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Mass Street District

Urban Design Standards

Support Vibrancy Preserve the Identity Nourish a Sense of Community December, 2013

Mass Street District

Table of Contents
Introduction......3 Moving Forward......4 The Mass Street District.........5 1. Land-Use .........7 2. Density .........9 3. Faades ..........10 4. Environmental ...............13 5. Streetscape ........14 6. Parking .........16 7. Signage.....17 Appendices A. Glossary of Terms.....................19 B. Diagrams........................22 C. District Design Review Boards...................24

Urban Design Standards

Prepared for The City of Lawrence, Kansas December, 2013
Prepared by Matt Buchanan M.U.P. Candidate, May 2014 School of Architecture, Design & Planning University of Kansas

Cover photo provided by Dan Davis, Flickr


Figure A

Downtown Lawrence is defined by its quaint local boutiques and restaurants, walkable treelined streets, live music, art, culture, and historic buildings. This vibrant environment, which has become ardently cherished by Lawrence residents and visitors, is the product of planners abilities to employ unique economic development strategies, secure historical district designations, and write prudent urban design guidelines. In their success of establishing a distinct sense of place, planners have created an environment that may become more difficult to preserve as both population and property demand increase over time. The recent construction of four mid-rise, mixed-use towers and new proposals for two additional mixed-use towers demonstrate increased demand for various types of properties downtown. The pressures to allow new and denser forms of development create several serious questions for planners to address. While the mixture of land uses does not conflict with established downtown uses, the density and design of new development are deviations from traditional forms of development. These changes to the cherished downtown neighborhood are viewed by some residents as dangerous threats to the communitys long established identity. Lawrencians must ask themselves, should future development be strictly controlled to preserve downtown as we know it today? Or should developers be given the flexibility to meet property demand and increase vibrancy? This plan addresses this issue by laying out a clear path forward that protects what Lawrencians love most about their downtown, while also encouraging appropriate new forms of denser development.

Figure B

Figure C

Figure E

Moving Forward
In order to address increased property demand and support vibrancy, denser forms of new development must be allowed in the downtown. The location, aesthetics, and functionality of new development, however, should be controlled in order to preserve the identity that has historically characterized downtown Lawrence. Furthermore, new urban forms should be designed to nurture a sense of community. Therefore, the policies outlined in this plan are aimed to ensure the downtown grows in a manner that strengthens its cherished character.

The scale and aesthetics of Figures B and C are incompatible with the traditional architectural styles and forms depicted in Figures D - J. Photos courtesy of Treanor Architects (B, C); Dan Davis, Flickr (D); and the University of Kansas (E).

Figure D

Defining the Mass Street District

This Mass Street District (Map A) will comprise the entire downtown footprint as we know it today, as well as expand into some residential areas west of Kentucky Street and south surrounding South Park. The boundaries for this design overlay district were drawn to better manage the environs of the downtown historic district. All future development and building modifications within the design overlay district will be subject to density and design policies that conform and complement to the contributing properties of the historic district. The districts expansion into nearby residential areas will allow for the controlled and gradual redevelopment of certain properties into more intense uses, whether multi-family residential, office, retail, or mixed uses.

Figure F Photo courtesy of Colleen Prohaska

Map A

The Mass Street District

.125 M i .25 M i

Figure G

Figure H







New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island

Figures G - J illustrate the general characteristics that define the Mass Street District identity which should guide future development Photographs courtesy of Neil1960, Flickr (G); Colleen Prohaska (H, I) and Bob Travaglione (J)

Figure I

Figure J





New York


1. Land-Use
Goal 1.1: Mixed-Uses Promote a viable mix of uses that promote living, working, and playing. Policy 1.1.1: Properties shall be used according to the land-uses permitted in Map 1.
Figure 1.2

Policy 1.1.2: Mixed-use development shall provide office or retail space on the ground level, and either multi-family residential, office, or retail space on all upper levels. Goal 1.2: Intensity Minimize any adverse impacts that development or redevelopment may have on single-family residential neighborhoods surrounding the downtown. Policy 1.2.1: High intensity (greater than 5:1 FAR) commercial or mixed-uses shall be buffered by lower intensity (1.25:1 or lower FAR) uses such as green spaces, low intensity commercial or medium intensity multi-family residential uses.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.3

