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. .

05d0^5i'188

05.17.03 -

2012

1.

2. .

15

2.1.

16

2.2.
.

21

2.2.1.

21

2.2.2.

29

2.3.

37

2.3.1.

37

2.3.2.

39

2.3.3.

41

2.4.

43

2.5.

46

2.6.

47

3. ,

48

3.1 .

49

3.2. ,

55

3.3. ,

66

3.3.1 .

66

3.3.2.

68

3.3.3.

71

3.4.

12181

96

3.4.1.

96

3.4.2.

99

3.4.3. 1-

101

3.4.4.

102

3.5.

107

..

115

3.7.
.

125

3.8.

134

3.9.

140

4.

4.1.

142

()

143

4.2.

151

4.2.1.

153

4.2.2.

166

4.2.3

169

4.2.4.

172

4.2.5.

173

4.3.

200

4.3.1.

201

4.3.2

203

4.4.

208

4.4.1.

208

4.4.2.

246

4.4.3.

262

4.5.

267

5.

274

5.1. -

274

5.2.

276

5.3.

278

5.4.

282

5.5.

289

6.

290

293

313

324

- .

, , .
70- 20
5 10
[Biocide free..., 1997; Tin-free antifouling paint..., 2000].
10-15%,
. 20-30

( )
.
2001 . 76 -

[..., 2002], 1
2008 .
.


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- [Self
polishing tin-free, 1991; Intermooch Tin-Free, 1992].
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1989; , , 1992] ,

,

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.

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:
1.


.
2.

.
3.

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4.


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[Marine fouling ..., 1952].
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,
[, 1989; 2005; , 1994;
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10 . [Marine
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2010].
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1993

62 . ( 260 .

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).

80- 8000
, 1000-1200 .
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., 2000; , , , 2004].
90-
Courtyards Coatings (), Jotun
(),

Hempel (), Chugoku, Akzo Nobel

(), ICI (), Sherwin Williams (),

PPG

Industries (), Kansai Marine Paint (), BASF (), Nippon


Paint (), Du Pont (), Herbert () [Weltherstellung...,
1995] .


"" (. -).
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2-3 .

[ ., 1989]. ,
,
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[ ., 2007].
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[,

, , 1992; , 1998].
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,

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[Patent

5753180 USA, 1998; ., 2000; ., 2002].


,
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, [Prater, Hoke, 1980; Weis, Weis,


1995].

20

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14

2. .


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2.4);
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15

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18

2.2. .

14

2.2
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26.6).
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710
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5
6
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27

2.2.2.

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, (.
3).

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),
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[ ., 1997; ., 2003 ].

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28

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. - 1405 2, ,
. - 32-35/00,
: -

0-9 , -

1-5 , -

. , , 0.6-6.1 [, , 1970 .].


-
80 . , ,
Laminaria, Fucus, Ascophyllum - Nematoda,
Harpacticoida, Gastropoda; Polydora, Spionidae, Spirorbis;
Electra,

Membranipora,

Alcyonidium;

Obelia, Campanularia,

Halecium, Clava; Semibalanus balanoides, Balanus


balanus, B. crenatus; Mytilus edulis.
- .

25 /2

[, 1994; ,

, 1982; , , 1992; , ., 2004].



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[, , 2000]. (, )
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(33-34/00), ,
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29

.
.

. , -
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. - 420325 2,
- 4090 , - 1.8. 87 %
( 150-200 ) -
14 /.
30

7-9 22.2-22.4 /00.


18-20 /00 15.6 .

, 8-9 /,
95 %

[, , , 1982].

- 17-19 /00, 7.9


8,4, : - 24-29 , - 2-4
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-

0.6

..., 1991;3, 1994].


, . ,
, 2043% .
150 /2 [, 1985].
130.

Mytilus

galloprovincialis,

Balanus improvisus . eburneus, Leprallia


pallasiana, Botrillus schlosseri, Obelia loveni . [,
1985;3, 1994].
,

.
.
, ,
175000 ./ .

, - . ,
: - - -, -, - , - [,
1954; , 1985; , 1994].

31

.
() - 16-17%.
,
. ,

,
11 %

. -

,
.
. 2.8 2.9
.

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32

,
1990 ..

.
16.5-17.0 %.
15 %.
14.5 , - 8.3, 6.22

/,

[, 1977;

3.7

/,

19.1

, , 1991; , , ,

1991].

- ,
.
. ,

1989 2010

. 0-2

24.0 29.2 ,

27.0 - 33.0 /00-


,
12/00. 8.02 - 8.14
[Kovaltruc, Karpov et al., 1998; Le Vinh, 1998 .].
[, , , 1992; ,
., 2003], -
: Balanus amphitrite, . reticulatus, . variegatus,
Megabalanus tintinnabulum .; Clytia sp., Obelia sp.;
Membranipora savarti .

- 337 /

33

[Henry, McLauphlin, 1975; , , 1985, 1988; , 1989;


, , , 1992; , 2003].

. ,

[, ,

, 2003].
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33%, 27/00.
( 12/00) [, , 1994]
.
. . (5-40/).
. 0-2
24.0 29.2 , - 7.02-8.14 (. . 2.3).

,

( ) .
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,
[, .,
1996; , . 2003].
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. 2.10 .
( ).

34

2.3.

[,

, , 2003].

,
,

9.3

1.2

5.2

27.7

5.0

14.7

30.2

24.1

26.4

%0

34.5

29.0

32.0

18.2

10.9

16.4

34.7

30.1

32.7

8.50

8.10

8.24

8.41

8.36

8.38

8.38

7.02

8.05

9.60

6.50

8.10

9.10

6.80

8.20

5.96

3.60

5.26

26.0
8.5
250
45

2.5
0.5
10
5

17.5
2.4

20

71
2.5
40
430

10
0.4
0
5

15
1.2
10
25

125.4
17.9
36.2
45.0

6.7
6.9
1.9
0.5

28.5
12.4
16.7
31.2

,
/

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NOz
N0 3 "
+
NH 4

, .. ,

35

. 2.10.
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2.3.
.


,
(. 1.1), ,
,

36

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2.3.1.

.


- .
[ ., 1990]

,
.

, ,
. ( 10%)
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Z-8000

"HITACHI".

(
37

0.05%)
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[, ., 2007].
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(t, ), (, /),
(v, )
/2 :
Vcu = ( -24- v)/(t-P-1000) = (- 24- 0.4) / (0.25 106.41000)
: Vcu = 360.8 (/2 ).
,

- .
,
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(. . 2.1).
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[ , 2002].

2.3.2.

2000 ( )
.

.

38

250x350x2-3 (
100 .) (
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9.407.

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2.3.3.

, 4.

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40

[ , 2001]. , ,
.

9.412
.

[ ., 2007].



[ ., 2001].

( )
,
[ .,
2003]. (. 4.4.1). (. 4.4.2)

q

(t).

V(t)

q(t)= jv(r

(2).


1(-1( 1 - q(t)/q0)) = lnk+ a lnt

(2.2),
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41

(.
4.4.2).
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4.4.3).

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2.4.


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2

(/ )
42

- m (/ ),

[ ., 1987]
taumn-bi = / ,

(2.4).

. , ,

300 , 10 /
30 .

: 1 - , 2 -
,

3-

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2.4.

(/.)

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15
10
20
30
40

1.8
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3.0
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5.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.5

10.0

8.0

10.0

12.5

18.0

22.0

7-10 /. [
., 1989].

43

(, )

(. 2.11). 1450 , 40
/.
. 24 250x350 .
22 /.

. 2.11. ()
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44

. 2.11. ()
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45

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+ );

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).

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. 5.4).

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3.6).

2.6.

1.

46

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3.3.3 ,

3.1.

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, 1983].

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., 1961; ., 1983].
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1983].

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49

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3.1.

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51

4.

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52

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53

/
1

150

100

50

200

400

600

800

1000

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1200
,

(1-3) (4-6) [ ,
1983]

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.

54

3.2. ,

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[, 2005; ., 2007].
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55

3.2. ,
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394

36

22

100-150

25.8

4.2

100-180

33.7

6.1

200-500

34.5

6-8

68-100

34.5

70-100

34.5

100-200

34.5

.,
1980
, 1930;
,1995
, ,
1939; .,
1997
Azametal., 1981

, 2000
Sullivan et al.,1990;
Hoshiaki, 1994.
,2000;
.,
1993; Kogureetal,
1985;Simiduetal,
1986

200-505
300-550

37.9
32-34

21
23

300-678
200-700
205-904

39.5

26

36

27-29

.,
1980
., 1987
, ,
1964
http://www/inokean.
ru/oceans/tihiy

22-27

http://.inokean.ru/
oceans/tihiy

22-24

http://www.erudition.
ru/ref.

250-674

230-320

1892-1994

34-35

34-35

37.5
56

28

http ://w ww. inokean. ru


/oceans/atlanticheskiy

,
,
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%0

35

2349

http://www.inokean.ru
/oceans/atlanticheskiy

28

.
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3.3,

.

, .

, ,

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,



.
,

, ,
:
Y=a*exp (b*t) lnY=lna+b*t

57

(3.1),

Y - ../, b - ,

, t - .

. 3.3

Y t.
YMHH:
lnYMHH=4,174+0,072t

YMH= 65*exp(0.072t)

(3.2).

R=0.74,
0.072,

b =0.0720.018.
Ycp:
In Ycp= 4.396+0.079t

Ycp= 81*exp(0.079t)

(3.3).

R=0.87,
0.079,

b =0.079+0.013.
YMaKC:
mYwaKc=4.586+0.082t

Y ^ c = 98.1*exp(0.082t)

R=0.91,
0.081,

b =0.081 0.011.

58

(3.4).

3.3. ,

(../)
, ../

,
,
%0

394

394

394

36

22

100

125

150

25.8

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85

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34.5

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150

200

34.5

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352

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37.9

21

300

425

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33

23

300

489

678

39.5

26

200

450

700

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554,5

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28

250

462

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34.5

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230

275

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1892

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37.5

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28

(3.2)-(3.4) 0
65-98 ../.

. 3.2.
,

(3.2)-(3.4).
.
59

,
.
-
,

24

12 6 /.

3.6 ( - ) 9.6

/ (

) 100% (. . 3.3).


(. 3.2). ,

, , ,

[ ., 1961].

60

/ 2
0,25

0,10 -

0,05-

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. 3.2.
. [ ., 1961].
.

- - -

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35.061 7 0 0 19.343 / ,

17.469 7 0 0

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,
61

(, ). - 31.2/00,
. 10 4 0.0715
/, 15 - 0.044-0.047 /2.
18/00 . 10
1.5-2 [ ., 1997].
10.9 (
) 34.7 7 0 0 .
. ()
,
,
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,
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10

[, 1963].

4)

; ,
. >10

. >13
- .

[, 2001].
7.6-8.5.
(, 8.0 8.2 )
.

, . ,

62

[Park,

1966].

, ,
1.5 , [ ,
1983]. 7.4-8.6

0.05-0.20 /.

. .3.3 ,

.

+V

o,osl-

0,10-

. 3.3. 1X13 IX18H9T


: 1 - IX18H9T; 2- 1X13 [ ., 19616].

63


: 7.02 8.50
.
.

. ,

(, - )
. [ ., 1973].
.
,

, ,

.
-61 9-4-4,

25

121810 . 50 /
8 23
-61 0.6 2.5 /.
, 3
[, 1986].


. 3.

64

3.4. ,
[ , 1983].

1. -
.
.
,
2.
. .
3.
.

,
4.
, .
5.
,
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.
6.
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65

3.3. ,
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3.3.1.


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3.4, 3.5).

. 3.4.

.
, , 7 .
, 2006 .

. 3.5.

.
, -
, 7 . , 2006 .

66

- .


[Characklis, 1990].
,
.

. ,

, , .

18-37.

, - ,

[ ., 1961; , 1963; , ,
1992]. , , .. [1975]

, .

18 %

6-7

40-50 -
.

,

[ ., 1961].

, ,
67

[, 1987, 2006; , , 1984; , ,


1992].

Bacillus

tumescen

[ ., 1997].
, ,
[Guillaume, 1977; , , 1981].

3.3.2.
, .
(, , )
, ,

, . ,

, ,
. 10-30 % [ ., 1961;
, 1994].

2.5 [ ., 1986].

1X13

, -

., 19616].

.

68

[ ., 1998],
[

., 1998].

. -,

-
,

.
,

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,
[
., 1998].

, . , ,

,
[ ., 2001].
.


[ ., 2008].
,

[Melchers, 2003; 2006; Melchers, Jeffrey, 2008; Melchers, Wells, 2006].


,

. 4 , (.
3.6).
69


LOSS Of
Pit Depth

Aproximately
Steady-slate

Exposure Period
Phase 0
Includes Short-Term"
Anaerobic

^
Pre<lorninan?ly
Aerobic

Phase 4 _

PrecSominantly
Anaerobic

.3.6.
[Melchers, Jeffrey, 2008].

,
,

.
,
,
.
,

, ,
.

. , ,

70

/ .

1)

; 2)
,
; 3)
,
, ; 4)

[ ., 1985].

.
,
,

,
, .
3.3.3.
, .
- ,
,

1, . ,

-
.
,

(-11 (=+0,201 )

IPC-PRO, (.
) (. 3.7).
71

-
20

/.

,
=200 =\0 [, 1963]:

log ia = log iKop + (E- )/


log ik = log iKop + (-)/

. 3.7.
.

b a = 2.3RT/(\ - a)zF bK = 2.3RT/azF, R , z - , a -
, F- , - .
=.
.

