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# D 218

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2003. Fourth Semester Aeronautical Engineering AE 236 AERODYNAMICS Time : Three hours Answer ALL questions. PART A (10 2 = 20 marks) 1. What is the basic principle involved in the derivation of general momentum equation in fluid mechanics? Define momentum flux and energy flux. How is circulation defined? What is DAlemberts Paradox in Fluid Mechanics? State Kuttas condition for an inviscid flow over an airfoil. What is the application of Joukowskis Transformation to flow problems with respect to airfoils? Distinguish between KarmanTrefftz and von Mises airfoil profiles. What are the main assumptions in thin airfoil theory? Define a lifting line with the help of a neat sketch. What is a horse shoe vortex? PART B (5 16 = 80 marks) 11. (i) Explain the phenomenon wings trailing vortex system with a neat sketch. (4) Derive an expression for lift coefficient in terms of angle of attack, aspect ratio and lift curve slope of a finite wing with elliptic circulation distribution. (12) Maximum : 100 marks

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

(ii)

12.

(a)

(i) (ii)

## What is a doublet flow? What are its characteristics?

(6)

In an infinite field of flow, a doublet of strength 32 m 3/s is placed. Estimate the radii of the resulting circles given by the stream function (m2/s) = 2.1, 3.4, 7.5 and 9.1. When a uniform flow of 13.8 m/s is synthesized with this flow, estimate the radius of the resulting circle for the stagnation stream line = 0. (10) Or

(b)

(i) (ii)

Derive an expression for pressure coefficient for a lifting flow over a cylinder. (12) Explain the following stream functions (m2/s) : (4)

25 x, 30 y, 32 x 24 y, 20 x 2 .
13. (a) (i) (ii) Derive an expression for lift coefficient for a cambered airfoil using thin airfoil theory. (10) Estimate the vortex strength per unit angular distance at an angular position of 32 on a thin symmetric airfoil which faces a free stream of velocity 84 m/s and an angle of attack of 6 . The chord length of the airfoil is 0.12 m. The free stream density can be assumed as 1.21 kg/m3. Estimate circulation, lift per unit span and the lift coefficient of the thin airfoil. (6) Or (b) (i) What are the important characteristics of Joukowski and Carafoli profiles of airfoils? What are the limitations of Joukowskis airfoils? (10) Air at a static pressure of 101325 Pa is moving with a speed of 142.8 m/s. If it is suddenly brought to rest, estimate the new value of pressure. If the initial values of density and temperature are 1.21 kg/m3 and 18 C, estimate the new density and temperature. (6) Explain the concept induced drag. Distinguish between the flow over an airfoil and the flow over a finite wing. (9) What is BiotSavarts Law? What is its importance? What is the application of BiotSavarts Law for Subsonic Wing Theory? (7) Or (b) Derive the integral form of Bernoullis Equation from the steady Eulers equations in partial differential form for incompressible flows. Discuss the applicability of Bernoullis equation for rotational and irrotational flows. (16) 2

(ii)

14.

(a)

(i) (ii)

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15.

(a)

From the fundamental principles and considering the flow through a finite control volume, derive energy equation for unsteady three dimensional flows in partial differential form. (16) Or

(b)

(i) (ii)

Derive an expressions for stream function and velocity potential function for a vortex flow. (8) What is the condition for irrotationality for a fluid flow? Explain your answer with necessary mathematical expressions. (4)

(iii) Define angular velocity and strain rate of a fluid element with neat sketches. (4)

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