Goal 1.3: Downtown Living Encourage a growing and diverse downtown residential population. Policy 1.3.1: All future development in the district that exceeds an FAR of 4:1 must comprise at least 50 percent multi-family usage. Policy 1.3.2: All future development in the district that exceeds an FAR of 6:1 must comprise at least 50 percent multi-family usage, 50 percent of which must be dedicated as affordable housing. Goal 1.4: Green Space Preserve existing green spaces. Policy 1.4.1: Green spaces delineated in Map 1 of this plan shall be preserved as such, and shall continue to be used for public recreational purposes.

Appropriate Land-Uses Photographs courtesy of the University of Nebraska (1.1); Fanshare.com (1.2); Auntie Zooie, Flickr (1.3); and The Times Union (1.4).

Figure 1.4

Map 1

Mass Street District

Single-Family Residential Single-Family or Multi-Family Residential

Future Land-Use Map

Map 2

Mass Street District Future

FAR & Lot Coverage Map


Mixed-Use Retail, Office and/or Multi-Family Residential Office or Retail Green Space Institutional Mass Street District Boundary




New Hampshire

.125 Mi .25 Mi


Rhode Island





New York


Figure 2.1

2. Density
Goal 2.1: Cohesive Density Create a cohesive density pattern that ensures structures are comparable in scale with the contributing properties of Lawrences Downtown Historic District. Policy 2.1.1: All structures shall abide by the following minimum and maximum height restrictions, which are tiered based on the allowed FAR delineated by Map 2: a. Structures restricted by a maximum FAR of 0.1:1 shall not exceed one story (12 feet) in height. b. Structures restricted by a maximum FAR of 1.25:1 shall not exceed three stories (36 feet) in height. c. Structures restricted by a maximum FAR of 5:1 shall be at least two stories (24 feet) in height and shall not exceed five stories (60 feet) in height. d. Structures restricted by a maximum FAR of 8:1 shall be at least five stories (60 feet) in height and shall not exceed 10 stories (120 feet) in height. Policy 2.1.2: Maximum building FAR and lot coverage shall abide by the restrictions delineated in Map 2. Policy 2.1.3: Row houses shall be encouraged in residential areas.

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Goal 2.2: Pedestrian Orientated Scale Ensure retail visibility and support pedestrian-scale development Policy 2.2.1: All retail, office, mixed-use or row house propertiesshall directly abut the sidewalk unless to allow for the following: a.Highlight Entrances: A minimumsetbackof four feet from the sidewalk shall be allowed to highlight entrances or to provide wider sidewalks; b.CornerLots: A maximumsetbackof up to 10 feet from the sidewalk on cornerlotsshall be allowed to provide plaza space.

Appropriate Densities Photographs courtesy of Cohodas208c, Flickr (2.1); Chicago Agent Magazine (2.2); and Amy.arch, Flickr (2.3).

Figure 3.1

3. Faades
Goal 3.1: Architectural Integrity Strengthen neighborhood character by preserving or restoring historic properties and ensuring that all future development reflects the districts established design principles. Policy 3.1.1: Alterations or additions to buildings listed as contributing structures of the Lawrence Downtown Historic District shall be conducted following The Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties.

Figure 3.2

Policy 3.1.2: Materials, massing, colors, and detailing of the original structure shall guide the design of additions or alterations of historic structures. Policy 3.1.3: Historic architectural features of historic buildings shall be retained and repaired, rather than removed. If these features are severely damaged, they shall be replaced with features identical in appearance to the original features. Policy 3.1.4: Where buildings within the block face establish regular pattern of windows, floor height, or other building details, new or remodeled buildings shall remain consistent with these regular patterns.

Figure 3.3

Policy 3.1.5: Primary exterior building materials for new construction shall include wood or masonry units (brick, stone, tile, or split face alternate course concrete). If panel materials are used, each panel shall not exceed a maximum of nine square feet. Policy 3.1.6: New infill buildings or exterior renovations shall exhibit only neo-classical architectural features. Goal 3.2: Pedestrian Oriented Windows Ensure retail visibility that supports the pedestrian-scale. Policy 3.2.1: Street level facades, exluding single-family homes, must exhibit a minimum of 60 percent transparent display windows. Upper floor facades shall contain a minimum of 40 percent transparent windows. Windows fronting streets or the riverfront shall use transparent, non-reflective and non-tinted materials. Policy 3.2.2: Windows above the first story shall be vertically proportioned from a 3:2 to 2:1 height to width ratio.