72

. . 10

0.1
. . 3.8 .
. . ,
.
, ,

,
, ,
(. 3.8). .

1.5 .

73

2.5 .
*

IflliH

V< ^

: ^l

'ffffffHr * u*^*l I
1

\
*

'

.'

if*, 4
M
V-H

.'

/ it <

i.-^ F T T
' J*rff ,
, "

3.5 .

74

4.5 .

5.5 .

75

6.5 .

& 1>

'4'

1
Z*1

,' f

,'''

;
j

^-

f r l

#."

i.

^ ^

7.5 .
76

..

i*

8.5 .
.3.8. (.)
1.5 - 8.5 .

3.5.
.

1.5

2.5

3.5

,
2
/

29
30
31
32
25
26
27
28
21
22
23
24

0.57
0.73
0.82
0.62
1.57
1.31
1.59
1.60
1.1
2.03
1.17
1.97
77

,
/2

,
./2

0.75

171.8

1.52

387.0

1.57

41.5

,
/2

17
18
19
20
13
14
15
16
9
10
11
12
5
6
37
38
7
8

1.44
2.29
1.42
1.67
2.75
4.94
2.42
2.59
5.8
3.1
4.6
3.5
107
2.05
2.3
2.2
2.19
2.55

4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

,
/2

,
./2

1.71

57.2

3.17

126.5

426

6.5

2.41

161.9

2.37

150.2

. 3.5

.
. 3.6
. . .. ()
(1.5-2.5 .) ,
. 7 .
.
,
1.5 - 2.5 . 6.5 - 7.5 . (. 3.9).

78

3.6. () ()

29


(m2-mi),
1.9285

30

1.7419

5.0548

30.45

31

1.6672

4.7083

28.37

32

1.7297

4.7247

28.47

1.7668

4.9924

30.08

25

3.4613

5.9636

58.11

26

3.5072

6.0427

58.88

27

3.4082

5.9521

57.99

28

3.0688

5.3594

52.21

3.3614

5.8294

56.80

21

3.5755

4.5571

62.51

22

3.3119

4.1080

56.35

23

3.6109

4.5085

61.85

24

3.6373

4.6030

63.14

3.5339

4.4441

60.96

17

4.3098

4.2241

70.94

18

4.5201

4.5792

76.91

18

4.3238

4.3221

72.58

20

4.8743

5.0385

84.62

4.5070

4.5410

76.26

13

4.7203

3.7687

79.24

14

4.6307

3.9028

82.06

15

5.2618

4.3154

90.73

16

5.7284

4.7299

99.45

5.0853

4.1792

87.87

, /2-.

5.4818

33.03

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

79


(m2-mi),
52518

10

5.4375

3.3558

85.78

11

4.7761

3.1960

80.72

12

6.1620

4.0159

101.42

5.3966

16240

91.53

6.6191

3.9788

113.75

7.7659

4.7157

134,82

37

6.5226

3.8061

108.81

38

6.5067

4.0907

116.95

6.8536

4.1478

118.58

8.1923

4.3088

137.55

8.5023

4.4718

142.76

8.3473

4.3903

140.15

, /2-.

16600

92.44

6.5

7.5

8.5

160
140
120
100
80
, / 2
60
40
20

t+ITI+FI
1,5

2,5

3,5

4.5

5.5

6.5

7,5

8.5

. 3.9.
..
80



, (.3.6).
, , 6.5

.
.
.
.,
, , ,
(. 3.10).
:

,
,

,
, 0.0720.078 .
[ .., 2005] , ,
, , ,

3.10



(id). id 13.4 / ,

9.98-10.3 /2.

81

-1100
-1000 -900 -

-800 -

W -700
-600
-500 -

-400 0,0001

0,001
0,01
lg i, /2

0,1

. 3.10. .
- 1, ,
- 2 Pseudomonas sp. (11-3) - 3
Acinetobacter sp. (13) - 4.

. 10

. . 3.7 3.8.
. 10
20 ,

24 ,

82

3.7. (/2)

. 10


, 22.029.0^

4.79

,
24.5-30.0^
0.29

8.20

1.35

1.18

10

107.52

5.07

3.98

20

116.97

7.88

7.92

29

693.70

11.25

10.09

60

528.33

27.99

24.24

90

844.26

39.14

33.15

135

2469.35

117.263

81.74


,
5.5-7.0
0.37

3.8. . 10 [
., 2006].
,

10

20

29


.
Pseudomonas, Vibrio;
Nitrosomonas
. :
Pseudomonas, Vibrio;
Nitrosomonas.
Navicula,, Nitzshia,, Amphora .
. ,
Balanus,
Nematoda
, ( 1 )
(Hydroidea), ( 57 ) (Balanus
reticulatus, . variegatus, . amphitrite)
, Balanus 10 ,
(Bryozoa)
83

60

90
135


Hydroidea 2-3 ,
(Serpullidae gen.sp.),
,
Serpullidae,
Balanus, Bryozoa, Hydroidea.
, .

. 3.8


[, , 1997; ., 2002; ,
., 2004].


,
, .
.

.
.
,

121810

(100x150%!

1-2
(. 3.9).

(. 3.11).

84

.
,

(745 ),

2x4x1

1, 2 4 .
;
.

3.9. ,

121810 (2007-2008 .).

27.2

, %

29

0 2 , /

7.3

7.2

,
5700

. /
, /2

2.9

, ./

8092

, %

10.1

, . ./2

582.5

, /

0.685

85

3.11.

LEO 430.

, ,

1 /
IPC-PRO. : ; 1 - ; -
; -
; -
, ,
.
1
, 5 .

86

Youschimizu-Kimura

[Youschimizu, Kimura, 1976]

0.1-0.3

1 .

,
. ,
, ,
(7-45 ) ,
(. 3.12).

(. 3.10). 30

(. 3.126).

.3.12. 121810
: - 1 ; 6 - 4 . 1 = 3
. , 2008 .


121810

(
),

(. 3.10).


15-20%

3.10.


,

0.055

14

0.053

0.363

1.1

1.7

0.290

0.235

0.379

1.8

3.1

0.285

0.232

1.356

26.0

1.9

0.164

0.202

0.416

1.5

3.1

0.256

0.223

3.064

34.9

8.5

0.154

0.244

0.855

6.2

2.2

0.245

0.253

1.939

4.4

2.6

0.152

0.193

1.654

8.6

2.3

0.153

0.312

/2

30

1,

0.038

0.033

0.090
60

0.008

0.041
90

0.159
88

15-
:
,

. 4

(.

3.13).

. 3.13.

121810 .

6-7
: ,
.

, 8-9

, 10-11
.

[, , 1997; ., 2003].
XV

4,5 4 "

*
*

5
I

3,5
3
2,5
2

1,5
1
0,5
0

10

11

t,
i

.3.14 .
121810.

. 3.14

. ,

(11 ) , 4 9 ,
.
:
, 6 ,

.


,
(.3.15). ,
[ ., 1995;
., 1998]. ,
90


.
[ .,

1998; ., 1998],



.
,
(. 3.15).

, ,
.
1.5-3.5
, (..
3.10).
,
, .

, ,
.

, ,

,
(. 3.16).

91

.3.15. 121810
: ) 8 ; ) 10 . .

42

, ,
,

,
.

,
,

.
800
600
400 m
200

-200
-400
-600
-800
0,00001

0,0001

0,001

0,01

0,1

Lg i, /2

. 3.16.

12110

: 1 2 - , 1
3 ; 3 4 - , 1 3
.

, 4
0.025
/2*, ,
. ,
.

93


. 3.17.

,
.
0.3-0.35 /2.
, mV
S

1200

700

200

^ ^ ^

0,00001

- -300

0,0001

0,001

0,01

1 -800

0,1

Lg i, /2

. 3.17.
121810 .

(7-45 ),
.3.18. (. 3.18 .3.11),

(..
), ,

,
.

121810
94


, 4
.
E,mV

1300

800

300

-200

0,00001

0,0001

0,001

0,01

Lg i, /
()

(7 )

- -700
1

0,1

14

30 4 5

. 3.18. 121810
.

3.11.
121810

0,

1,

-28

-60

14

4
5

0.316

2071

222

55

0.363

868

-25

53

0.379

30

-40

153

45

-8

164

1.1

1.7

712

189

1.8

3.1

0.416

780

236

1.5

3.1

0.455

455

189

6.2

2.2

0 - ;
1 - ;
95

b a b c -
;
-
.


121810

,
.

3.4.

121810
:

(, ,

),

(, ) . ,
,


.
,

3.4.1.
,


[, 1976].

96


. . ,
, 6.1-6.7 /.

121810

0 2 .

- Na2SOg
- .
. 3.19 ,

. .

3.19,

0 2
.


(. 3.12).
,
, ,

0 2 .
R2 =
0.8925 (. 3.20).
3.12.
(
7.6, +27).

2,

';

/2 /2

/2

4.9

27

243

216

2.219

25

0.206

421

187

3.5

60

254

194

1.909

22

0.396

447

188

3.0

66

254

188

1.876

18

0.407

466

175

1.0

-52

251

303

4.101

0.505

365

266

400

02 = 4.9

02 = 3.5

0 2 = 3.0
02 = 1.0

800
0,00001

0,0001

0,001

0,01

0,1

lg i, /

. 3.19.

121810,

0,6
0,5
0,4

-
5
.

0,3

R2 = -0,8925

0,2
0,1

0
0

1
2
3
4
5
,/

3.20.

98

3.4.2.
. . ,
, 7.9 - 8.1.

121810

. . 3.21 .
3.13

121810 .

,
(. 3.22).
(. 3.226).
-
-
( 7
. 3.13).

0,00001

0,001
lg i, /2

0,1

. 3.21.
, .

99

3.13.

( +27 ).

2,

1,

1,

/ /2

7.9

4.6

27

243

216

2.219

25

0.206

421

187

6.3

4.1

33

243

210

1.344

18

1.039

867

414

3.2

5.0

-28

175

203

3.875

75

1.086

169

442

3.2

1.9

-108

-26

82

3.681

270

5.424

136

621

)
. 3.22. ()
() .

100

3.4.3. 1-
-
121810 NaCl
: 1, 2 3%.
. 3.23 . 3.14 ,
-
121810 : ,
,
, . . 3.24.
-.

1 % NaCl

2% NaCl

3% NaCl

0,0001

0,001

0,01

0,1

lg I, /

. 3.23. 121810,
NaCl .

3.14.
121810 NaCl (
- 5.0-5.7 /, - 6.0-6.5, - 27 ).


NaCl
1%
8
2%
9
10
3%

66
24
-25

302
264
165

236
240
190

',

1,

/
2
1.966
3.512
3.994

10!

1,

/2 /2
27
37
48

0.187
0.326
0.916

188 243
321 178
393 168

CM

I
Q.

a,

10

20

30

40

NaCI, /

. 3.24. 121810
1- .

3.4.4.

121810
,
.

72

. . 3.15
. 3.25, 3.26 ,
.
,

2-3

,
.

102

500
1 = 0,830 | J A / s m 2 _ ^ _ _ _

100

r1rnr= i i?x^jA/sm2

_J

300

-100

-300
^

3.25.

0,0001

0,00001

(1
i

0,001
0,01
lg i, / 2

-500
-700

0,1

121810,

0,00001

0,0001

12-12
12-01

0,001
0,01
lg i, /2
12-15

0,1
11-95

.3.26. ,
.

3.15.
121810
.

2,

11
12
13
14
15

1,

/2
21

/
2
0.476

4.7

7.6

-86

195

203

/
2
1.327

1.0

7.4

-116

248

364

6.514

1.128

1.0

7.4

-67

212

279

3.896

65

1.334

1.0

7.0

-86

261

228

5.584

15

1.095

1.3

6.9

-156

164

320

14.82

1.605

1.0

7.8

-144

234

378

3.301

1.186

1212

1215

1195

1201

[Xiangrong, Guiqiao, 2005],


,

Q = ] [ YrRi
Yj -

(3.5),

, , ), Rj -
1. Y;Rj
.

3.16

Q
. . 3.13,
,

7 (

).


104

,
,

.
,
7. , , ,
-

,
7 [Lewandowski et al., 1989, 1993; Dexter, Chandrasekaran, 2000].

3.16.
121810
, /

4.9

7.9

3.5

1,%

323

14.96

7.6

32.3

92.2

16.40

3.0

7.5

323

97.6

16.91

1.0

8.0

323

145

18.38

4.1

6.3

32.3

404

16.67

5.0

3.2

32.3

427

17.81

1.9

3.2

323

2533

20.58

5.3

5.9

31.0

390

14.88

5.1

6.3

243

74

9.77

10

5.7

6.5

11.5

0.51

11

1.0

7.4

323

137

18.75

12

1.0

7.4

323

180

18.75

13

1.0

7.0

323

130

19.00

14

1.3

6.9

323

237

18.80

15

1.0

7.8

323

149

18.50

AI -
.
105

. 3.16,
( 11-15). ,

.
, ,

121810,


. ,
,


- .
, .

121810 ,
.
(3.5)
,
.

,

, ,
106

. ,
-

, , ,
.
:
.
, ,
. ( , )
.

.
3.5.


2008-2009 ..


. 5 ( 1106974) 30 ( 4543-71).
:
( ) ( -
). 12 .

3.17.

, .

107

[
., 2004; ., 2004; Xmurov et al., 2000; Smurov et al., 2003].

,
( ).
, .

100x150x2

9.909

(, ), , ,
,
1.0-1.5 .

15

. .

9.907 ISO DIS 8407 .


( 5 ) ,
,

(.3.17).

