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You are about to view a presentation on Automotive Technology, a one year Tech Prep class available to high school

11th and 12th grade students. By successfully completing the class you can earn elective credits toward high school graduation. If certain circumstances are fulfilled, you can also earn Ferris State University credits. To view the slides, wait for the entire file to load (watch the progress in the lower left side of window), then click the arrows at the bottom of the screen to move ahead or to back up. If you wish to get a closer look at this class, contact your school counselor to set up a shadowing visit. Auto Tech, like all Tech Prep classes, is open to both girls and boys.

Is This You?
The following is a description of the aptitudes, abilities, skills and personal characteristics that match the profile of a person ideally suited for a career in the automotive technology career field. The purpose of this description is to assist you with the important task of finding a match between your qualities and the qualities required of a person working in this field. By no means are the following to be viewed as finely honed skills you must possess as a prerequisite for selecting this course. Rather, they are abilities/qualities that you recognize in yourself
that you believe can be further matured by your participation in this class.

Aptitudes Abilities Skills High mechanical ability Good basic math skills Common sense Good communications skills must be able to read, understand and follow written instructions a
technician must be able to read manuals and computer generated instructions he must be able to express himself clearly verbally

Computer proficiency Personal Characteristics Is a person who pays attention to detail and who does a job thoroughly and completely Is both a sequential and analytical thinker can organize ideas to determine what needs to be done,
step by step, to complete the job correctly. Many auto repairs require a detective-like approach to determine what is the cause of the problem. Remedying the problem often requires many carefully executed steps that must be completed in a specific order. Is a minds on as well as a hands on kind of person Possesses the ability or willingness to work cooperatively as part of a team, i.e., with other mechanics, the service manager, parts department personnel or parts suppliers, customer, warranty personnel, and will adapt to others ideas

Doesnt mind getting dirty

Successfully completing 1 or 2 years of Automotive Technology will enable a student to attempt as many as 4 to 5 state certification tests (there are a total of 8) depending on the makeup of the class with respect to the number of first year and second year students. A one-year student may get the opportunity to take as many as 2 certification tests. Most employers wont even extend an interview unless the prospect has state certification. The certification gets ones foot in the door. A second year student will have the opportunity to gain a greater depth of experience in working on the eight systems that make up an automobile, thus enhancing his/her appeal as a potential employee.

Course Title: Automotive Technology Frank Surma Instructor: Ludington High School Room 404 Classroom Number: Office Phone: (231) 845-7303 ext. 2052 Modern Automotive Mechanics Instructional Textbook/Supplemental Readings: Modules from University of Missouri Columbia, Supplemental material from GM, Ford, and Chrysler All Data Computerized Service Data and Flat Rate Time Schedule Automotive Technology covers the mechanical engine, drive Course Description: train, brakes, heating and cooling, ignition, lubrication, exhaust, suspension, and steering systems. Upon completion of the course, students will be knowledgeable in the various parts of these systems and be able to service them. This class is for the student who is entering the field of automotive education, or employment, or who just wishes a general knowledge of all the various parts of the automobile. Students who wish to take a second year of Automotive Technology must have the instructors approval. Program CIP Code: 47.0604 Job Titles Requiring Further Training Automotive Electrician Equipment Operator Parts Manager Service Writer Shop Owner PCN: 03310 Entry Level Position with H.S. (Vocational) Training: Auto Body Assistant Mechanic Assistant Service Station Attendant

Academic Foundation Safety

Student Outcome Students will learn safety precautions related to personal safety, general shop safety, equipment safety and the handling of hazardous waste.

Time Line 1 week

Instructional Strategies Instruction lecture Video Hands-on demonstration

Evaluations Test Hands-on demonstration

Standards/ Benchmarks ELA S-1 HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-6 ELA S-3-HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-2 ELA S-3-HS-3 ELA S-3-HS-6 TECH S-1-HS-6 TECH S-2-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-5 ELA S-1 HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-6 ELA S-3-HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-2 ELA S-3-HS-3 ELA S-3-HS-6 TECH S-1-HS-6 TECH S-2-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-5 ELA S-1 HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-6 ELA S-3-HS-1 ELA S-3-HS-2 ELA S-3-HS-3 ELA S-3-HS-6 TECH S-1-HS-6 TECH S-2-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-2 TECH S-4-HS-5

Service Areas

Students will learn (first year) fundamentals, operation, and servicing of brakes, suspension, steering and alignment, and auto engine service.

30 weeks

Instruction lecture Video Hands-on demonstration

Students will be tested on how to adjust brakes, suspension, steering and alignment. They will also be tested on engine service.

Service Areas

Students will learn (second year) fundamentals, operation, service of standard transmissions, electrical systems, and heating and cooling.

30 weeks

Instruction lecture Video Hands-on demonstration

Students will be tested on standard transmissions, clutches, and differentials, electrical and heating and coding.

