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friction details

friction details

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Block of weight W placed on horizontal surface. Forces acting on block are its weight and reaction of surface N. Small horizontal force P applied to block. For block to remain stationary, in equilibrium, a horizontal component F of the surface reaction is required. F is a static-friction force. As P increases, the static-friction force F increases as well until it reaches a maximum value Fm. Fm = s N Further increase in P causes the block to begin to move as F drops to a smaller kinetic-friction force Fk. Fk = k N

.

8-1

The Laws of Dry Friction. Coefficients of Friction

Four situations can occur when a rigid body is in contact with a horizontal surface:

No friction, (Px = 0)

8-2

Angles of Friction

It is sometimes convenient to replace normal force N and friction force F by their resultant R:

No friction

No motion

Fm s N tan s = = N N tan s = s

Motion impending

Motion

Fk k N tan k = = N N tan k = k

8-3

Angles of Friction

Consider block of weight W resting on board with variable inclination angle .

No friction

No motion

Motion impending

Motion

8-4

Problems Involving Dry Friction

All applied forces known Coefficient of static friction is known Determine whether body will remain at rest or slide

Motion is impending Determine value of coefficient Determine magnitude or of static friction. direction of one of the applied forces

8-5

Sample Problem

SOLUTION: Determine values of friction force and normal reaction force from plane required to maintain equilibrium. Calculate maximum friction force and compare with friction force required for equilibrium. If it is greater, block will not slide. A 100 lb force acts as shown on a 300 lb block placed on an inclined plane. The coefficients of friction between the block and plane are s = 0.25 and k = 0.20. Determine whether the block is in equilibrium and find the value of the friction force.

.

If maximum friction force is less than friction force required for equilibrium, block will slide. Calculate kinetic-friction force.

8-6

Sample Problem

SOLUTION: Determine values of friction force and normal reaction force from plane required to maintain equilibrium.

Fx = 0 :

Fy = 0 :

3 (300 lb ) F = 0 100 lb - 5

F = 80 lb

4 (300 lb ) = 0 N-5

N = 240 lb Calculate maximum friction force and compare with friction force required for equilibrium. If it is greater, block will not slide. Fm = s N Fm = 0.25(240 lb ) = 48 lb

.

8-7

Sample Problem

If maximum friction force is less than friction force required for equilibrium, block will slide. Calculate kinetic-friction force.

Factual = Fk = k N = 0.20(240 lb )

Factual = 48 lb

8-8

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