3.17.
(2008-2009 .)

,

, %

, /
,


28.
8.09
25.73


28.1
7.91
28.67

7.30
1.021

6.76
1.021

108


, /
, MrN/


0.14
0.31


0.17
0.36

. 3.18
.

, 1 ,
(99.5-1105.2 /2; 960-12722
./2 18.5-575.5 /2; 1707-6743 ./2 .

.
, ,
.

182.4 - 712.9 /2. 6427-13654 ./2 (


, , ) 1593-1137
./2 . (. . 3.18) 45
6-8
-

.

. 45 30
.
. 3.19

.
15

12.4 -17.1 /2,

7.3-11.5 / .

2.6 - 3 .

, ,
109

1.5-1.7 , .
,

, .

3.18.
(2008-2009 .)

15

30

45

60

15

30

30

30

2
,
./
/^

99.5=9.3

960:
- 8 9 3 ; - , ;
,
60;-7
.
, ,
9193:
117.026.1
- 8 1 5 3 , - ,
,
633,
.
- 407
, ,
13453:
421.526.4
,
- 11916
(
(
), - ),

987,

- 500
,
.
, ,
105.2571.4 12722:
, ,
-11567

(
), -
.
1120,
- 35
-
182.49.6
, 6427

, ,
.
( 95%
13654:
369.631.9
), ,
,

45

30

60

30

15

30

45

60

,
/2

,
./2
-
-13120,
- 487, 27,
-20.
1593:
246, 1120,
-167,60.

,
,

(),


(
), ,

, ,
.

712.952.0
1137:
- 1060,
- 50, ,

-27.
, ,

.


1707:
18.52.0
- 1240, ,
,
-467,
-0
, ,
132.417.0* 3446:
-2173, , ,

-1273

, ,
399.3159.8 6260:
-5120, ,
,
-1113,
-27,
- 0 ,

, ,
575.5166.9 6743:
-6160, , ,
638.255.6

111

,
/2

,
./2
-633,
-0

15

30

157.511.8

1933:
-1933

30

30

322.94.6

45

30

719.7175.5

- , - ,

(),


,
,
,

()
- ,
-

, -

3.19.

,

15
30

45

60

,
,

2
2
/ .
/

0 1
0.8270.05
12.40.7
'
0.4730.05 0 2
14.20.7
, 0 2-3

0.3800.02 0 20
17.10.8
, 0 0.5-5

0.2730.02 0 30
16.41.06
, 0 0.5-5

112

15
30

,
/2
71.12.8

,
/2.
4.740.18

30

30

30

109.94.9

3.660.16

146.021.3

3.240.47

167.516.6

2.790.28

30
45
60

7.30.2


0.490.01

9.70.5

0.320.02

45

10.90.7

0.240.015

60

11.50.5

0.190.01

58.20.9

3.880.06

97.713.2

3.250.44

118.212.1

2.63=.27

15
30

30

30
30

45
30
: .
15


. 30-40%
,
0 1
. 50-60%

. 70-80%

. 90-95%


0 3


0
2


0
20


0
30
. 30-40%

. 50-60%

. 60-70%

- .

71.1 167.5 / 58.2 - 118.2 /

,
1.2 .
,


113

( 2.5-8.0%).

,
. , [Dexter, 1998; Franklin, White et
al., 2000; Jeffrey,

Melchers, 2003]

.
[Lee, Characklis, 1993; Little, Ray,
Pope, 2000].
, , ,
, ,

.
,
,
,


,
.
3.6.

,

(ISO 9223).
,

,
.

114


[Marine fouling..., 1952; Zhu, Huang, 2005], a
[ ., 2001].
, , ,
-

,
.
,
.

() [, , 2005].
,

121810,

., 08, 63 .
150x100x1 ( ) 40x20 1
( ). 4.5, 5
7 (. 3.27).

( ); -

,
(&)

( ),


, .

115

, 3.3.3,

(-11

(=+0,201 )

IPC-PRO.

: 10
(1%) () (0.1
%), (0.0001 %).

0.2

,
. 72
28 ,
Hach DR/2010, Apel 101 540
.

A=LSn/Ns 1000, Sn-

n- , Ns- .

1000 .

19- ,

( (S1), (S2), (S3), (S4), (S5)),


( (S6), (S7),
(S8), (S9), (S10)), ( (S11), (S12),
(S13)), ( (S14), (S15)), ( 80
(S16), (S17), (S18), (S19)).

63

08

. 3.27. , ,
.

117

. 3.20 , ,

: .
.

3.20.

(I)

. (II)

24.4 - 27.7
7.5-8.1
24-32

25.7 - 26.7
7.9 - 8.0
32-34

6.6-7.0

7.3-9.6

28.9

182.3

2.7

1.1

0.08

0.2

, %


, /

, . . /

, . . /


, . . /

3.21 ,
,

. , 1.5-3 .

.
, .
(), (),
(N), ()
(W) (.3.21).

W = (ns/Ns)-A,

n s - , N s - .
118

3.21. (, /2-), ( ,
/2), (N, ./2),
() (W)

(I - ; II - . ).

121810

.08

63

II

2.525

62.5

30.64

17.7

3.51

3.264

12.3

54.98

54.98

10.97

II

2.24

133.7

49.9

47.3

1.6

3.035

80.0

60.29

50.77

3.36

II

2.717

0.578

21.74

6.86

132.38

2.656

24.9

32.79

13.81

194.74

4.676

6.78

40.2

16.9

115.09

II

0.194

0.398

21.84

15.47

26.53

0.485

0.887

23.53

18.57

41.19


(.

3.22,

3.28)

(A, W) (1)
,

. ,

,

119

3.22.

-0,86

0,62

-0,90

0,97

0,93

-0,47

0,95

-0,99

0,05

0,95

0,07

0,22

-0,64

-0,09

-0,75

0,74

0,37

0,00

0,91

-0,94

0,56

0,84

-0,29

0,58

0,96

0,8

0,80

0,97

0,96

0,74

0,93

0,87

0,76

0,88

-1,00

-0,74

-0,70

-1,00

-0,91

121810

. 1

- ,

, - .

, ,


.

121810

120


noKa3cYrejn.ii
R 1
0,8
0,6

W
Dm

0,4
0,2

-0,2

4,4
-0,6
. 3.28.

(.08, , 121810, ).

. 3.22 ,
121810
, ,
,
.
.08 (), () ()

(. 3.29 ,, ).
(. . 3.22 . 3.29) ,
.08

(0.76 - 0.87).

121

160
140

120

100

80

-
-

60

40

20

51 52 S3 54 55 S6 57 58 59 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 S17 518 519

120

100

80

60

40

20

51 52 S3 54 55 56 S7 58 59 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519

122

. 3.29.

.08 (), () 63

(),

.
,
. ,
.

()
() (. 3.30, 3.31, . 3.22).

123

*s^-

*
*

*
*

^^*

A 3 :

r =0,8711, p =0,0005

. 3.30.
.

,f

<(fT

^
^

<f^

< _ ( ^

'

JF

. 3.31.
().

124

3.7.
.

() ,

(- )
( )
[ ., 2010], . 3.32- 3.32 . 3.23.

3.23.

28.8

18.05

7.2

7.3

, %

33

26

, /

5.5

8.14

, . /

182.3

2.65

, . /

2.66

0.64

, . /

0.21

0.87

3.32

, ,
, .

125


70
60
50
40
30
20
10
U

"1

1**I

'!

"

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19

20

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19

126

AM

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

12X18H10T

- .
.

. - < > . - -

3.32.

, .
. .

. 3.24.

127

0.75

0.99

, 0.97

3.24.

()

()

, /2-

, /

h m a x ,

5.05

0.25

4.4821 0.470 50.9957.97

1.9127 0.746

19.612.19

3.8544 0.136

45.105.14

4.11

0.20

2.46420.171

10.470.99

3.66720.192

46.546.02

4.33

0.20

2.4475=.898

6.060.15

0.93740.079

25.193.11

1.05

0.30

121810 . 0.00090.0006

10.370.48

08

20

0.13560.015

35.021.67

0.44

<0.1

0.08870.003

11.291.75

,
08,

10, 20

. 121810
,


(, ).
,
() ( ())
:
- :
128

() = 92.63+ 2.25 - 40.83W (R2 = 0.982, S-0.230)

(3.6)

- :
(/^-) = 2.56 - 18.65W (R^ = 0.997, S=0.858)

(3.7)

- :
(/2-) = 3.68 + 0.104 (R2 = 0.973, S=0.156)

(3.8)

,
(. 3.32-).
,
.
,

(. 3.25),
(R).
, ()
(F),
:
= + -
129

(3.9)

3.25.
(3.9).

tC

0.98 -0.98

S,%0

tC

S,%0

tC

8,%

0.98

-68.58

-133.5

-119.8

4.22

-15.5

5.07 0.36

5.7

6.7

7.8

0.24

1.38

-29.58

66.32

-73.5

2.01

-7.33

1.36

1.41

2.58

0.06

0.21

-43.98

88.6 5.53

104.7

2.11

-10.1

10.1

0.22

0.81


0.99 -0.98

0.98

0.98 -0.97

0.98

5.32

130

3.08 0.09

4.26 0.34

3.25

95%

(t,C),

( 0 2 , /) (S,%o).
,

[Xiangrong, Guiqiao, 2005],

,
.

:
= % Yi-Ri
Y, -

(3.10),

, , -
), Rj -
.
(., .08, . 10,
.20) -,

(.

3.26)

( , , ),
.

3.10,

, ,

(QBK)-

131

(
540 ),

1000 .

= Abs 1000.
, .3.26,
1.5 .

3.26.
( )

%0
, /

,
/2..

7.52

32.7

26.4

19.857

4.9924

11.72

16.4

14.7

5.143

1.5177

8.14

26.0

12.0

9.071

2.3304

14

, , , , , , , ,
.


:
R02 = -0.775;
R s = 0.921;
R T = 0.920;
R* = 0.999

132


:
QBK = Ro2'Co2 + Rs-S + R r T + '
- ( ):
QEK = -0.775-7.52 + 0.921-32.7 + 0.92-26.4 + 0.999-19.857 = 68.414.
( ):
= -0.775-8.14 + 0.921-26.0 + 0.92-12 + 0.999-9.071 = 36.683.
( ):
Q B K = -0.775-11.72 + 0.921-16.4 + 0.92-14.7 + 0.999-5.143 = 24.683.


0,999063.

,
.

121810


- . ,
9.476 12.815 , ,
3.5.
, ,

.
133


, -
.

3.8.

.

-

. 121810

. ,

.
13.11.06, - 15.03.07, 07.05.07 , [ ., 2009;
., 2010].

, -
- (Y-K) .


..
134

.
: , -
; 1 - ;

; -
(. 3. 27).

3.27.


.
1,

/2

0,993

273

363

1,781
1,779
1,057
1,006
0,866

21,8
1,4
1,3
1,3

2,3
1,1

256
270
248
153
273

136
350
352
288
321

1095
1102
498
1151
1056:1110

. 3.27
( 1095, 1102, 498, 1151
1056:1110).

, (. 3.28).
- ,

. ,
.

.
135

3.28.

128

148

26

Vibrio

60

59

10

Pseudomonas

27

30

Pseudo alteromonas

CFB-

11

17

Halomonas

14

Shewanella

Aeromonas

Enter oh acteriaceae

Chromobacterium

Photobacterium

Psychrobacter

46

20

Bacillus

16

11

Arthrobacter

Coryneformes

Agromyces

Cellulomonas

Rhodococcus

Staphylococcus

Planococcus

Micrococcus

Marinococcus

136

176

170

30

(.

1-2,

1).

.
, , , 61 %

40

10

.
3.27,

1.5-2 .
1056 1110,
. ,

,

:
1102 498. , . 3.27, ,

,
,

137


22 (. 1, 1),

[Kelly,

Chistoserdov, 2001]. ,
, ,
,

seudoalteromonas,

Pseudomonas,

Shewanella, Vibrio, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Tsukamurella CFB


- [Lee et al., 2003].

.

,
.

,

[Decho, 2000].

[Mayer et al., 1999].



.

.

..

[2005]

,
. ,


.
,
- , ,
[Ashton et al., 1973; , 1990; Busalmen et al., 2002].
138

(. 1-3, 1)

. ,


[, 2005]. ,
[, 1990]. ,
-
, ,
,
.


,

(.. 3.27). ,

[Olsson, Landolt, 2003].



,
,
,
,

, .
,

.

139

3.9.
1 .


.
,
20-30 .
2.

(QBK)-
4

: QBK = ^

YjRj , Y; -

( , , ,
), Rj -

QBK

-,

, 68.414, 24.683 36.683


,
.

QBK

.
3.

QBK

().

/2-.)

. , ,
, :
= 2.56-18.651

140


- ,
, .
4.

2-3
.
,
,
.
5.

,
.

,
,
,

.
6. ,

,


.



.

141

4.



,
[ ., 1989; , , 1991;
, 1998; 2008; , 2008].


(),
.

/ .

4.1


.
4.2 ,

4.1.
()
,

(),

, .

[Ferry,

Ketchum,

1946],

,
, ,
.
142

,
.

74%,

- 74 100%.

, ,
, .

, ..

- .

()
, .. , 100% .
> LD 1 0 0 (LCioo),
LD1 ()- [ ., 1989].
,
,

, ,

[ ., 1992].
,

.
143

.
,
, ,
: ,

, .

[ ..., 1957; ., 1989]


- V(t) V
t tKp,
VKp,

. tKp

.
:

-
,

, ,
. ,
, , , ,
.