Academic Foundation Certification

Student Outcome Students will have the opportunity to take Michigan Bureau of Automotive Regulation Certification test on the service areas listed in the previous slide. Students will be taught the process of finding career opportunities, interviewing, filling out applications, and understanding employer expectations.

Time Line 3 weeks

Instructional Strategies

Evaluations Preparation and testing

Standards/ Benchmarks

Employability Skills

2 weeks

Safety must be a high priority when working on automobiles with a wide variety of tools.

Exhaust gasses must be vented from the work area to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

The student at left is shown wearing his safety glasses while operating the sand blaster.

Eight Areas of Auto Service 1. Automatic Transmission 2. Brakes Recent legislation mandates that in order to be funded by the State of Michigan, Automotive Career and Technical Education (CTE) classes must be certified by NATEF in at least two areas of auto service. That means the instructor, curriculum, equipment, and facilities must adhere to NATEFs standards. These standards include such stipulations as a minimum of 100 hours of instruction must be spent in each area of auto service in which the shop is certified, shop safety, proper handling of hazardous waste material, etc. 3. Electrical 4. Engine Performance 5. Engine Service 6. Front End Steering and Wheel Alignment 7. Heating & Air Conditioning 8. Standard Transmission & Drive Line

Our class is NATEF certified in #2 Brakes, and #6 Front end steering & wheel alignment.

The following slides will explain, through text and pictures, what is learned in the eight areas of auto service. If, as you study these slides, you want to get away as fast as you can, this class is not for you.

However, if, as you go through the slides you begin to think, Wow. Thats pretty neat how all those parts and systems work together., this may be a great class for you.

A student can become state certified in brakes by passing the state exam that is administered right at the auto lab. The student must be familiar with both disc and drum brake assemblies, including anti-lock brakes, and be able to diagnose and remedy brake problems.

Brake pads

When brake pads are worn down to the point that they need to be replaced, the rotors must be either turned (resurfaced) on a lathe, or replaced as well, because, over time, as the pads wear down, rough ridges and valleys are ground into the surface of the rotors. The above photos are of our Hunter OCL 400, time-saving, state-of-theart rotor lathe used to turn rotors while theyre still on the car. Our shop is equipped with lathes that can resurface rotors both on and off the vehicle.

The wheels of an auto are bolted to the rotors. When the brake pedal is depressed, hydraulic fluid is pushed through brake lines connected to the calipers. The fluid pushes small pistons which squeeze the brake pads down on both sides of the rotors, slowing the rate at which they were turning.

Wheel Cylinder

With drum brakes, the wheel is bolted to the brake drum. The drum has a bearing assembly that allows it to spin on the axle. The backing plate, to which the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and return springs are attached, does not spin. When the brake pedal is depressed, hydraulic fluid is pushed through brake lines that attach to the wheel cylinder. Two small pistons move apart to push the brake shoes against the inside of the drum, slowing the rate at which it turns.

Wheel Cylinder

At the left is an assortment of fuel injectors. The magnified photos at the right show how a partially plugged injector works compared with one that is functioning properly. Carburetors or fuel injectors are the devices that supply a mixture of finely atomized gasoline droplets and air to the combustion chambers of the engine, where, at precisely the right moments, the spark plugs ignite these mixtures, producing explosions. These explosions drive the pistons downward in their cylinders. The pistons are connected to the crankshaft by connecting rods, which enable the up and down motion of the pistons to produce the circular or turning motion of the crankshaft. In an 8 cylinder engine, a new explosion occurs with every 45 of crankshaft revolution.

Holly carburetor

Sprockets are attached to the front ends of the crankshaft and the camshaft. A timing chain goes around both these sprockets. Therefore, as the crankshaft rotates, so must the camshaft. Lifters and pushrods ride on the lobes of the cam. As the pushrods go up and down, through a rocker assembly, they open and close the intake and exhaust valves in the heads of the engine at precisely the right moments. This all works in conjunction with the timing of when the gas/air mixture enters the combustion chambers, the spark plugs fire, explosions occur, and the exhaust gasses exit the combustion chambers. As in the acting profession, Timing is everything.


Cam sprocket

Timing chain Timing chain

Rocker assembly
Crank sprocket

Intake & exhaust valves with guides and springs

This is the side that faces the engine block. When the small valves open, exhaust gas is pushed out the cylinder by the piston. When the big valves open, the gas/air mixture is sucked into the cylinder by the downward motion of the piston.

Exhaust exits the 3 large openings into an exhaust manifold to which the exhaust pipes are bolted. The three spark plugs are screwed into the other three openings.

Above is a V-6 engine block. It gets its name from the fact that it has six cylinders whose position relative to one another form a V.

This view shows the top of the head. The 3 intake and 3 exhaust valve stems are visible along with their springs and retaining clips.