Appropriate Facades Photographs courtesy of Mrs. Mass (3.1, 3.2) and Foutch Bros. (3.3). 10

Figure 3.4

3. Faades (Continued)
Goal 3.3: Pedestrian Orientated Design Present visually interesting architectural features and patterns designed to reduce mass and scale. Policy 3.3.1: All faades must have a recognizable "base" consisting of (but not limited to): a. thicker walls, ledges or sills; b. integrally textured, colored, and patterned materials d. lighter or darker colored materials, mullions or panels; e. cornices/caps f. planters; g. plinth treatments; h. commercial property bases shall have display windows which abide by Policy: 3.2.1. Policy 3.3.2: All faades of buildings greater than four stories in height must have a recognizable "middle" consisting of (but not limited to): a. Building middle cap; b. integrally textured materials which differentiate from the base and top; c. integrally colored and patterned materials which differentiate from the base and top; d. lighter or darker colored material that differentiate from the base and top; e. windows which contrast from the base through exposed lintels, sills, shape, and proportions. Overall wall composition within for Building Middles shall contain at least 30%, but no more than 60% glazing. A vertical proportion of window panes or window openings (3:2 to 2:1 height: width ratio) shall be used.

Figure 3.5

Appropriate Facades Photographs courtesy of Planetware.com (3.4) and St. Joseph, Missouri, Flickr (3.5).

Policy 3.3.3: All faades must have a recognizable "top" consisting of (but not limited to): a. cornice treatments, other than colored "stripes" or "bands" alone, with integrally textured materials b. sloping roof with overhangs and brackets; c. stepped parapets. Policy 3.3.4: Large areas of blank wall shall be avoided by design accents such as windows, panels, pilasters, trellises, murals or other faade articulations which will reduce the overall scale appearance.

3. Faades


Policy 3.3.5: Awnings that overhang windows or entries on street level facades shall be constructed of canvas or heavy cloth, utilizing neutral colors. Goal 3.4: Building Materials Buildings should be made of high-quality and attractive materials Policy 3.4.1: All building sides, visible from primary and secondary streets must include materials and design characteristics consistent with those on the front. Use of inferior or lesser quality materials for side facades is not permitted. Policy 3.4.2: Allowed faade building materials include: brick (traditional red-clay colors), stone, stucco, and nonreflective glass (cumulative surface area of less than 40 percent of all exterior walls). The following materials are expressly prohibited: vinyl siding, reflective glass, asphalt siding, aluminum lap siding, wood siding, corrugated metal, and siding grade plywood. Policy 3.4.3: The design of accessory buildings shall reflect and coordinate with the general style of architecture inherent in the primary structure for the proposed development.

Appropriate Facades Photographs courtesy of St. Joseph, Missouri CVB, Flickr (3.5); Activerain. com (3.6); and Neal1960, Flickr (3.7).

Figure 3.6 12

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.8

Figure 4.1

4. Environmental
Goal 4.1: Shadows Adverse shadow effects caused by multi-story properties should be mitigated to ensure adequate sunlight. Policy 4.1.1: A preliminary shadow analysis conducted by a neutral third party consultant shall be required for all proposed development greater than 45 tall. This analysis shall be considered by the districts design review board to better determine if shadows cast upon adjacent properties or public areas pose an unacceptable detriment. Policy 4.1.2: Shadowing shall not be allowed to adversely impact single-family residential districts or green spaces delineated by Map 2.2. Adverse impacts shall be determined by a shadow analysis conducted by a neutral third party consultant. Goal 4.2: Sustainability Construct an environmentally sustainable built environment. Policy 4.2.1: Parking structures with open top decks shall integrate photovoltaic panels and/or roof gardens to capture storm water runoff. Policy 4.2.2: Buildings shall be permitted to integrate photovoltaic panels and/or roof gardens to capture storm water runoff. Policy 4.2.3: Photovoltaic panels must not be visible from the street.