. ,


144

:
(

) ()
-

) [ ., 1989]


.
- ,
(/ 2-.) [Marine fouling...,
1952;.,

1999].

.

.
,
[ ., 1989].

[ ., 1973].
,
, [ .,
1978].
, ,
.
,
[ ., 1973; ., 1978;
., 1991].
.

145

52.4-74.0% (),


[Partington,

1964;

., 1982; , 1987].

,
,

, .
,

. ,

.
,

,
, ,
.

, -
.

, ,
.
, 5.4 / 8.1,
,
60-70 .
146

30-35%
[, 1987].

,
, 1- [, 1987].

[ ., 1988].

840


, [ ., 1991].

, .

. .

[Ferry, Ketchum, 1946],


().


() 45%,

.

<52.4% .
. ,
. ,
100 , - 2 ,

[Ferry, Ketchum, 1946].



40-45% () 50 .
, 50 ,
50%.

147

[Marson, 1969],
, ,
( ) .

, ,
.
, . ,


. ,
, .
. .

[Londen et al., 1975]


,
.

.
. . [Court, Vries, 1973] ,

.
,

, , .
A.M. ,
,

. .

, ,
.

148


[ ., 1989]:
d
d
j = = - D -

( ),

( ).

, j
dc/dx.


:
2

Q,

1-
(2 + 1) 7
22

(2 + 1)

QT - , ;
Qo -
(=0);
D - ;
5 - .
:

71

Qo

7 2

:
7i2Dx
J = Jo
j=dq/dx) ( );
149

(dq/dx)=j,

jo - .
[ ., 1987; . 1989]

:
In (j/jo) =-kDx

(4.1).


.
,
, ,

,
,
.
,


, -
-
, .
(/2*.)
2

m () 1 ,
t, :
t = / , .

(4.2).


:
IflC^/C,
t =

, .

(4.3).

-
,

.
150

,
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
, 90- ,
.

4.2.


(/2*.)

.
, :
- ;
- ;
- .

-
, ,

.
-
,

151

.
:
1.

, ,
.
2.
V(t),
.
3. tKp:
- vKp,
( %
SKp, )
tKp;
- V(t),
, tKp;
-

S(i), ..

4.

, /
.
5. .

4.2.1.


: 10

- 2
152

- 3

( 700 ).

( 15 )
, -

, ,

2
.

- 1994-1995 .
. -
, .

-
.

[Marson, 1969; Londen et al., 1975].



. , ,
(-5153, -5225),

120-210 ;

, - - 90-100 .

(-, .),
C(t)

[ ., 1989]:
C(t) = A-t b -e" k t

(4.4),

A, b :
InC = InA + b lnt - kt
153

(4.5).

InA, b
. [ , 1983],


,....

, 1989]

.
[ , 1983]
=,,

=1

(4.6)

1=0

;,

Q=Z(yj-i>x,y
J

(4-7),

1=0

N - ,
i - ,
j - ,
Yj - ]-
,
x,j - i-

j-

,
, - ;,
.

= [\']^
Y=(yi...yN) - - ,
154

(4.8),

a=(ai...an) - - ,

%oi.

Xin

X-0N-

X-nN

, 0=1

(4.9),

- .
, ,

(4.8)

. ,

()

t. (3.5)
(3.6) :
y=lnC, xi=lnt, x2=t,
a 0 =lnA, a,=b, 2 =-k

(4.10).


(4.5) (. ,
)

-5153, -5225

[ ., 1991].

S (

R 1 S, ):
-5153
lnCi=l .427 + 0.806 hit - 0.0082 t
R= 0.879, S = 0.202;
155

(4.11),

-5225
2=12=2.709 + 0.477 hit - 0.0049 t

(4.12),

R= 0.814, S = 0.159;

=13=1.359 + 0.622 lnt - 0.0062 t

(4.13),

R= 0.743, S=0.25.

S ,

.
,

-
.

-,

t,
C(t) :

m=|C(t)dt

(4.14).

C(t)
t,
.


156

, - .

[ ., 2003; ., 20036].

, (. ).

, -01, -02, -03, -05 1, 30, 51, 100,


130, 190 . , ,
.
[, , 1978].


;=+ i=1...6

(4.15),

0 - ,
; - i- ,
i - .
: i=l, t=l; i=2, t=30; i=3, t=51; i=4, t=100;

i=5,

t=130; i=6,t=190.
(. 4.1) ,

.
.

7 17 .

157

5153,

() -5225,

,
.
4.1.
(/2,.)

t,
1

-01
52.1725

-02
55.34

-03
47.25

-05
37.8433

30

53.61

55.09

50.275

45.95

51

91.6175

94.9675

60.49

78.47

100

59.945

82.7075

70.6

64.7133

130

52.7775

70.45

63.37

51.14

190

58.875

56.6425

58.2

48.7533

8.1

9.1

5.18

4.9

, S

. ,

-5153
1,=1.427 + 0.806 lnt - 0.0082t
( 0.879
0.202).

.
,

, -

(. 4.1-4.7).
,

158

),

,
, 2 (~ 60 / .),
20-23 /2 .

3-4 (. 4.1) [ ., 1991].

-5153

-5225,

,
140 170 (85.5 100.9 /2
)
(. 1, 2 2).

3-5 (>120 /2 ).

(. 3, 2). -

.

3 67.6-80.0 106-145 /2

16-19 /2 ,
., (10 /2 ) [Marine fouling..., 1952;
., 1989].
, ,

, 3.5.
, -5226
() Rabamarine AF ()
(. ), - (. ) (.
) (. 4.2-4.7). 4.2-4.7

.
159

4
- 120-125 /2 5 135-150 /2 (. 4.2-4.3).

40

, 56 . 16.3-16.7
/2 .

7 0

60
50
40

30
20
10 +

. 4.1.
(. , ).
v, / .

. 4.2. -5226
( - 11, 12, 13)
160

v, / .

t, .
. 4.3. Rabamarine AF
( - Tl, 2) .


, .

130-150 /2 160
/2 (. 4.4-4.5). ,
, 18.3-18.6
/ .
- 2
2

146.0-146.7 / 135.2-135.4
2

/ (. 4.6-4.7).

161

, /

. 4.4.
.
v, / .

-21
-22
-23

300

t, .

. 4.5.

162

v, / -.

250

t, .
. 4.6. -
.
v, / .

-31
-32

250

t, .
. 4.7. -
.
. 4.8 (
) -5226 () (,
-). ,
163

, - . .

( )

. ,
,
, ,
.

V, /( .)

14
120

100

80-

60

40

20

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

t, .

.4.8. -5226 ()
(1), (2) - (3)
(4).

4.8,

-5226


164

(88 - 150 /2 ).
,
21-27 /2 .

.
.

,

, v(t)
.

4.2.2.



,
,
.
21 9-
. ,
, .4.2-4.8,
,
[ ..., 1957; Marson, 1969;
Londen, 1975; ..., 1987; ., 1989].
,

V(t)

( ,

), , .
165

(3.1), ,
, .
, , (
, ),
,
,
.


.
,

(

.,

2003]

. , ,

,
(), .

,
.
,

- ,
,
.

, , (.
4.2.1).
166

( )

:
.

-
v(f)e{y(f) = af*exp(-&f),&>0}

a, b

(4.16),

- ,

, .

V,
. b

V(t).
.
R -
-
( 0.7 0.95),

(r(t)}-, (4.4)

.
T(t)
{F(t)}= { + (/ - ' exp(-Af")}

(4.17).

(4.17)
,

.
,

(t>0)

ao=t0=0, (3=1:
167

(4.17)

{(0=;*(-&}

(4.18).


(r 0 (t)} ( ao=t0=0, (3=1),

((()} ( t 0 =0,

=1)
{1(1)= + ;*(-&+(1)}, >0

(4.19).

r,(t) r 0 (t) ,

v 0

0.


.

r 0 (t),
ao=to=0, (3=1, :
Ts(t) = atb, (ao=t0=k=0, (3=1)

(4.20);

T e (t)= a exp(-kta), (ao=t0=b=0, (3=1)

(4.21);

Yh(t)=ao + a(tfi -toy1, (k=0, b= -1)

(3

(4.22).

t.

- F(t) (4.17), v ( #0)
t (to#0).

(4.18)-(4.22) (4.17)
.
, ,
.

168

4.2.3

(4.17),
,

, .
,

),

(),

(), ,
..

[ ,

1983;

1984;

, 1989; ., 1989].
, ,
,
,

[,

1986].

.

(4.18) - (4.22).
(4.18), (4.19), (4.21), (4.22)
.
( (4.18), (4.19), (4.21)) ( (4.22))
- .
(4.18)
In v(t)e {In 0 = In a +b lnt- kt a }

169

(4.23),

In , , ,
.

=[0.1...

4]

) h> 0.1.
(4.23) In a, b,
, .
,

(. ).
(4.19):
In (v(t) - ao)G {In (r 0 (t)= In a +b lnt- kt a }

(4.24).

(4.24) In a, b, k,
ao .
(, ), ,
0 Vo h>l.
L , , 20: A0=[v0-L, v 0 ],
L<20.

(4.20)

:
{lnr s (t) = lna+blnt}

(4.25).

(4.25) In b.
(4.18) (4.21) :
{1(1) = - }

(4.26).

(4.26) In ,
.

(4.22)

:
170

v'(t)e {r(t)' = m + ^ }
ao, a, t 0

(4.27),

:
ao = l/ai;

= -ai/m

; \.$=-1\

(4.28).

\
. (3
=[0.2... 1] h > 0.2.

4.2.4.

-
(4.23) - (4.27).

1983;

, 1989].

{lnvj, i=l-kN}, N -
[ , 1989].

[, 1984; ., 1989].

. (4.23)
. ,
:
(0.2, t) = lnv(t) = In + bint - kt 0 2
171

= 0.2

\,, .
,
, ,

RQ 2 So.2

.

{(,%)}
Ra S.
(
) y(oto, t).

4.2.5.

R.

R
. R ( 0.9)

v(t)=exp

y(t)

(v, t)

v,

v(t)

.
S

.
- .
, t
, R, S, Atm, Avm.
172

(y=lnv,t), -
(v, t)
. Atm, Avm

(tm, vm) t v Z t t
Zv

v -

:
Atm = p(tm, Zt) ,

AVm = p(Vm, Zv) .

(3.23)

L= ()

1/

ak

v m = e x p [ - ( l n ~ - l ) ] = ( - ^ - ) b / a , Atm, Avm63au.

ak

ake

,
(4.26), t m

ak

ake

v m = a o + e x p [ - ( l(n1 - 1 1)) ]] == (( ^ ^ ) / + .
(4.25) (4.26) R, S, Atm, Avm
, .
y(a, t) (4.23) (, a, t) (4.24)
.
a

opt

opt

ao , a

opt

R,
S, Atm Avm (
(t m ,v m )e (Zt; Z v )),
.

173

(4.25) - (4.27)

R, , .

,
R
(4.25), (R(a)}, (4.26) {R((3)} (4.27) ,
R .

.

: (.

), -5153 -5225 (. ), (1), (. ),


(1), (. ), (2), (. ), (3), (. ).

:
(1),

1988

20%

.; (2) ,

25% ,

1978-1980 .; (3) , , 25%


, 1978-1980 .
(1). - 364 , - 36.

Z, =56-71, Zv=50-H50.
,

174

. 4.1.
-
.
(3.16)
. :
y = lnv=a + bint -kt

(4.29)

.
. 4.2.

, ,
(4.29). ,
: , ""
,
(4.17),
.

(t<264 ) (4.23):
y = lnv = lna + bint -kt"
=[0.1...3] h=0.1 <0.5
=0.25 0.5<<3. ( 0 =, =0.2
1) 2-7 . 4.2.
4.2.

(t0=0, (3=1).
( 4 . ).

In

1.0

3.1286

0.1064

1.4-10"3

0.745

0.285

76.0

32.5

0.1

53.548

8.5997

56.602

0.939

0.135

65.5

45.5

0.2

7.217

4.327

9.315

0.940

0.1336

67.0

45.8

0.5

-0.268

1.767

0.411

0.9366

0.137

73.9

44.7

175

a0

In a

tm

ym

1.0

0.6447

0.911

0.0108

0.9158

0.157

84.4

43.6

2.0

1.7844

0.4683

2.24-10^

0.842

0.211

102.3

41.2

3.0

2.307

0.3077

6.4-10*

0.762

0.253

116.9

39.2

0.2

10

9.059

7.279

15.548

0.958

0.122

70.0

47.3

1.0

10

-1.871

1.576

0.0182

0.931

0.156

86.4

45.92

. 4.2

( R 0.745 0.9158),

( =0.2)

R,

S,

.
(4.24)
y=ln(v - ) = In + bin t -kt a ,
0, .
-, v0<20
(4.23) 0 , ,
, (0 )
, , ,
R
v m .
,

(4.23).

, 72 cyT.<t<364 .
, ,
,

: (0, )
t m ,
176

, (t>T2),
t m : t m <T 2 < ,
.

: (4.20) - , (4.21)
=1 - , (4.22) - .
(.
(4.25), (4.26)), .

=+((-1
: [0.2...2] =0.3-0.5.
. 4.3,
(3=1, 0.5, 0.2,
- , - .
,
.

4.3.

( =1).

to

55.47

17.92

994.45

-1

0.926

0.00396

6.78

0.5

13.196

89.45

-1

0.9369

0.0037

2.059

0.2

7.37

15.17

-1

0.9369

0.0037

667.14

-0.604

0.9395

0.108

52,50

0.003

0.879

0.15

. 4.3
, , , ,
.
177

, ,

,
.
(()) 2)).
- 819 , - 82.