Above right are three views of a cylinder head mentioned in the previous slide. Heads are bolted onto the block, one above each bank of cylinders. The heads are complex castings that are partially hollow. Some passageways conduct the gas/air mixture. Others conduct the exhaust gas out to the exhaust manifold and tailpipe. A third set of passageways conducts engine coolant, without which the engine would become so hot that moving parts would literally weld themselves together.

An automobile needs a supply of electricity (battery) to get the electric starter motor going, which in turn, starts the engine. Once the engine is running, a serpentine belt, driven by a pulley on the front of the crankshaft, turns the armature in an alternator which produces the electricity to fire the spark plugs and power the radio, heater blower, head lights and tail lights windshield wipers, etc.


Serpentine belt

The coil, distributor, and spark plug cables are responsible for conducting the electrical charge to the spark plugs at the correct instant. The spark plugs are screwed into the cylinder heads. The tips protrude into the tops of the combustion chambers. When the sparks jump across the gaps, they ignite the gas/air mixtures, causing the powerful explosions that force the pistons down into their cylinders, one after the other.

The assortments of parts pictured comprise the steering system of an automobile. The diagram at left shows how they fit together. The diagram below shows the adjustments that must be made within specific tolerances when performing a wheel alignment.

Anti-sway bars & springs

Track control arms

Shock Absorbers


Idler arms and Pitman arms

Center link and drag link

Tie rod ends

Ball joints

The student pictured below is in the process of attaching a target to all four wheels. Four cameras take a picture of each target, and through a computer, print out the adjustments the auto tech needs to make to bring the toe in, toe out, caster and camber into acceptable tolerances. Set up now takes from 5-10 minutes compared to 30-45 minutes with the old equipment.

State-of-the-Art Hunter DSP 600 Four Wheel Alignment Machine

NSG 370 standard transmission in Jeep Liberty and Wrangler

Cutaway view of a Chevy 4L85E 4-speed automatic transmission

As their name implies, the function of a transmission is to transmit the revolutions of the engines crankshaft to revolutions of the automobiles drive wheels. As with the shifting mechanisms on bicycles, automobile transmissions shift to a lower gear to gain power, or to a higher gear to gain speed. The next slide shows where the transmission fits in different automobile configurations.

Students in the process of rebuilding an automatic transmission

Transmissions are always bolted to the rear of the engine. But other than that, there is a great deal of variability among them. They differ depending on such factors as whether they are used in a 4-wheel, rear wheel, or front wheel drive vehicle; whether they are in a low horsepower or high horsepower automobile; or whether they are in a light duty or heavy duty truck. Automobile technicians who are experts in transmissions alone are able to earn a very good living. Transmissions are highly complex pieces of machinery that require the expertise of a pro to return them to working order when problems develop.

Pictured above are the components of an automobile air conditioning system.

The unique chemical properties of freon (also called R12) make air conditioning a possibility. The term freon is generically used for any of various nonflammable fluorocarbons used as refrigerants. R12 has been replaced by the more environmentally friendly R134. When R134 is compressed in the compressor, it becomes hot. This hot gas runs through a set of coils located in front of the cars radiator (red side of diagram) so it can dissipate its heat, after which it condenses into a liquid. The R134 liquid runs through an expansion valve, and in the process it evaporates to become cold, lowpressure R134 gas (light blue in the diagram above). This cold gas runs through a set of coils under the dashboard that allow the gas to absorb heat and thus cool down the air inside the auto when a fan blows the warm interior air across the coils. When the R134 is cooled, it condenses back into a gas and the process starts all over again. Mixed in with the R134 is a small amount of a lightweight oil. This oil lubricates the compressor.

Automobile and truck radiators come in many shapes, but they all consist of a coil of tubing that goes back and forth. Hundreds of thin aluminum fins touch this coil and conduct heat away from the engine coolant that is flowing through the coil. A water pump forces the coolant through the chambers of the engine block and cylinder heads to absorb the heat the engine produces. Hoses run from the engine block to the radiator inlet and then from the radiator outlet back to the block. The radiator, right behind the grille of the auto, enables the wind blowing across its fins (while the auto is moving) to absorb the heat contained in the coolant. A large radiator fan, located directly behind the radiator, also pulls air across the coils when the car is traveling at low speeds or when the coolant reaches a certain temperature. Tied in to this closed system is a much smaller radiator under the dashboard of the auto. When the passengers want to warm up the air inside their vehicle, they turn on a fan that blows interior air across this heater radiator. As the air removes heat from the coolant, the air is warmed, and the passengers become more comfortable.

In summary, because the auto industry makes up a large part of our nations economy and because we rely so heavily on our cars for transportation, there will always be a need for technicians with the knowledge and skills to keep our autos in good repair. Certified technicians are in high demand and earn good wages. Once again, however, nothing of value comes easily. There are thousands of parts that form the many complex systems that make up an automobile. A quality auto tech must be able to understand how these systems work and must continuously retrain as new, higher tech developments find their way into the ever more sophisticated autos of tomorrow.

Ford Escape hybrid

Honda Civic hybrid