Figure 4.2 Appropriate Environmental Features Photographs courtesy of Transition Norwich (4.1), and Washington & Lee University (4.2). 13

5. Streetscape
Goal 5.1: Pedestrian Oriented Layout Ensure a walkable, pedestrian oriented environment Policy 5.1.1: A building or permitted projection may project over the required sidewalk easement above a height of 40 and below a depth of 5 to accommodate street trees. Policy 5.1.2: Streetscapes shall provide a minimum 6 wide continuous path of travel and 18-24 wide access zone next to the curb, which includes a 6 curb and 12 wide granite or brick edge band adjacent to the back of curb. Policy 5.1.3 Streetscapes in commercial or mixed-use zoned areas shall provide a minimum 10 wide continuous path of travel and 18-24 wide access zone next to the curb, which includes a 6 curb and 12 wide brick edge band adjacent to the back of curb. Policy 5.1.4: All pedestrian level lighting shall be no higher than 15 and down-lit. Light poles shall be in a historical style light standard to be selected by the district design review board. Policy 5.1.5: Street trees shall be provided on all streets (except on alleys) and shall be planted approximately 3 ft. behind the curb line. Spacing should be an average of no more than 30 ft. on center (measured per block face). The minimum caliper size for each tree should be 3 in. and a minimum of 12 ft. in height at planting. Species selected should be native, drought and disease tolerant.
Appropriate Streetscapes Photographs courtesy of The University of Kansas, Flickr (5.1) and Yelp.com, Flickr (5.2).

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2 14

Figure 5.3

5. Streetscape (Continued)
Goal 5.14: Pedestrian Amenities Encourage street level activity that embraces art, culture, and entertainment. Policy 5.2.1: Space for outdoor dining, retail, or live music may occur on any portion of the paved sidewalk provided a minimum 6 wide continuous path of travel is maintained. Policy 5.2.2: Bulb-outs shall be provided on every street corner on Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire streets between 6th and North Park streets. Bulb-outs must provide space for sculpture or water feature, trash receptacles, lighting, bike racks, and planters with ledge seating (8 person minimum capacity). Policy 5.2.3: Space for seating shall be provided no more than every 30 ft. on center (measured per block face)on Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire streets between 6th and North Park streets. Each block face shall provide seating capacity for at least 25 people, including bulb-out seating. Seating may be provided by benches, planter ledges, fountain ledges, or street sculpture. Policy 5.2.4: Street art shall be permitted provided a minimum 6 wide continuous path of travel is maintained and the street art is approved by the district design review board. Appropriate Streetscapes The vibrancy captured in Figures 5.1 and 5.3 should be replicated along Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire streets between 6th and North Park streets. This may be achieved through providing ample seating, space for outdoor dining, street performers, art, and bike/ped amenities. Figures 5.6 through 5.7 should be used as a guide for streetscape development along the aforementioned streets. Photos courtesy of Neal1960, Flickr (5.3); South Bay Realty Pro (5.4); and Alloveralbany.com (5.5).

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.5

6. Parking
Goal 6.1: Parking Arrangements Provide ample on-street and off-street parking in places that limit visibility and congestion as not to undermine the pedestrian experience. Policy 6.1.1: Surface lots are prohibited except for residential properties (not mixed-use) with fewer than 25 dwelling units. Policy 6.1.2: Except for on-street parking and the minimum ground-level frontage required for access to garages and loading, no parking or loading shall be visible on the ground floor of any building faade that faces a retail street. Parking structures shall provide habitable floor area along all retail street frontages. Policy 6.1.3: Parking, loading or circulation located above the ground floor shall be lined by habitable floor area along all street frontages. If the project developer demonstrates that it is not feasible to line the parking with habitable space above the ground floor, it shall be integrated into the design of the building faade, which must abide by all facade regulations. Policy 6.1.4: Where parking above the ground floor that is not lined with habitable space is permitted, a maximum of three parking levels fronting on a public street shall be allowed above the ground floor when FAR requirements permit. Policy 6.1.5: Drive-through lanes are not permitted. Goal 6.2: Structure Design Parking structures will be visually appealing and blend in with the surrounding built-environment. Policy 6.2.1: Parking structures shall have an external skin designed using the standards set forth in sections 2.7 to 2.10. Policy 6.2.2: Elevator/stair corridors shall be located on primary pedestrian corners and be highlighted architecturally. Policy 6.2.3: The design of public art and lighting shall be integrated with the structures architecture to reinforce a unique identity.
Appropriate Parking Photographs courtesy of Peterlfrench, Flickr (6.1) and Carl Walker (6.2).