TnK(3)Zt =32-48, Zv=44-50; TnK(2)Zt=15-30, Zv=54-60.



,

(4.16), ,
, (4.17)

.
. 4.4 4.5
(t<125 ) (4.23):
y=lnv=lna + bin t -kta,

a e A.

R,

S,

(tm, v m ).

4.4.
( ) (t0=0, (3=1).
a

In

tm

0.2

7.866

2.593

6.488

0.971

0.077

33.8

44.3

0.5

1.876

1.209

0.407

0.97

0.079

35.3

43.2

1.904

0.684

0.0167

0.957

0.096

41

42.97

0.2

10

11.316 5.024

12.584

0.9874

0.057

32.7

45.3

10

0.0267 1.351

0.0358

0.986

0.6

37.7

45.9

178

=0.2 R,

S, (tm,
vm) .

Zt

t m t (1)

(. . 4.4),

vm

Z v ^0.2. , =0.2
(tm, vm) (Zt, Zv)


(t, v).

4.5.
( ).

(t0=0, 0=1).

In

tm

0.2

9.484

3.757

8.394

0.974

0.086

27.47

55

0.5

2.0737

1.333

0.481

0.959

0.1075

30.73

53.17

2.137

0.6985

0.0194

0.924

0.144

36

51.5

0.2

10

12.546

5.143

13.286

0.959

0.085

27.3

55.9

10

0.811

1.193

0.0356

0.896

0.141

33.5

54

. 4.5 , (2), =0.2

(4.23)

: (tm, v m )e (Zt, Z v ).
(4.24),
a0G 0=(5, 10, 15), . (
179

. 4.4 4.5 (4.24) 0 =10,


=0.2 1).

, t>55
() t>35 (2).
. 4.6 4.7,
, -
, - .

(1) (2) -
, . 4.6 4.7 .

4.6.
(=1, (3=1).

to

21.96

21.683

476.105

-1

0.806

0.00253

47.585

-0.118

0.724

0.078

27.058

0.0003

0.612

0.089

4.7.
(1) (2) (=1,

=1).
to

24.084

21.061

507.24

-1

0.915

0.00244

69.704

-0.1846

0.788

0.1108

28.64

0.0004

0.571

0.148

180

.
,

.
,

.
:
1.
, tmax<T/3 ( - ),
<1;
2. v0
(v0<20),

(4.24)

(4.23),

( 0 , )
.

15-20 .
-5153 -5225. - 1 , 36. -5153 -

(60%).

-5153: (Zt =120^-150, Z V =82-H88);


-5225: (Z t =150-190, Zv=90-rl02).

(4.23)
181

(4.24) - .
[0.1...4], 0=[20...40] - -5153
0=[35...55] - -5225.

. 4.8 4.9, (0=0)
, - . ,
.

4.8.
. -

5153 (t0=0,P=l).

In

0.4625

1.0595

0.00988

0.917

0.154

107

78

1.9945

0.532

1.6-10-5

0.955

0.13

129

74.9

2.5

2.3847

0.4204 6.32-10-"

0.953

0.133

147.8

75

40

-11.7696

4.125

0.03583

0.9225 0.1168

115.1

79.9

40

-7.4463

2.551

7.4-10"5

0.9567

0.088

131.3

81.3

2.5

40

-6.3615

2.225

3.94-10"

0.9644

0.082

138.5

83.3

2.75

40

-5.9417

2.1038 9.24-10"7

0.9637

0.081

141.9

82.2

40

-5.5796

2.0011

2.18-10"7

0.9632

0.081

145.1

81

R, S
Zt, Z v , =2.5
-5153 =3.5 -5225. ,

Atm = p(tm,Z,)

Avm = p(vm,Zv)


-5225.
182

^=2.7,

= 2 5

-5153

Avm=1.6 =3.5

4.8

4.9


(4.20), (4.21) =1 (4.22),
[0.1...1] \

. 4.8 4.9 ( -
(3=0.2 1, -
).

-5225 ,

-5153

) , -,

.
,

.
,
VQ.

183

4.9.
.
-5225 (to=0, =1).

In

tm

2.7097

0.4887

0.00516

0.85

0.145

94.7

85.2

3.2085

0.2861

1-10"

0.917

0.11

119.6

84.3

3.45399

0.209

2.56-10*

0.929

0.095

133.

82.8

3.5

3.5423

0.1834

1.32-10"

0.94

0.094

142.3

80.5

35

0.44258

0.9729

9.64-103

0.80

0.1395 100.9

87.4

35

1.24209

5
0.6329 2.127-10"

0.92

0.105

122.2

87.8

35

1.65118

0.4995

0.936

0.077

139.8 88.05

3.25

35

1.77107

0.476

1.429-10* 0.945

0.072

143.6

88.7

3.5

35

1.80006

0.4548

3.35-10"

0.952

0.068

147.3

88.4

4.10.

6.1-10'*

. -5153 (=1).
to

138.56

16.815

2329.9

-1

0.81

0.0073

2.56

0.2

4.766

12.632

-1

0.85

0.0066

219.313

..

168232.12

-1.4956

4.11.

0.0062 0.953
0

0.137
0,164

0.932

. -5225 (=1).
to

153.89

23.2

3569.8

-1

0.931

0.002

2.687

0.2

6.77

18.18

-1

0.947 0.00177

275.338

276613.75 -1.5081
184

0.0057 0.966
0

0.963

0.081
0.085

-5153 -5225 (tm/TH> 1/2), (tm/T<l/3),


(4.16) (4.17)
, tm/TH >1/2,

>2,

,
.

(-5225 )

).

-01, -02, -03, -05,
- , -
/ .
.


,
.
(I )
(. ).
- 1458 , - 14.
:
-01: (Z t =180-230, Z v = 116-124),
-02: (Z,=190-240, Zv=70-78),
-03: (Z,=180-210, Zv=73-81),
-05: (Z t =110-180, Zv=102-112).
185

(4.23)

[0.2...3]

R>0.82

tm

>0.5).

(. 4.12-4.15) (t0=0, =1, 0=0)).

4.12.


. -01 (. ) (t0=0, |3=1).

In

0.2

4.72757

0.3382

0.68484

0.751

0.146 " 91.8

96.07

0.5

4.07363

0.1761

3.023-10'"

0.8213

0.126

135.7

98.1

4.07898

0.1189

5.5-10'"

0.8626

0.1119 216.2

99.4

4.15212 0.0795

3 -10"7

0.8211

0.126

364

97.6

0.2

64

1.5422

1.8698

2.6473

0.977

0.091

549.3

118

0.5

64

-0.9752

1.3316

0.1581

0.983

0.0791 283.6

102.5

64

-1.1283

1.1614

5.52-10"

0.9898

0.061

210.4

114.5

64

-1.0460

1.0551

1.2-10'5

0.9943

0.045

209.7 122.36

4.13.

tm


. -02 (. ) (t0=0, (3=1).

tm

Ym

1.4555

0.799

0.2844

50.7

52.32

0.2923

0.06394

0.8613

0.2404

83.6

52.7

3.2675

0.171

1.17-10'

0.899

0.2071

146.2

51.9

3.3552

0.1185

2.53-10-5

0.8841

0.2211

213.6

50

In

0.2

0.5

3.2554

1.5

4.64284 0.6384

186

a0

In a

tm

Ym

3.4275

0.0858

6.31-10"

0.8503

0249

213

46.7

0.2

30

0.8485

2.2724

3.2285

0.9921

0.0821

539.8

73.9

0.5

30

-2.1937

1.5801

0.18136

0.9943

0.0694

303.6

65.4

30

-2.3306

1.3616

5.93''

0.997

0.05

30

-2.2243

1.2388

1.3-10'

0.998

0.0375

4.14.

229.6 70.85
218.3

76


. -03 (. ) (t0=0, (3=1).
a

In a

tm

Ym

0.5

3.6631

0.1958

0.03428

0.851

0.127

130.5

68.4

3.6598

0.1347

6.4-10"

0.921

0.094

210.5

69.8

1.5

2.6986

0.1093

1.581-10"5

0.937

0.0840

276.9

69.4

3.731

0.0938

3.7-10'"

0.931

0.088

356

69.1

0.2

43

1.554

1.9451

2.9235

0.9833

0.077

407.4

76.7

0.5

43

-1.2129

1.3339

0.1692

0.9882

0.065

248.5

75.3

43

-1.3519

1.1364

5.65-10"3

0.9934

0.049

201

77.5

43

-1.2386

1.014

1.2-10"5

0.9931

0.05

205.5

80.65

* 4.15.


. -05 (. ) (t0=0, (3=1).
a

In a

tm

0.2

4.7079

0.4328

0.8634

0.859

0.126

98.9

93

0.5

18937

0.2222

0.03697

0.911

0.102

144.5

95.5

19097

0.1484

6.6-10"

0.929

0.091

224.8

96.1

1.5

19608

0.1182

1.58-10' 0.907

0.104

291.8

94.9

19994

0.1006

3.5-10"

0.119

379

94.3

187

0.875

a0

In a

0.2

52

3.3502

2.3708

4.1725

0.9867 0.0845 185.1

100.1

0.5

52

-0.57357

1.4656

0.231

0.991

104.5

52

-0.7167

1.1683

7.23-'

52

-0.5276

0.99

1.4-10"5

kn

0.069

161

0.992 0.0656 161.6

109.7

0.102

116.2

0.981

188


(4.17)
.

4- . 4.12-4.15

0 .

,
( -05), vm
v0

(vm-v0)

(40-50).
. , (4.24)

=1,2.

R ,
( t) ( v)
.

(4.20),
(4.21) ( =1) (4.22) .

(.

4.16-4.18)

188

.
, (=1, (3=0.2).

4.16.
. -01 (. ).

to

(3

114.857

4.1-10-4

0.9452

0.0664

597.349

-0.3022

0.9658

0.053

127.9

63.53

8125.2

-1

0.923

0.00095

2.18

0.2

33.24

72.34

-1

0.952

0.00075

0.5

153.04

6-10-4

7.57-10-3

0.968

0.066

634.42

-3.01-10"1

1-"8

0.98

0.053

4.17.

. -02 (. ).

to

78.4397

1.09-10"3

0.939

0.203

7369.54

-0.8278

0.977

0.1179

236.3

17.44

4120.7

-1

0.94

0.0056

2.846

0.2

6.48

18.45

-1

0.972

0.0038

(4.20)-(4.22)

(4.16),
.
.
4.16-4.18. R , (4.16)

.

-02, (4.16)
189

. ,
:

(t>)

(4.16)
, ,
, .

4.18.

. -03 (. ).

84.8072

549.111

-0.3481

0.911

0.102

140.06

41.68

5838.2

-1

0.777

0.003

46.85

-1

0.854

0.0025

to

0.2. 20.07

2335
0
0

5.1-10"4 0.961

0.0687

58.353

0.0512

6-10-4

0.971

0.069

131.47

-0.1001

2.3-10"7

0.98

0.058

4.19.

. -05 (. ).

107.087

509.79

-0.2895

0.956 0.0575

121

59.8

7231.3

-1

0.85

0.0014

2.155

0.2

31.19

67.23

-1

0.923

0.001

123.116 -0.0164

4-10-4

198.786 -0.1271

1.5-10" 0.994

to

190

4.1-10"4 0.991 0.0267

0.992 0.029
0.026


. ,
(, ) , t,
, , : =14-1.3,
= 1.2-1.4-10"5 (=2) (. . 4.12-4.15).

t<TH 0,
, t - b (. .
4.164.19), .
-01 -05 (0=4, 52), t>
.
-02 ( b
- ), - -03.
-
(. ). - 195 , -11.
:
-01: (Zt =80-5-105, 2^=1354-140),
-02: (Zt =60*85, Z v = 115-5-120),
-03: (Zt =70-90, Z^= 1084-112),
-05: (Zt =484-62, Zv=804-86).

,


(4.16)

=[0.2...3] ,

(R~0.724-0.8), .

(4.24)

0,

v0.
191

. 4.20-4.23 (4.24)

0 , ,

(0=0). ,

.

R ,

=1,2.

4.20.

. -01 (.
) (t0=0, =1).

In

tm

Ym

0.2

5.4838

0.5896

1.3934

0.72

0.154

42.4

115.2

0.5

4.2056

0.271

7.38-10'"

0.735

0.15

53.8

114.9

4.1863

0.169

2.3-10"

0.76

0.14

73.4

114.9

1.5

4.2307

0.1334

1.06-10"4

0.76

0.14

89

114.5

4.2721

0.113

4.45-10"

0.75

0.145

111

114.8

75

-0.6374

1.3078

1.63-10'

0.954 0.082

80.2

119.25

75

-0.3081

1.0029

4.7-10"

0.957 0.078 103.2

121.5

-01: Atm=0 =1, 2 ( t

), =16 =1, =13.5 =2;


-02: /=0 (=1.5, 2), =11 (=1), =9.6 (=2);
-03: /,=0 (=1.5, 2), =2 (=1), =0 (=2);
-05: . =0 (=1), ^=3.5 (=2), ,=6.4 (=1), ,=1 (=2).

=1 2

v.

-
192

,
.

4.21.

. -02 (.
) (to=0, (3=1).

