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Teaching vocabulary should be product ( i.e the mastrey of vocabulary items by students ) and process ( i.

e the ability to find the meaning of unfamiliar words and to expand vocabulary mastery. Beloww are variouse techniques for expanding, impreting and memorizing English vocabulary ( Fachrurrazy, 2004 : 29 31 ) Techniques for vocabulary expansion : Ask students to use their dictionary ( e.g. to find the meaning of certain word or to clarify the confusing words, such as rise raise. lie lay ) Assign students to find synonyms and / or antonyms of certain words. Give exercise on expanding the words by adding inflectional / derivational affixes or by word compounding ( e.g act actor actress action active in active activity activeness, etc. ) Use collocation / word association ( e.g from the word marriage, students are asked to find related word such as engagement, edding, honey,-moon, divorce, etc. ) Use close procedure, i.e students are asked to fill in the blanks ( completion ) witth the words they think are right. Use anagram ( i.e constructing words from the given letters ). For instance students are asked to find as many word as possible from the letter f g h t i ( e.g fight, hit, gift, fit ) Use jumbled words ( i.e rearranging letters to meaningful words ), e.g drea ( =read ), lpecni ( =pencil ). Constructing a pyramid of words, e.g starting with S : so, son, sand, stand, scream, strange, straight, satiesfied, etc. Where the numbers of letters in the words become more and more. Inroduce with series ( e.g one, two, three, etc ), scales ( e.g centimeter, meter, kilometer, etc ), system ( e.g family tree ) Use puzzle or mystery picture. Puzzle can be in the form of cross word puzzle or a puzzle such as your aunt has abrother, bet hei not yor uncle. Who is he ? or can s kangoroo jump higher than the Empire State building? Use analogy, e.g father is to son as mother is to __________ Techniques for vocabulary interpretation Ask the students to use their dictionary to find meaning of certain words. Students should also be taught to select the appropriate meaning of the word based on the context. Train the students to analyze words, e.g the words biology comes from bio ( = life ) logy ( = study ), telephone comes from tele ( = distance ) + phone ( = sound )

Use real object, realia ( toys ), pictures or demonstration to show the meanings of words. Guess from context : Definition (e.g prestidigator, who entertains children by producing a handkerchief from his mouth ) Experience (e.g a cat silently approached a mouse. When it was near enough, it stopped for a moment and the suddenly pounced at the mouse ). Contrast (e.g the problem seemed to be very difficult for the students, burt according to the teacher it was trivial ) Inference (e.g the secret of making silk was first discovered in China, and was jealousy guarded for thousand of years ) Techniques for memorizing new vocabulary : Try to memorize the meanings of 2 to 5 words a day Open your dictuionary, find certain words you like and memorize them. Use differnt places ( e.g bedroom, library, recreation place ) or different times ( early morning, afternoon, evening ) to do memorization. Keep a pocket note containing new vocabulary and read it in your spare time. Write the new vocabulary items and their meanings on a piece of paper, and then put the paper on the wall in your room. Chane the paper when you already memorize them. Read aloud the words you want to memorize several times until you remember them. Name everthing you find or see ( at home, at school, along the way, etc ). In English. Think in English. And the various activities can be used for teaching grammar ( Fachrurrazy, 2004 : 26 28 ) they are follows : Using deductive procedure, i.e introducing the rule or formula, giving examples and then doing exercise , e.g : Rule : Subject + BE + Noun Example : I am a student He is a teacher You area doctor Exercise : She ________ a secretary _______ are farmers I am a ________ Using inductive procedure, i.e giving example first, followed by doing exercise, and then making generalization / rule. The rule is expected to be discoverd by students. The teacher leads them to find the rule. This procedure this often called discovery learning.