Figure 6.1

Figure 6.2

7. Signage
Goal 7.1: Pedestrian Oriented Signage Signage type and positioning should suit a pedestrian-oriented environment. Policy 7.1.1: Wall signs shall not exceed 15 percent of the exposed area of the wall on which they are located. Wall signs shall not project beyond 6 from the wall surface. Policy 7.1.2: Hanging signs will be limited to nine square feet in area and may not project beyond four feet from the building surface. Material used for fastening or supporting hanging signs will be restricted to metals with porcelain enamel, stainless steel, brass or bronze finished. Signs shall be placed between eight and 12 feet above grade Policy 7.1.3: Temporary window signs shall not exceed 10 percent of the window. Policy 7.1.4: Temporary sandwich board signs (or A-frame signs) shall be permitted as long as they do not interfere with pedestrian movement or visibility along sidewalks. Policy 7.1.5: Monument signs shall not exceed five feet in height and 15 square feet in area. Monument signs in the public right-of way shall not interfere with pedestrian movement or visibility along sidewalks. Signs shall not block motorists visibility along the sidewalk or roadway, or sight lines at entry driveways and circulation aisles will not be blocked. Monument signs are prohibited on Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire Streets between 6th and North Park streets. Policy 7.1.6: Projecting signs shall not project beyond 4 (6 for wall signs) from the building and shall be located at least 25 from other projecting signs to maximize visibility and reduce visual clutter. Projecting signs shall be placed at a 90 degree angle from the building surface and shall be located no lower than 8 from grade and no higher than the cornice or roof line. Policy 7.1.7: The following types of signs shall be prohibited within the district: billboards, digital signs, pole signs, portable signs (except temporary signs listed in policies 7.1.3 and 7.1.4), rooftop signs, and any form of sign that flashes, flies, inflates, internally illuminates or moves.
Appropriate Signage Photographs courtesy of Mrs. Mass (7.1) and Earthbound Tranding Co. (7.2).

Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2


7. Signage (Continued)
Goal 7.2: Signage Design Sign quality should complement the district character. Policy 7.2.1: Monument signs shall be accented with landscaping equal to two square feet for every one square foot of sign face and include a supporting base composed of allowed building materials listed in Policy 2.10.2. Policy 7.2.2: Sign materials shall be extremely durable. Permissible materials include: painted or carved wood; carved wooden letters; epoxy letters; galvanized sheet metal; slate, marble, or sandstone; gold leaf; gilt, painted, stained, or sandblasted glass; clear and colored acrylic; neon; or stained glass. Paper and cloth signs shall be prohibited for exterior use (except high quality, weather-resistant canvas for awnings). Wood signs should be sealed and maintained to prevent deterioration from moisture. Policy 7.2.3: All new permanent signs (including awning signs) shall be reviewed and approved by the district design review board, as part of the sign permitting process. The board shall approve signs based on whether they complement or contribute to the district character. Policy 7.2.4: The Granada Theater and Varsity Theater signs are exempt from signage policy due to their unique historical significance and contribution to the overall downtown identity. Goal 7.3: Signage Uniformity Public signage should unify the district by exhibiting consistent design elements which promote the district identity. Policy 7.3.1: Light poles, parking meters, banners, street signage, wayfinding markers, paving graphics, and any other form of public signage shall be unique to the district by exhibiting consistent traditional designs that complement the districts historic integrity. Public signage shall be approved by the district design review board. Policy 7.3.2: Public signage identified in Policy 7.3.1 shall exhibit traditional design through incorporating neutral colors and one of the following fonts:
Baskerville Old Face Bookman Old Style Goudy Old Style Garamond Modern No. 20 Calisto MT

Policy 7.3.3: Nonconforming signage replacement shall be amortized over five years upon the adoption of this plan.