In

tm

Ym

0.2

4.5378

0.2059

03857

0.51

0.165

135.5

91.75

0.5

4.1628

0.1481

3.32-10^

0.54

0.161

79.6

91.4

4.1017

0.1334

2-10-"

0.6

0.152

66.7

92.6

1.5

4.0844

0.1294

2-10^

0.658

0.144

63

93.2

4.0797

0.1264

1.45-10"5

0.699

0.137

66

95.62

0.5

70

-1.0665

1.5002

0.2251

0.923

0.101

177.7

101.7

70

-1.3667

1.3653

1.4-10'2

0.935

0.101

97.45

103.75

1.5

70

-1.4287

1.324

1.19-10'"

0.946

0.093

82

104

70

-1.4464

1.3

1.07-10-4 0.9545

0.085

77.9

105.4

4.22.

. -03 (.
) (t0=0, (3=1).

,.

tm

5.7-10"2

0.732

0.11

85951

136.8

0.1147

1.02-10"2

0.737

0.11

505.8 103.05

4.1173

0.1182

9-10-4

0.755 0.106

131

97

4.1026

0.1196

'*

0.777 0.102

86

95

4.0969

0.1196

8.9-10-*

0.795 0.098

82

99

64

-0.38337

1.1412

99.1

105.75

1.5

64

-0.3904

1.0827 8.791-10-4 0.991

87.7

106

64

-0.3773

1.0515

84.9

108.7

In

0.2

4.2151

0.1106

0.5

4.1501

1.5

>.

1.151-'2 0.988 0.048

7.3-10'5
193

0.04

0.994 0.033

4.23.
. -05 (. ) (t =0,

=1).

In

tm

0.2

4.579

0.4994

1.1032

0.649

0.205

59.4

61.7

0.5

3.535

0.2933

0.0777

0.68

0.198

57

62.5

3.445

0.2302

3.8-10^

0.7259

0.185

60.6

64.05

1.5

3.443

0.209

3-10-4

0.756

0.176

61

64

3.454

0.1961

2.5-10-5

0.77

0.172

63

64,5

0.5

30

0.2399

1.6057

0.4008

0.961

0.148

64.2

70.9

30

-0.1529

1.2614

2.06-10"

0.976

0.118

61.1

73.6

30

-0.121

1.09

1.27-10"4 0.9905

0.074

65.5

79

(2 )
-01, -02, -03, -05
(. ).
- 1856 , - 16.

.

-01: (2,=140-185, Z v =80-84),
-02: (Z t =180-240, Z v =72-76),
-03: (Z t =180-220, Z v =78-82),
-05: (Zt=100-180, Z v =77-81).

. 4.24

.
194

(4.16)

-01, -02, -03,


-05.

,
.
t

(4.20)-(4.22),

(. . 4.25).
. 4.25 ,
,

, - =1.

: ,
.
. 4.25 ,
-03, -01 -05,
-02.

4.24.
.
(. ) (=0, t0=0, (3=1).

In

tm

Ym

0.5

3.901

0.1782

3.38-10^

0.831

0.126

100.5

78,48

3.884

0.1279

7.98-10"

0.873 0.112

160.2

79.52

3.9518

0.0763

5.27-10-7

0.829 0.126

269.7

78.1

0.5

3.1297

0.4184

9.4-10"2

0.91

0.305

78.9

61.6

3.1605

0.229

1.6-10"3

0.96

0.208 142.7

58.44

3.4306

0.0955

7.6-10"

0.95

0.23

494

195

250.6

In a

0.5

3.613

0.2447

4.58-10-2

3.669

0.1444

3.7481

0.5

tm

Ym

0.954 0.099

195

72.48

7.4-10'

0.954 0.099

195

72.48

0.0912

3.8-10"

0.963

0.09

346

69.1

3.7254

0.2325

4.53-10'

0.91

0.105

96.3

73.46

3.7096

0.1534

1.02-10"3

0.93

0.09

149.3

73.9

3.7768

0.098

7.7-10'"

0.87

0.12

253

74.8

4.25.

(. ) (=1, =1).
to

1632.3

-0.5369

0.96

0.054

98.5

9.4-10"4

0.941

0.067

159.4

32.62

5358.8

-1

0.821

0.004

0.942

0.266

98.16

1.46-10"3

0.967

0.089

305.67

10.132

3097

-1

0.587

0.044

1243.05

-0.479

0.884

0.164

92.42

6.4-10^

0.967

0.089

187.33

34.247

6415.37

-1

0.66

0.007

2157.

-0.5847

0.911

0.057

93.8

9.5-10-4

0.92

0.027

212.6

293

6292.9

-1

0.76

0.025

54618.84 -1.1497

( -5225)
t.

196

(3 )

(. ).
- 1260 , - 103.

-01: (Zt =60-125, Zv=88-93),
-02: (Zt =40-75, Zv=97-102),
-03: (Zt =35-65, Z v =2-76),
IIIaHc-05:(Zt =40-60, Z v =88-92).

(4.16)
.

4.26

=0.5, 1, 2,
[0.2...3] .
. 4.26 (=0.5, 1,2).
(4.16)
=1

2,

t ,

=1, (3=1 . 4.27.


-,

. - -03
( -03 - ).

197

4.26.
. (. ) ( = 0,
to=0, (3=1).

In

tm

Ym

0.5

17802

0.3764

0.1007

0.901

0.227

55.9

93.9

18607

0.1778

0.0021

0.935

0.1854

88.4

882

4.0821

0.0649

1.7-10"6

0.953

0.159

127.4

80

0.5

17549

0.396

1.126-10'

0.912

0.236

49.4

90.7

3.8449

0.1753

2291--3

0.938

0.199

76.5

834

4.0855

0.0514

1.89-10"6

0.948

0.184

166.6

74

0.5

3.6719

0.265

7.097-10-2

0.88

0.196

55.7

67.2

3.7479

0.1165

1.339-10"3

0.907

0.174

87

63.5

3.9127

0.0347

9.5-10'"

0.933

0.149

135.1

54.8

0.5

3.641

0.4866

1.68-10'

0.972

0.14

33.6

79.7

3.6966

0.2037

4.17-10-3

0.983

0.11

484

72.6

3.9681

0.0447

5.25-10-6

0.959

0.17

119.6

67.1

4.27.

. (. )
(=1, =1).

0.8295

0.3

1.7-10"

0.9085

0225

-1

0.525

0.0176

3357.16

-0.728

0.848

0.3

107.087

1.9-10"3

0.921

0228

96.37

29.86

2877.55

-1

0.706

0.0074

75.208

-0.4257

0.774

0263

72.185

-1.045-"3

0.88

0.197

to

117.297

157.31

23.132

3638.96

4646.735 -0.7484

198

to

aQ

85.64

27.189

2328.56

-1

0.446

0.016

3760.06 -0.8487

0.928

0.222

94.6125

3.3-10'

0.985

0.103

80.214

17.256

1384,93

-1

0.665

0.018


,
,

. ,
,
.
4.3.

[ ..., 1957; ..., 1987;
.,

1989]

,
vKp=10 /2. t = c i r g { v ( t ) }

v=10

- .

.
-, ,

,
.

(10 /2.),
.
199

,
.
-,

4.3.1.

(=1),

. 800

19

/2.,

22

/2.

vKp=19

/2. tKp=co.
,

) tKp, .
-5225

10-15%

(vKp28

/ .).
15-25%
20 / .
( 20% ) tKp> vKp,
.

200

-5153 ,
(tKp)
.

, ,

. tKp

So6p<5-8% (-01, 63/2.), 5,<10-15%

(-05, 55/2.), So6p<2%

(-03, 35/2.) (So6p -

).

-02,

,
,

(0<1-2%) .
tKp So6p<l-2%
(vKp57

/2.),

/2.).

tKp

So6p>50%

(vKp20

2%<SO6P<50%

.

, - .
-01, -02, -05
tKp So6p, 5-15%
2

(vKp28.5 / .), 2-5% (~29 / .) 3-5% (vKp~35 / .)


.
2

-03 21 / .
.
.
, ,

201

. tKp
(, 70-90%),
. tKp,
q (
), :
tkp

q=Jv(t)dt

(4.30).


,

. ,

: 10 , 3-4
[ ., 1989; ., 1991].

,
,

( S0ep=\-5%).

(tKp)
vKp,
(So6p<5%).

.

- .
4.3.2


( < ) ,
202

:
,

.
:
, , -5153,
-02

-5225,

-01, -05,

-03 .

(S06P) .

:
&%,=100exp{-exp(-X(t)}, &<70%

(4.31),

X(t)=l t + , %>0, <0

(4.32).


S06P 50-70%.
. 4.9.

, .
. , X
.
X

(4.32)

X = -1(-1(57100)).

(4.32) (4.31)

S t.
tKp -
SKp -
= t (&) = (X*p-b)/a = [{-ln(-ln(&p/100))-b}/ ]

203

(4.33).

s,%
90-

. 4.9.
( = -1(-1(5100)).

SKp ,
.

( 9.412), 5 -
, 4, 3,2, 1 - 5%, 15%, 15
30%, 30% [ ., 2003].
SO6P=0 SO6P<03%.
-
. 1%

30%

SKp
.
204


12 X(t),
[,] =1/ :
:

X(t) = 0.2345t - 8.707,

X(t) = 0.23t-9.1

-5153:

X(t) = 0.393t - 5.803,

-5225:

X(t) = 0.1378t-3.303

(4.34);

(4.35);

(. )
-01, 05:

X(t) = 0.033t - 2.525,

-02:

X(t) = 0.052t - 2.034,

-03:

X(t) = 0.022t - 2.8

(4.36);

(. )
-01

X(t) = 0.5571t-18.67,

-02

X(t) = 0.553t - 16.74,

-03

X(t) = 0.476t - 18.44,

-05

X(t) = 0.2 t - 3.1

(437).

, (\)
(2)

(\&2), ,,>2,

.
, ,
. ,

-ln(-lnS))

= -1.76.
(4.36)
, -03, .
- ,
.

(4.34)-(4.37)

4.13

tKp SKp.
205

, . 3.10

, t

&= = -1.76 (.5=0.3%), X = -1.1


(Sasp=5%), X = -0.82} (3^=10%), X = -0.64 ( ^ = 1 5 % ) , X = -0.476 (5^=20%),
X = -0.186 ( ^ = 3 0 % ) .
tKp

X(t),

= -1(-1 (/100)). , ,
SKp=\0% (. . 4.9 (4.34)-(4.37))
-5153 12.6, -5225 - 17.9, - 33.6,
- 36.0 .
, SKp,
,
, &=5% -01
tKp=43.3 , - tKp=31.5 .

,()

.)
=0 366 (8=50%)

38 4 0 ' *'
-X^0186(S=30%)
- -=-0 476 (8=20%)
--X=-0 640(S=15%)
X=-0 830(S=10%)
X=-1100(S=5%)

X=-1760(S=0 3%)
-02 ()

=0 366 (8=50%)

-03 ()

X=-1760(S=0 3%)

1 -2 , . (aj; - ,
. (); , . ().

206

.
4.4.

4.4.1.

-
,

.
,

,
- -
, .

-5226
Rabamarme AF Tikkunla
(, - ).
t3$ .

Tikkunla

Temamastic

St300

(,) Temacoat

RV040

(2)

Rabamarme AF;
, ,
207

-436

-5226 ().

10-^15% .

- ,
- .


[ ..., 1981].

t^

:
-

[ ., 1989; ,
, 2003], ..


;
-
,
;
-

-,

t3(j, ;
-

;
- ( ,
)
.

(.4.2-4.7). 200-300
208

: -
- , ,
.

(, 2) (
2 , )
639 (. 4, 2).

.
,

,
.

4- ,

90-100

/2. 35 /2. 8-9

Z y

,
, . ,

(
)

vKp = 19 /2.,

1630 (.4.11).

: Z c - (4-5 ),
209

Z y - ( ) ZKp -
vKp

3-

).


[ ., 1989].

-:
Vo(t)e(F(t)}= {+ a(f - to}' exp(-kf)}

(4.38),

, , .
0, a, b, , (3

(4.38) [
, 1989; , 1985].
V, /2
120

10

100

t,

200

. 4.11.
(Tl, 2) () .
210

, , ,
.

, , Z y
, - ZKp

vKp .

- ,

te Z y ;

- ,

,
npnte Z K p .


, .. .

.
( ).
(4.38):
Fo(t)= {at" exp(-kf)}

(4.39),


In v(t) = In + b lnt - kt a

(4.40)

a e [0.2, 3].
211


2, , Z , -
. t= 427 .
. 4.28 ,
R ,

S =1.

(4.40)

=1

,
6-8 /2.

4.28.

(t=427 ).

In

0.2

637

5.01

10.144

0.9

0.078

1.003

0.906

7.72-10"3

0.905

0.076

2.629

0.37

9.9-10"*

0.8

0.096

0.2

6.424

3.573

7.391

0.915

0.065

2.466

0.514

5.6-10-"

0.925

0.061

3.715

0.1227

7.12-10*

0.85

0.072

0.2

6.646

4.054

832

0.91

0.07

2.172

0.6148

6.34-10"

0.925

0.064

3.573

0.1752

8.12-10*

0.85

0.08

4.28-4.31

(S) .

, :
v(t) = a exp(-kt)
212

(4.41),

(4.38)

v(t) = a ^

(4.42),

v(t) = a0 + a/(tp-b)

(4.43).

. 4.29
. 4.29,

, (4.41) (4.42) (S - ),

(3=1 (3.43) (S -
1/v).

4.29.
.

