire tly between wireless and wired ommuni ation. #n other words) RedTa ton allows for easy onne tion without

onne tors) while at the same time allowing transmission of data only between two onta t points. #t thus has the feature of being diffi ult to inter ept.

REDTACTON RECEIVER
Fig !" # shows a photograph of the RedTa ton trans ei&er onne ted to a 5DA and a blo ! diagram of the Red2 Ta ton trans ei&er 163 de&eloped by NTT. The transmitter onsists of a transmitter ir uit that indu es ele tri fields towards the body and a data sense ir uit) whi h distinguishes transmiting and re ei&ing modes by dete ting both transmission and re eption data 0ig. E. E$perimental setup for intrabody ommuni ation. and outputs ontrol signals orresponding to the two modes to enable two2way ommuni ation. *e implemented a re ei&e2first half2duple$ ommuni ation

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RED TACTON s heme that sends only after he !ing to ma!e sure that there is no data to re ei&e in order to a&oid pa !et ollisions between terminals in omplian e with the #EEE >92.? proto ol. The re ei&er onsists of an ele tro2opti sensor and a dete tor ir uit that amplifies the minute in oming signal from the ele troopti sensor and on&erts it to ele tri al signal. *e ondu ted a series of trials in whi h data was sent through human bodies using RedTa ton trans ei&ers. The e$perimental setup for intrabody ommuni ation assuming ommuni ation between twoele troni de&i es .5DAs/ is shown in Fig. $

0ig E *e prepared two sets of RedTa ton trans ei&ers) ea h onne ted to a 5DA. The sub<e t held one transmitting@ re ei&ing ele trode in ea h hand. *e 7uantitati&ely measured the bit error rates of signals sent through the body. The results showed that the system had no signifi ant pra ti al problems at a transmission speed of ;9 (bit@s. 8esides ommuni ation between two hands) we also demonstrated reliable ommuni ation between a foot and finger and between other lo ations on the person=s body. *e also &erified that good ommuni ation was a hie&ed not only when the le trodes 299:229;9

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RED TACTON were in dire t onta t with the person=s s!in) but also when the signals passed through lothing and shoes.

HUMAN SAFETY:

*e in&estigated the effe ts of RedTa ton te hnology on human health) whi h is ob&iously an important issue. 0irst) as shown in 0ig. ?) the transmitting and re ei&ing ele trodes of the RedTa ton trans ei&er are ompletely o&ered with insulating film) so the body of the person a ting as the transmission medium is ompletely insulated. This ma!es it impossible for urrent to flow into a person=s body from the trans ei&er .

*hen ommuni ation o urs) displa ement urrent is generated by the ele trons in the body be ause the body is sub<e ted to minute ele tri al fields. -owe&er) su h displa ement urrents are &ery ommon e&eryday o urren es to whi h we are all sub<e ted. RedTa ton onforms to the ,Radio 0re7uen y2E$posure 5rote tion

%tandard .RCR %TD2?>/C 1:3 issued by the Asso iation of Radio #ndustries and

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RED TACTON 8usinesses .AR#8/. The le&els produ ed by RedTa ton are well below the safety limit spe ified by this standard.

APPLICATIONS

There are fi&e ma<or appli ations of the REDTACTON te hnology.

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RED TACTON One2to2one %er&i es #ntuiti&e Operation 5ersonaliFation New 8eha&ior 5atterns %e urity appli ations

o Communi ations between de&i es on the same person. .No ord between the earphones and de&i e) Elimination of -uman Error/ o Communi ation between de&i es on different persons. .e$ hange ele troni business ards by sha!ing hands/

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RED TACTON o Communi ation from a de&i e on a person to the de&i e embedded in the en&ironment. .Authenti ation is performed by reading the #D when we wal! through the gate) %e urity Appli ations/ o Communi ation from a de&i e embedded in the en&ironment to a de&i e on a person) .-ere musi or des ription by standing in front of an e$hibit/ o Communi ation between the de&i es mediated by the ondu tor in the onferen e system.

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CONCLUSION

This te hnology definitely stands out with perfe tion) when transfer of data is fast) feasible and more importantly reliable. %o) in few years from now e&erything is going to fall under this super te hnology. And) finally # on lude) %FUTURE BELONGS TO RED TACTON&

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

'(():**+++.!",(-.(/0../1*"0*i0,"2.'(13 '(():**+++.0((../.4)*0"+5*0"+567"*6762*676218.'(13 '(():**"0.+i9i)",i-./!g*+i9i*R",T-.(/0 '(():**+++.0((../.4)*RD*OFIS*-.(i:"*2667),;"*),;*'<.(62<".),; '(():**+++.(-i)"i(i1"5../1*N"+5*=i>*-!.'i:"5*2667*6#*26*266#2$?6?@ '(():**+++.)'A5/!g../1*0"+5#17#.'(13

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