Figure 7.3 Appropriate Public Signage

Figure 7.4

Photographs courtesy of Metro Atlantic (7.3) and South Beach Street Historic District (7.4). 18

Appendix A: Glossary of Terms

Adaptive Re-Use: conversion of a building into a use other than that for which it was designed, such as changing a warehouse into a gallery space or housing. Affordable housing: Rental housing with rents controlled so residents do not have to pay more than 30 percent of the households annual income. Animation: a quality of the built environment which supports sustained activity through the architectural and artistic embellishment of materials and details, the visual and physical accessibility of interior activities from the exterior, and the introduction of supportive public facilities and amenities. Areas of Archaeological Potential: Areas favorable with medium or high potential for the discovery of archaeological resources. This potential is based on the presence of a wide range of geographic and historical features which influenced past settlement. Archaeological potential is confirmed through archaeological assessment. Area of Sign: the total area within the extreme perimeter of the attraction area intended to draw attention to the sign, including all open spaces and the supports which the sign rests upon. Artist: A person who is regularly engaged in the visual, performing or creative arts. Awning: any structure, such as canvas, projecting from the wall of a building over a window or entrance. Barrier-Free Design: building and site design which is accessible to all people, regardless of age and abilities. Bay: a vertical division of a faade or a structure division of a building, marked by column spacing, roof compartments, windows or similar measures. Boulevard: the portion of land on either side of a street, between the curb and the property line, and may include sidewalk. Buffer: a strip of land established to provide separation between land uses and typically developed as a landscaped area. Building Envelope: the volume of space that may be occupied by a building, usually defined by a series of dimensional requirements such as setback, stepback, permitted maximum height, maximum permitted lot coverage. Business Improvement Districts (BIDs): geographically defined areas in which property owners agree to pay an assessment in addition to property taxes to fund cleaning streets, providing security, making capital improvements, construction of pedestrian and streetscape enhancements, and marketing the area. These services supplement those provided by City government. Canopy: a permanent fixture designed to shelter pedestrians and display goods from adverse weather conditions; a fixed awning. Circulation: movement patterns of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Compatibility: the characteristics of different designs which, despite their differences allow them to be located near each other in harmony, such as scale, height, materials, fencing, landscaping and location of service areas. Cornice: an ornamental molding along the top of a wall. Cultural Heritage Landscape: A defined geographical area of heritage significance which has been modified by human activities. Such an area is valued by a community, and is of significance to the understanding of the history of a people or place. Digital Sign: sign that displays still images, scrolling images, or moving images, including video or animation, through a series of grid lights, including cathode ray, light emitting diode display, liquid crystal display, plasma screen, fiber optic, or other electronic media or technology, where the display can be changed through electronic means. Districts: geographic areas of relatively consistent character, such as exhibited in many residential neighborhoods and the downtowns. Elevation: a drawing showing an external face of a building. Enclosure (sense of): an experience in which a pedestrian feels sheltered with a semi-private realm. Buildings, trees, landscaping and street widths are all factors in creating a sense of enclosure.


Facades: the exterior wall of a building exposed to public view or that wall viewed by persons not within the building. Fenestration: the arrangement of windows in a building. Floor Area Ratio (FAR): the relationship between the amount of useable floor area permitted in a building (or buildings) and the area of the lot on which the building stands. It is obtained by dividing the gross floor area of a building by the total area of the lot. Focal Point: a prominent structure, feature or area of interest or activity. Gable: any basically triangular-shaped, upper part of a building wall, usually under a pitched roof; sometimes upper walls topped with stepped parapets are referred to as gables or stepped gables. Gateway: the design of a building, site or landscape to symbolize an entrance or arrival to a special district. Hanging Sign: a sign suspended from a building or structure which is perpendicular or parallel to the facade of the building. Heritage Conservation: the activity undertaken to protect, safeguard, pass on or enhance heritage resources. Human Scale: the quality of the physical environment which reflects a sympathetic proportional relationship to human dimensions and which contributes to the citizens perception and comprehension of the size, scale, height, bulk and/or massing of buildings or other features of the built environment. Infill: the placement of new buildings into established built-up urban areas, which usually results in an increase in the existing building stock. Landmarks: buildings, structures and spaces which create distinct visual orientation points that provide a sense of location to the observer within the neighborhood or district, such as that created by a significant natural feature or by an architectural form which is highly distinctive relative to its surrounding environment. Mass: the combination of the three dimensions of length, height, and depth which give a building its overall shape; a building is often composed of many masses, hence the term massing, which is often used to describe the form or shape of structures. Mixed Use: a development or area comprised of mixed land uses either in the same building or in separate buildings on either the same lot or on separate lots or, at a larger scale, in nodes.