Ti

120.22

3.64-'

0.9

0.069

1161.08

-1.006

0.95

0.048

22.23

251

112.8

0.988

0.0125

101.83

3.2--

0.895

0.06

5496.4

-0.875

0.946

0.044

22.86

242

106

0.987

0.00125

118.96

3.52-'

0.905

0.06

8365.2

-0.934

0.95

0.044

23.1

257.8

111.3

0,989

0.001

Z y

( ,
Z y ).
,

Z y , 3-4 /2.

213

,
, .

Z y

- -,
.
:

Z c -

Zy -

:
,:

v= max (158.65 -0.502t, 37.29 -0.012 t)

(4.44),

R,= 0.98, S, =5.3; R2= 0.95, S2 =0.42;


T2:

v= max (133.5-0.3956t, 36.58 -0.01021)

(4.45),

R,= 0.94, S, =6.3; R2= 0.92, S 2 =0.47;


P:

v= max (154.3-0.475t, 40.56-0.0182 t)

(4.46),

R,= 0.96, S, =6.2; R 2 = 0.982, S 2 =0.33.



Zc Zy - .


,
Z y ,
ZKp.
(4.40)


. .
4.30.

S .
214

, , 1

=(, t+3<j>).
4.30.

lna

0.5

0.921

1.232

2.36-10''

0.9

0.2

2.4565

0.4587

3.94-10"3

0.91

0.19

3.77

0.0736

3.34-10'"

0.82

0.28

-5

0.5

2.276

0.821

1.82-10-'

0.92

0.19

15

3.45

0.227

3.07--

0.93

0.18

10

3.827

-0.068

2.64-10"6

0.89

0.22

-25

0.5

1.94

0.9632

2.06-10"'

0.92

0.19

3.275

0.289

3.46-10"3

0.93

0.18

3.985

-0.047

2.96-10'*

0.89

0.24

-25

t3$M

t^ M

:
= [ i n f 0 ,)] sign(t^M . i
I

n f

(4.47).

, t3(^M (1 < inf ),


;
1 (1: >8), >0

215

; , 1 , =0
.


In v Kp =lnl9. (3.47)
. 4.30.
. 4.30


. Z c
Z y ,
.
R
, , ,
ZKp,
=1.
, , (=625)
0:=635) , 2 -
(,=645).

(4.41) - (4.43), - :

v= m a x (%i t + b,; a2t + b 2 ; te Zc uZ y uZ K p )

(4.48),

( bi), (a2, b2) ,


Z c Z y uZ K p , .

(4.41)-(4.43)

. 4.33. . 4.31
, - ,
- .

216

R, ,

, .

1-1.5

).

, (4.55.5 ).

4.31.

79.74

2.13-10 3

0.89

0.17

36

3724.7

-0.787

0.92

0.15

134

19.7

24.89

126.4

0.84

0.006

00

74.37

1.99-10"

0.9

0.16

44

2456.8

-0.7271

0.91

0.15

175

24.38

122

0.82

0.06

00

83.14

2.195-10"3

0.91

0.16

34

4062.2

-0.8074

0.94

0.14

134

26

130

0.85

0.06

00

2
20

19.98

,
(4.41) - (4.43),
, ZKp,
.
-
Z c uZ y uZ K p = (120 640 ) :
217

T,.-

v= m a x (158.65 -0.502t, 47.306 -0.0397 t)

(4.49),

R,= 0.98, S, =5.3; Rz= 0.89, S; =2.9;


T2:

v= m a x (133.5 -0.3956t, 47.14 -0.0394 t)

(4.50),

R,= 0.94, Si =6.3; Rz= 0.88, S2 =3;


P:

v= m a x (154.3-0.475t, 50.22-0.044 t)

(4.51),

R\= 0.96, S, =6.2; R2= 0.9, S2 =2.6.


a,t+b,, ZC;
(. (4.44)-(4.46)), a 2 t+b 2
ZKp.

2 - 2.5 ( =60-80 ).
,
.

, Z c ,
Z y - ZKp

.
,

, (4.39)

,
- , Z y ,

ZKp

.
,

,


.
218

. ,
(. . 4.30) (. . 4.31,
(4.49)-(4.51)) ,
= 639 , 1 = 630
( ).
,
v = vKp .

, t = .
-
( , t*

),

,
1, .. .

, t* Z c (
,

)
Z y

,
.
,
3-5
,

- , ,

, . - .
219


-639

(0, t 0 ), t0<T,

, (t>t0).

.
:

R S;
-
;

t*

.
:
tk ->min>

Rk > R0, Sk < S 0

(4.52),

I Ak l< ,
tk - , Rk, Sk, A k -
, ,
R0, So,, -

.
,

t*

396

220

(. . 4.28 4.29).

: 460-480 (, = 625 635 ).
: 520-^530
. -

. 1
, vKp = 19
/2.,
.

TV

v = 11619.4 t" 1 0 0 3 , R = 0.945, S = 0.046

(4.53),

T2:

v = 6359.7 t"0'905, R = 0.94, S = 0.045

(4.54),

P:

v= 9395.8 t ^

(4.55).

R=0.95, S=0.046

600

=-25),

2 - 616 ( , =-9),
- 629 .
, .

, S lnv.
v S = Sv.

:
ln(vKp IS vKp) = lna+b-lnt

(4.56),

1 - , .
80%

1 = 1.28

X], 2:
221

(4.56)

In , = (1/b) (ln[vKp(l+1.28 S)]-lna) = (1/b) (lnl9(l+1.28 S)-lna)

(4.57),

In x2 = (1/b) (ln[vKp(l-1.28 S)] -lna) - (1/b) (lnl9 (1-1.28 S) -lna).


S, a, b
(4.53)-(4.55) , ,

80%

, 570-630 , 2 - 590-642
,

- 596-662 .

5-13
.
, ,


Z y ,

,
t=ti,

R
. R
(t,=t*), ,
2

vKp = 19 / .,

t2>ti .


a'priori , - (
222

), ,

. ZKp, ,
,
, ,

.
,


, - .
.

q(t)

v(t)

q(t)= jvMdr

(4.58)

v(t),

[, 1970].
. 4.32
4

q(t)

,
.
, ZKp
2

26300^-28000 / .,

2 -

262004-27900 /^., - 28200-29800 /^.



(t560 ).
223

t3<{, = 630 .

q 0 = q(0).

,
:
qocrr 2 h P P = 34300-35700 /2.

2 ,
:
qo(?)= 2Qmp= 34200-36000 /2.

- 35000 /2.

75% ( - 80%)
,
ZKp.

4.32. q(t)
, q(t), /2


t,
1

55

73

64

180

118

140

129

270

180

203

191.5

362

293

323

308

521

391

441

416

670

477

556

516.5

811

11

553

662

607.5

945

18

808

1008

908

1372

25

1064

1356

1210

1815

224


t,
32

1337

1725

1531

2218

39

1645

2128

1886.5

2630

46

1991

2557

2274

3068

54

2423

3073

2748

3603

61

2833

3541

3187

4098

79

4021

4821

4421

5490

91

4957

5749

5353

6510

120

7660

8182

7921

9215

151

10574

10745

10659.5

12106

182

12880

12798

11839

14392

213

14616

14406

14511

16159

243

15960

15751

15855.5

17586

274

17073

16864

16968.5

18776

305

18137

17924

18030.5

19877

335

19136

18926

19031

20922

366

20152

19943

20047.5

21981

396

21157

20947

21052

22983

427

22149

21940

22044.5

23994

458

23153

22950

23051.5

24990

486

24073

23879

23976

25882

515

24980

24795

24887.5

26793

547

25985

25803

25894

27791

578

26851

26672

26761.5

28658

609

27581

27396

27488.5

29388

639

28189

28002

28095.5

30000

, q(t), /

225

20% (

15%)

.
,
ZKp,
, , .


.

, v(t), te Z y
Z y .
,
t3$,
Z y , ^ -
.

.
- Z y
. q(t), te Z y

te

(4.44)-(4.46)

v=a2t+b2,

Zy,

q(t):
q(t)= q(W + |(, + 6 '

(4.59),

t 0 Z y .
t0=274, q(t0=274) . 4.30, 2,
2 (4.44) - (4.46) :
:

q(t)= 7265+36.935t - 0.00555t2

q(t)=8345.8+40.567t-0.0091t
226

(4.60),
(4.61).

,
, 2 Z y ZKp
,
.
,

Zy

, .
(4.60) (4.61) q0=35000,
f:

Q(t)= 20.757+0.1055t - 1.586 *10"5t2

(4.62),

Q(t)=23.845+0.1159t - 2.6 "10 " 5 1 2

(4.63).

75% 80%,

, ..

t,,

: t,=562 553 .

t3$, 80%, -

85%. :
1=619 () = -6, 1=612 () = -13.

,
,
.

Zy

,
(4.44) - (4.46):
f:v(t)= 36.92- 0.0109 t,
: v(t)= 40.51 - 0.018 t.
, 335-

.
t, t3^
, ,
227

.
,
:
q(t) Si= at2+bt+c.
0.2,

1 =1.28

80%

, t,

530-594

, - 528-580 .
1

(588 - 650 ),

(585 - 640 ) -

.
, ,


, , .
, ,
,
.

.
-
()
(, 2) - ,
, (.5, 2).

228

.
( ),

v ycn (. 4.12).

V, /
140*

120-

100-

100

200

300

500

400

600

700

t ,

. 4.12. (1),
(2) - (3) .

,
.

, 2

,
.

, ,
18 /2.,
.
229

, 11 ,

.
2 ,
,.

] 2 (
,

),
. ,

(1(1)=11-12 ,
^()=7-8

. ,


, , - .

2-2.5

146

33 / .

18

33 28 /2.

19

/2.
, vKp,
- vKp = 19
/ .,

t=^=500 .
,
: Z c (45 ), Z y

( 9 )

ZKp ( 2 ).
230


(4.40)
In v(t) = lna + b lnt - kt a
a, b, k, a, a e [0.2, 3],
- (4.38) ,
, , - .

- ,
, , ..
:

Z y

ZKp.

(4.38)

t 0 , t 0 e Z y ,

Z c

Zy

325 .
,

Z c uZ y ,

,
-:
- v=24.13+18.92/(t-78.4),
R=0.93, S =0.037

(4.64);

- - v= {180.47 - 0.703t, 37.37 -0.01975t, t=60-480},


Ri=0.998,8|=2.4

&2=0.968, Sz=0.5
231

(4.65).

- -
, - .

S,

v).

Z y .

,
ZKp.
.

t = 563 .
=0.5, 1, 2 . 4.33.

R ,

4.33. .
-

lna

0.5

4.5294

0.384

-1.79-101

0.966

0.214

-15

4.482

0.1113

-4.6-10"

0.963

0.226

-12

4.6797

-0.042

-5.8-10-*

0.927

0.31

12


Z c Z y , (4.64) 232

(4.65). . 4.33
t

( ) (t~525 )

=(510- 530

).

R ZKp .
( 2- ) .


, , ,

.
. 4.34,
, - ,
- .

4.34. .

- .
0

107.74

3.4-10'"

0.92

0.24

-1

9737

-0.991

0.95

0.23

12

19.7

18

93.5

0.84

0.09

00

,
.

.
,
12 .
233

-
v=max{ 180.47 - 0.703t, 44.03 -0.045t, te (60-563)},
R,=0.998, S,=2.4 R2=0.927, S2=2.8, A =25

,
.
, - ,

: Z c -

, Z y - ZKp -
vKp .

( -)

Z c

Zy,

-
Z K p.

. ,


(4.39)
( ),
(4.38), -
,
.
,
(4.52), t*
,
234

. ,
- , , ,
Z c , Z y ZKp,
.

, , ,
, Z c ,
,

Z y ,
.
,

,

vKp=19 / .
= (510 530 ).

,
, , ( t*
)

, ,

(4.52).
,
, t* = 393 :
v(t)= 12970 f'^
R=0.94,

(4.66),

8=0.052.


, S - .

500

235

= 500-510 =-10.


R, ,
( - 65 , - 80 ),
( - ).
S
,
.

, 20%

, (4.57),
In ,,2 = (ln{vKp(l1.28S)}-lna)/b = (1{19(11.28-0.052}-9.4703)/(-1.05)
80%

4704-534 .

. ,

.
.

, q(t)
- .
, . 4.35.
(
ZKp) 28200-28500 /2,

2920-29500 /2. ,

,
.
,
, q0 = q(0)
236

,
q0 = 35000 /2.
4.35. q(t) - .

, q(t), /2

100

177

132

263.4

366

444

516

634

736

834

15

1546

1581

22

2407

2381

29

3310

3224

59

7510

7114

90

11724

11063

120

15151

14333

149

17834

16865

180

20035

18892

208

21413

20117

243

22648

21258

273

23608

22221

304

24594

23210

325

25251

23876

361

25005

393

24977

420

26741

478

28374

506

29052

535

29610

t,

237

, q(t), /2

t,

30066

563

, 15-17%
, ,

.
( )

.

Z y

- Z y .
, ,

Z y (4.65) :
v(t) = 37.36- 0.01975 t.
t=208
:
q(t)= q(208) + j\(r)dr= 12772.5+ 37.36t- 9.87510'Y ,
208


. Z y
.

.

3- -

t = 208, 243 273-305 .


238


(4.65):
v(t) = 36.9- 0.01902 t ; R=0.98, S=0.54.
Z y

:
q(t)= q(208) + jv(r=12853+ 36.9 t- 9.5110'Y
208


q(t) = (q(t)/qo(0) 0% = 36.723+ 0.1054 t- 2.71410'Y

(4.67).

(4.67) 80-81%
( ZKp - 470480 ),
.

q(t)

ZKp
t,
. - 514 .
(, 20%),

(4.67)

80% 490-540 .