Doing a form-focused activity for reinforcing a certain point of grammar. For example, if we want to focus on simple present tense, ask to the students to write or talk about their daily activities, which automatically use tense. Using EGRA/U procedure, i.e following the oerder from giving experience/exposure/exmple, drawing generalization, giving reinforcement / exercise, and then asking the student for apply / use. Using PGR procedure, i.e practice, generalization and reinforcement ( exercise ). This procedure is more appropriate for a short, easy or simple topic. Using TRP procedure, i.e testing, revision and practice. The prosedure is used for review and diagnostic purposes. Using mechanical drills, e.g repitition, simple substitution, multiple substitution, correlation drill, vocabulary that force a change, transformation drill, joining sentences and expression drill. Two examples are presented below. Simple substitution drill : Teacher : He is a student Student : He is a student Teacher : a teacher Student : He is teacher Teacher : a doctor Student : He is a doctor Substitution in variable position : Teacher : He goes to school on foot Student : He goes to school on foot Teacher : We Student : we go to school on foot Teacher : by bike Student : we go to school by bike Teacher : to the museum Student : We go to the museum by bike Using meaningful drill with visual aids, e.g relia, real object, pictures, index cars, symbols, words, e.g : Teacher : ( pointing to a book ) I have book Students : I have a book Teacher : ( point to a pencil ) Student : I have pencil Teacher : ( point to a ruler ) Student : I have a ruler Using meaningful drill with situational context, e.g. classroom context, role-play, imaginary/fantasy context, e.g. : Teacher : please ask him his address Student : where do tou life ? Teacher : I live in _______

Using meaningful drill in the term of conservation, i.e question answer or stimulus response, e.g : Teacher : what time is it ? Student : its __________ ( e.g half past eight ) Teacher : Its very warm in this room Student : _________ ( e.g shall I open the window ) Other activities for grammar exercise can be completion, matching, true-false, multiple choise, or grammar composotion. In line with statement before that fluency of expressing ideas is difficult to define but that more important mastering the three components of speaking ability above, they are pronunciation, vocabulary and grmmar. So in teaching the fluency of expressing idea can be used combination the activities among three components above that matched based on the topic, situation and student need that includes ask the student to practice, demonstration and presentation in English by individual, a pairs of group or grouping. Furthemore, activities which can be done for teaching speaking skill, ( Sadtono, 1983 as quoted by Fachrurrazy, 2004 11 -12 ) are as follows : Student practice fixed phrase ( formulae ). This is an exercise and using fixed phrase, such as those used for meeting, introduction, parting, etc. Some example of the phrases are : Hi, how are you ? How do you do?, See you again ? etc. Students practise / make a dialogue. In this student are given an example of a dialogue may be modified or improvised. Student play a game various game can be used for speaking activities, e.g twenty question ( guessing game ). Students perform a skill or playlete. These are short plays, which last for five or ten minutes, or interesting events, which can be prepared before. Student conduct a role-play, e.g your money is left at home when you want to pay the bill in a restaurant. Improvization is important in role-play. Student just given an idea and then let them create the utterances. Student report the result of a task of constructing a story ( strp story ). Here teacher can prepare several text, and each is cut into sentences. Each set is given to a group who will rearrange the sentences into a correct story. Every group is asked to report their ask.

Student use pictures, comic strips, news or video for making description or discussions. Studend solve a problem set / prepared by the teacher. The problem can be concrete one such as discussing how to open a locked door, or and abstract one such as finding a solution of a problem in a readres letter from magazine or newspaper Student conduct a class discussion, seminar, or debate on a cetrain topic. These activies the require high mastery of English and therefore are more appropriate for post intermediated or advanced level. Student deliver a speech in an imaginary event. It can be a formal on informal speech, such as welcoming ceremony, farewell party, birthday party, introducing a speaker, wedding ceremony, or sermons. Students perform a drama, although drma basicallay memorazation, there is still a kind of exercise and pronuntiation, stress intonation. Students discuss a plan ( group dynamic ) e.g. Planing a study tour. Some principles to keep when conducting speaking activities ( Sadtono, 1983 as quoted by Fachrurrazy, 2004 : 12-13 ) are as follows : Know student interest aspirations, and their language level. Student can speak much when the toipc of speaking is in their interest aspirations, or at their language mastery. Invite a native speaker if possible, because he/she can be model for speaking. Enrich student experience with various speaking concept, e.g. how to present ideas, to conduct a panel discussion or debate. Give cultural background, pragmatics and kinecsis used in target language speaking usually involves facial and emotional expressions, and body movements which are culturally bound. Give a sense of progress to the student. Very often the students feel that they do not get anything from a speaking activity ; whereas they actually gain fluency, concepts of speaking or knowledge of the target culture, which they are not aware of. Do not too much on language and content especially for beginners, the target of speaking is so that the students can speak as much possible therefore let them concentrate on ideas, correct any error wisely later. Encourage spontaneity, for most of speaking activities are spontaneus . Group student based on their ability and interest. This is intended to ensure that each group member can share ideas. Group mixed abilities will create dominant speakers and silent participants. Create relevants situasions for practice ; determine who speaks to whom, where and when.