Modulation: variation in the plane of a building wall, often used to provide visual interest. Monument Sign: an independent structure supported from grade to the bottom of the sign with the appearance of having a solid base. Parapet: a portion of a wall that projects above a roof. Pedestrian: all people on foot or moving at walking speed, including those who use mobility aids (wheelchairs, scooters, etc.), persons with strollers and buggies, and frail elderly persons. Pedestrian-oriented: an environment designed to make movement by pedestrians fast, attractive and comfortable for various ages and abilities; considerations include separation of pedestrian and auto circulation, street furniture, clear directional and informational signage, safety, visibility, shade, lighting, surface materials, trees, sidewalk width, intersection treatment, curb cuts, ramps and landscaping. Pedestrian-oriented Uses: uses which rely on pedestrian traffic for the majority of their business such as retail stores, restaurants, service and repair shops. Plinth: a vertically faced member immediately below the circular base of a column; also, the lowest member of a pedestal; hence, in general, the lowest member of a base; a sub-base; a block upon which the moldings of an architrave or trim are stopped at the bottom. Pole Sign: A permanent, freestanding sign that is mounted on a pole(s) or other support(s) that is placed on and anchored in the ground or on a base and that is independent from any building or other structure. Preservation: providing for the continued use of deteriorated old and historic buildings, sites and structure through such means as restoration, rehabilitation and adaptive re-use. Projecting Hanging Sign: a sign suspended from or supported from a building or structure and projecting out therefrom more than one six inches. Public Art: site specific artwork created to enhance and animate publicly accessible spaces through artistic interpretations that range from individual sculpture to integrated architectural and landscape features and treatments. Public Realm: the public and semi-public spaces of the city, especially the street spaces of the city from building face to the opposite building face (including the faade, front yard, sidewalk and streets) and open space such as parks and squares.


Publicly Accessible Spaces: buildings, streets and exterior areas, which may be privately-owned, but to which the public has access. Qualified Street Frontage: the width of storefront of a commercial or industrial development fronting on a major or secondary thoroughfare. In cases of corner or through lots, only one street frontage may be used as qualified street frontage for purposes of calculating permitted sign area. Renovation: modernization of an old or historic structure which unlike restoration may not be consistent with the original design. Restoration: accurately recovering the form and details of a building and site as it appeared at a particular period of time by means of the removal of later work or by the replacement of missing earlier work. Reverse Lotting: lots located adjacent to an arterial or collector road which front onto an internal street, while the rear yard faces onto the arterial or collector road. Roof Sign: sign supported by the roof of a building or placed above the apparent flat roof or eaves of a building as viewed from any elevation. Rhythm and Pattern: relating to materials, styles, shapes and spacing of building elements and the buildings themselves, the predominance of one material or shape, and its patterns of recurrence. Right-of-Way: that part of the street space that is publicly owned and lies between the property lines. Scale: the sense of proportion or apparent size of a building or building element as crated by the placement and size of the building in its setting; scale usually applies to how the sense is perceived in relation to the size of a human being and refers to the apparent size, not actual size, since it is always viewed in relationship to another building or element. Stepback: a setback of the upper floors of a building which is greater than the setback of the lower floors. Storm water Management (SWM): plans and facilities designed to control the quality and quantity of storm water flows on a site. Street Furniture: municipal equipment placed along streets, including light fixtures, fire hydrants, telephones, trash receptacles, signs, benches, mailboxes, newspaper boxes and kiosks.

Sense of place: the feeling associated with a location, based on a unique identity and other memorable qualities. Setback: the horizontal distance from the property line to the face of a building or from natural features to a building. Street-line: the outside line of a required right-of-way or road allowance; the same as the property line. Streetscape: the distinguishing elements and character of a particular street as created by its width, degree of curvature, paving materials, design of the street furniture, pedestrian amenities and setback and form of surrounding buildings. Surface Parking: Open parking lots which are at ground level. Tax-Increment Financing: a financing method which uses the additional taxes generated by a complete development to pay for development costs such as land acquisition and site improvements. The difference between the taxes before the development occurs and after its completion is referred to as the increment. Temporary Sign: a banner type sign constructed of a sturdy material, such as canvas, so as to prevent rapid deterioration. Such sign is intended to be displayed for a short period of time only. Terminating Vista: abuildingormonumentthat stands at the end or in the middle of aroad, so that when one is looking up the street the view ends with the site. Transit: public transportation services, particularly bus service. Transit-oriented or Transit-supportive: the elements of urban form and design which make transit more accessible and efficient, these ranging from land use elements (i.e. locating higher density housing and commercial uses along transit routes) to design (i.e. street layout which allows efficient bus routing) and encompassing pedestrian-oriented features as most transit riders begin and end their rides as pedestrians. Transportation Development District (TDD): a special taxing district whereby a petitioner of 100% of the landowners in an area request either the levy of special assessments or the imposition of a sales tax of up to 1% on goods and services sold within a given area. Upon creation of a TDD by a municipality, the revenue generated by TDD special assessments or sales tax under Kansas law may pay the costs of transportation infrastructure improvements in and around the new development. Urban Design: the planning and design of cities focusing on the three dimension form and function of public and publicly accessible space.


Utilities: facilities for gas, electricity, telephone, cable television, water and waste water, overhead and underground power and telephone lines, all fire hydrants, water mains, storm and sanitary sewers. Vistas: a line of vision, contained by buildings of landscaping, to a building or other feature which terminates the view. Wayfinding: the information available to people which they need to find their way around the city and can be verbal, graphic, architectural and spatial. Wall Sign: any sign painted on, attached to or projecting from the wall surface of a building (including permanent window signs and signs on awnings). A wall sign shall not project above the apparent flat roof or eave line as viewed from all elevations. Walkable: A condition of a system of routes which are barrier free, interesting, safe, well-lit, comfortable and inviting to pedestrian travel.

Appendix B: Diagrams

Figure B1 depicts how Floor Area Ratio may be measured depending on lot coverage and building height. FAR expresses the relationship between the amount of useable floor area permitted in a building (or buildings) and the area of the lot on which the building stands. It is obtained by dividing the gross floor area of a building by the total area of the lot. Image courtesy of the District of Columbia

Figure B1 22

Figures B2 through B4 depict the appropriate forms of streetscape that should be followed in all retail, mixed-use, and multi-family residential areas proposed in this plan. Streetscapes should provide ample space for pedestrian furniture, walkways, and landscaping.


Appendix C: District Design Review Boards

The district design review boards are 15-member, city planning commission appointed boards which are responsible for protecting the aesthetic integrity of their respective districts. Specifically, the boards must approve the design of any proposed development or redeveloped projects within their particular districts. The district design review boards are also responsible for approving new signage and selecting public infrastructure features within the district, including all street furniture, wayfinding systems, street trees, street lighting, and public parking structure design. The district design review boards are to rely on this plan as their primary guidance manual. Three of the voting members are required to come from preservation-related backgrounds (architecture, architectural historian, historian, landscape architect, and planning). Four of the voting members are required to come from a diversity of professions or be lay persons with demonstrated interest, knowledge, and training in fields closely related to urban design (architecture, landscape architecture, architectural history, finance, real estate, and urban planning). Finally, at least one voting member must have a law degree with at least some experience with land-use or urban design. Mass Street District Design Review Board Representation Voting Board Members Downtown Lawrence, Inc. representative Lawrence Chamber of Commerce representative Lawrence Convention & Visitors Bureau representative Lawrence Arts Center representative Downtown stake-holding artist Lawrence Historic Resources Commission representatives (2 members) District residents (2 members) District business-owners (2 members) District property-owners (2 members) Downtown stake-holding lawyer Non-Voting Board Members City of Lawrence Planning Department representatives