Use normal language ( i.e speed, pronunciationcontraction or phrasing ). Dont speak to slowly. Dont exaggerate pronunciation. Use contraction when words are normally contracted, e.g use whats your name ? instead what is your name ? use normal phrasing, e.g. when asked whats your name ? answerd John, instead of using a cpmplete sentences my name is John. Introduce dialects, and language styles. English has British, American, Australian, Singaporean dialect. Language styles may consist of frozen style ( e.g. formulation sila-sila of Pancasila, formal style ( which is used and scientific wrting ), consultative style ( which is used by people of differnt status ), casual or informal style ( which is used in infromal communication ), and intimate style ( which used between very close persons ) Match the dialogue with the social status of the speakers. Use small group to maximize students involvement. According ( Fachrurrazy, 2004 : 13 ) themes selected for teaching speaking are suggested to follow the following sequence : 1. Topic on students self, family or friends, e.g. talking about daily activities, or their best friend, there are the easiest for the student because they already own information. 2. Topics or social activities, e.g. talking about a trip to tourism object. 3. Topic on culture, custom, or tradition, e.g. talking about tradtinal wedding party. 4. Topics on nature, science, or technology, e.g. talking about the process earthquake, or the strenghts and weakness of computer use, these will be difficult for students because in preparing the talk they to use references such as books, journals, encyclopedias, etc. Form the statement above, to reach the target speaking ability and components of it. There are many possible ways or activities which demand anthusiastic and creative teacher uses special techniques and special design matereials. Thus, the teacher has to be able select materilas and activities which can be interesting and stimulate the students to enthusiastic study English. Certainly, that the must be suitable with students level and students needs. 2.5 Additonal English Conversation Progam At an Islamic Junior High School in Pasuruan.

Additionalation English Conversation Progam At an Islamic Junior High School in Pasuruan has been exited to assist students who have problem in learning English subject at the Junior High School. The activities of it are designed as a complement and support

competency based curicullum and have been specially made in line with the SMP and MTs curricullum. The English activities in the class are compulsary subject given for hour in a week are more guided by English course material which emphasizes on teaching of grmmar that make the students have few opportunities to speak English. In other word, the students have difficulty in learning English conversation that make they rarely speak English. Futhermore, additional English Conversation Progam At an Islamic Junior High School in Pasuruan is an activity which done by a teacher or two teachers and the student as an extra progam and for two hours in meeting to teach class in a week to practice English. The day is suitable with schedule which made by the teacher. In this activity usually talk about one topic or more in every meeting. The topic that discussed are various base on the SMP and MTs curriculum. The activities also include some listening, reading, wrting, such as ; whisper, skits, role-plays, dialogue wrting and improvisation. The place that used to do it is in the class or out the class according to teachers decision. In every meeting, every student must speak English to give respond or expression to what is that discussed. Before doing the activity usually the studentare given the topic that will discuss. It isn in transcript instruction ( form ) or story of a teacher. Thus, in additional English conversation progam the students can train their English. The students who want to improve the their English

usually follow it because they want to increase their English that can make them get something new, for example ; new vocabularies new rules of grammar and pronunciation thay they dont understand before.