- -

9 .

4- .
Z c ,
5-6 55-85
/2. 23-25 /2 ., Z y ,
23-25 /2. 19-20 /2.,
239

ZKp,
13 /2.

ZKp

14
/2.
:
19.1-19.4 /2. 16.5
-17 /2.,
.
14 /2.
(. 6, 2).
,

,
.
- .



.
,
Z c Z y
,
.
, , , 533 :
,:

v(t)=14.85 + 20.46/(t-138),

R=0.978, S=0.0009;

2:

v(t)=14.44 + 21/(t-145),

R=0.98, 8=0.001;

P:

v(t)=13.38 + 20.6/(t-154),

R=0.96, S=0.0015.

1,

( R

S )

.
240

-
:
,: v(t)=max {89.077-0.206 It, 26.804-1.1567-"21, t e Z c u Z y }

(4.68),

Ri=0.9995, S,=0.34 R2=0.92, S2=0.6;


T 2 : v(t)=max{106.69-0.2665t,

26.95-1.193-10'^ t, t e Z^u Zy}

(4.69),

R2=0.93, S2=0.6;

R,=0.995,S!=1.4H

P: v(t)=max{137.34-0.378t, 23.782-6.861-10"4,tE ZcUZy}

(4.70),

Ri=0.999, Si=l R2=0.98, S2=0.19.


-
R,
S.
,
Z c Z y ,

ZKp,

,
.

(4.40)

. 4.36.
4.36.

lna

0.5

1.267

0.928

1.766 10"'

0.925

0.17

20

1.958

0.449

3.25-10'

0.92

0.19

2.734

0.189

2.83-10"

0.83

0.25

0.5

1.332

0.964

1.89-10"'

0.91

0.21

2.081

0.449

3.47-10"3

0.91

0.22

2.923

0.1681

3-10""

0.82

0.28

0.5

1.904

0.926

2.04-10*'

0.89

0.27

-10

2.789

0.348

3.63-10'

0.9

0.23

-15

3.75

0.35

3-10"

0.81

0.3

-20

241

=1, R

=1 =0.5 ,

[\ ( = 685-705 ).

4.36

2 .
. 4.37 ,
(,
, ).
- :
.: v(t)=max{89.077-0.2061t, 30.6-2.03-10^ t, tE ZcU Zy uZ*p},
R,=0.9995, S,=0.33 R2=0.86, S2=1.7, =112;
T 2 : v(t)=max{106.69-0.2665t, 30.75-2.07-10'^ t, te Z^uZy u Z ^ } ,
R,=0.995, Si=1.4 R2=0.87, S2=1.7, =104;
P:v(t)=max{137.34-0.378t,

30-2.08-10 4 , teZcUZyUZ^},

R,=0.999, Sj=l H R 2 = 0 . 8 8 , S2=1.6, =158.


4.37.

58

3314

-0.8184

13.6

20.12

147

64.2

0.16

25

0.955

0.12

91

0.91

0.006

00

2.14-10"

0.91

0.18

5577

-0.902

0.95

0.13

60

13.4

20.54

154

0.92

0.006

00

68.2

2.27-10"

0.87

0.25

8787

-0.977

0.92

0.19

26

13.05

20.4

157

0.93

0.07

00

1.96-10" ^ 0.92

242


:
, .
- : R
,
4-5 .

.
,
.
-
,
-
.

.

, -

Z y
.

,
,

243

.
- ,
t*

, -


, ,
.
, ,
580 , (4.38)

.
,:

v(t)= 5230.6 f ^ ,

R=0.9,

S=0.06

Tz:

v(t)= 8696.7 f * \

R=0.95, S=0.063

P:

v(t)= 13814.61"106,

R=0.93, S=0.07

(4.71);
(4.72);
(4.73).

R
,
.
( ) :
,:

= 0 ( =690),

= -5 ( =680),

=-17 ( =668).

,
. ,
80% , 640-740 , 2 - 625735 , - 610-730

,

,
t
244

, t* ( t
).
t* (4.38),
, ,
. ,
t* . ,

t* 3-4

, 3-4
(.. 400-430 ),
,

-)

. 9 (
Zy) .


- .

4.4.2.

-
. (),
(,, 2) , ,
. 4.38.

245

4.38. q(t) .
, q(t), /2


t,
1

16

20

18

55

33

42

37.5

80.5

73.4

90

81.7

137

166

198

182

265

26

614

751

682,5

983

38

983

1124

1053.5

1558

68

1854

2078

1966

3160

90

2555

2919

2737

4521

134

4434

5097

4765.5

7851

159

5732

6581

6156.5

9905

186

7149

8199

7674

11896

225

8971

10241

9606

14229

252

10044

11378

10711

15489

277

10910

12248

11579

16399

308

11806

13144

12475

17228

327

12275

13614

12944.5

17643

362

13101

14440

13770.5

18400

396

13863

15202

14532.5

19125

420

14379

15718

15048.5

19624

449

14904

16243

15573.5

20137

480

15564

16902

16233

20774

508

16168

17504

16836

21350

533

16676

18012

17344

21855

580

17625

18966

18295.5

22795

610

18223

19565

18894

23377

637

18754

20098

19426

23907

246

, q(t), /2


t,
667

19336

20681

20008.5

24488

681

19588

20933

20260.5

24740

709

20009

21354

20681.5

25167



24500-24700 /2,

,
,

7 - 20000-20200 /2

.
24800-25100 /2, - 20200-20500 /2.
,
, .
, q0 35000 /2,
, 56-60%, -
70%, -
.

- ,
Z y :
2

7: qT(t)=qT(327)+ J (26.88-1.174-" t)dt =4782.4+ 26.88 t -5.87-10'Y (4.74),


327

P : qP(t)=qP(327)+ J (23.782-0.6860"2 t)dt=10233+23.782t-3.43-10"3t2 (4.75).


327

(4.74) (4.75)
,
Z y ZKp.
247



Z y 58-60% 70% .
Zy
3-4 ,
Z y
:
vy(t)=27.133 - 1.2223 t,

Vp(t)=23.67 - 0.685 t.

( %%)
,
q(t):
qT(t) = 13.5 + 0.0775 t -1.746-1 (512

(4.76),

qp(t) = 29.24 + 0.0679 t - 0.98-10^ t^

(4.77).

(4.76) (4.77)

ZKp.
,

.
, 20%,

( 80%) :
(659 696 ),

(654 700 ).

,

654-700 , 400-420 .
.

, ,

[, , , 1965; , 1966; ,
1983].
248

X(i)

1983],

:
=v(t)/(qo-q(t)),

t .
v(t) = dq/dt, ^(t)
go-g(f)

q(t):
q(t) = qo(l-exp(-J;i(fXf))

, q 0 ,
q(t)=l-exp(-jA(OA)

(4.78).

, q(t)

X(t).

A,(t)

l(t)= k a f '

(4.79),

k>0, >0 - , (1/) |/ - .


X(i)

.
<1

. =1

A,(t)=const ,

, (
,
, ).

.
249

>1

( ) - " ".
>1
.
,
.
(4.79) (4.78),
q(t):
q(t) = 1 -exp(-kf)

(4.80).

[ , 1985].

(4.80),

:
v(t)= qo (exp(-kf ) ak f '

(4.81).

(4.81)
:
0 = (atbexp(-kta)} b = a-1.
,

(4.80),

.
(4.80), ,

ln(-ln(l- q(t)/q0)) = Ink + a lnt

(4.82).

(4.82)

Ink .

, ,
250

S.
R ( 1)
.
.

639 (.. 4.34). t>25


( 1 [ ., 2003]
)

:
: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) = -6.541 + 1.112 lnt

(4.83),

R=0. 9988, S=0.06;


f: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) = -6.77 + 1.134 lnt

(4.84),

R=0. 999, S =0.06.


- .

563 , 325 (. 4.35).


,

.
t>4 (
)
: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) = -5.828 + 1.039 lnt

(4.85),

R=0. 999, S=0.06;


T,: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) = -6.06 + 1.062 lnt

(4.86),

R=0. 996, S =0.09.


.

, ] 2 709 (. 4.38/


: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) = -7.3385 + 1.1644 lnt
251

(4.87),

R=0. 996, S=0.08;


f: ln(-ln(l-Q(t))) =-7.83 +1.175 lnt

(4.88),

R=0. 999, S =0.03.


(4.82) - (4.88)

S ,

(. 4.13).

.

( ).

1,


. ,

().
:
- , - - .

, .
b ( )
, b (
) - - .
(4.80)
,
.

, ,
(, )
252


(4.82).

, (4.82) .
. 4.13 ,
-03,

2438 .

:
ln(-ln(l-Q(t))= -8.5106 +1.175 lnt

(4.89),

R=0.998, S=0.05.

ln(-ln(l-Q(t)))

lnt

. 4.13.
() - (1), (2),
(3) -03 (4).
.

253

(4.87) (4.88) , .
b ,

(4.87) (4.88),

-03.
, ,
(4.80),
(4.81) ,

. , ,
,
. (4.81)
,

= (atbexp(-kta)}, .. t
.
-

.
q(t), (4.80)
-,
- [, 1969]:
q ( t ) s q , ( c i t ) = q2(c2t),

q(t), q,(t), q2(t) -


-, , , 2 ,
.
, ,

, .
254

. .

-,

1.039-1.065,

1.11-.135,

1.16-.18

.
,

1.11

,
-

(k/ki)17 2 , -
(/)17 3.5.

( , 2 -

(4.82) - (4.88), -,
). , 2
, -, - 3.5 .
,
<{\), -
, ,

Po(t)= (k/ki)\
p(t)=(-f*

/a

t:

f"= =[(A)l/aY'"')-']t;

i=l,2.

; , ,

q>{\)

-
(0,), 500-540 .
y(t) =(-/<*;("'"'>-' .

; a, y(t)

t<T, , t
255

. ,


7 ( t ) = ( - ) ^ f - ' = (-f<* (1-(_)).

y(t)
(, ) {Tj}, y(t)
y(t) Yj

yj.
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=1.9
t (t<40-b60 ) - .
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t m a x 120 .
t " " ,
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,

=1.2

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(500-530 ) t(600H-640 ),
.,
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- 1.2-1.3 .
.
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3 ,
y(t)
y(t)l .5- .7.
256

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), ,

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( t*),
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R S
.
(ln(-ln(l-Q(t))), lnt)
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(

t m ,

),
.

, ,
:
- 25-^90 ,
257

- - 4- ,
- 8--134 .
,
.
:

7: ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -6. 845 +1.403 hit

(4.90),

R= 0.999, S=0.04;
P : ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -6. 5 +1.1121 lnt

(4.91),

R= 0.998, S= 0.035;
-
T,: ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -6. 11 +1.058 lnt

(4.92),

R= 0.998, S=0.03;
P : ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -5.826 +1.038 lnt

(4.93),

R= 0.999, S= 0.026;

7: ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -7.819 +1.173 lnt

(4.94),

R= 0.999, S=0.03;
P : ln(-ln(l-Q(t)) = -7.380 +1.16 lnt

(4.95),

R= 0.998, S= 0.035.
1 R S

t ^

.
M

t ^

80%

85% - - , 60%
70% - .
( )= -2
( t % =613), ()= -1 (t%=614);

- (,)=-6 ( t %
258

=504), ()=-3 ( =507);

( ) = 0 (=696), ()=-5

(=680). ,
.
,
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80%) :
- 587-40 . 590-641 .,
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- 672V720 . 654V710 .
,
,

:
.
E=((T-t*)/T) 100%, ,

- :

=92-93% ( - 50%),

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80% ( - 43%).

, -

, - 2-
6- .
,
. ,
, (4.2)
, , .
,
.
259

,
Q(x)
:
.
{, Q(x)} ,
Q(x)
1 .
- :
* = Q(%)
1, = pVQ(x)

(4.96),

- , x=t max + {54-20}; (3 - ,


: (31 ,
=1.35-1.4 - , = 1.75 4-2- - .
- (4.96)

:

7:

180 Q ( T ) 0 . 2 2 ,

150 Q(X)

0.24,

600 4-800 ;

,7:

~130 Q(x) =0.28-0.29,

% 600 4-640 ;
-
, 7:

65 Q(x)0.22,

t3(J) 490 4-560 .


, -

. -,
, ,
260


.
,

.
Q(x) (, )
.
.
, , (4.96) ,

,

4.4.3.

, (.
.

4.13).


{1},

.


{1}.
261

, ,

, .

{1}
,

.
, ,

: ,
,
[ ., 2003].


[,
, 1983; , 1986; ..., 1989].
.
(Oil ...1]) i-ro (i=l...m), N - 1
.

[, 1986; ..., 1989] .


m<n
,

:
, , .

1.5

t,C; , /;

S, %;

.
262

, /

m

.
.

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3- (
, - ).

[, 1967; , 1986]
.
,

.
,

,
[, 1978; ., 1982].
,

(t, 0 2 , ),
0 2
:
=8.1569-0.1065 t

(4.97),

R=0.994; S=0.13;
- 1560.14 + 203.06 t

(4.98),

R=0.988; S=0.26.
-

).
,

5-

2- ,
263

-
.
, 0 2
(4.97) - (4.98), .

:
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;
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1.

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() = ^1

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()
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.
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3.
. ,
264

e>m t S. ,
[ ...,

1981]

= + 1 .
-
.
, 2 Ink
(4.82), (4.85), (4.87) ; , 2
-

(4.99) b
, (t)
(S):
ln(-ln(l-Q(t)))=[l,298-3,l-10"3t-5,2-10"3S]lnt+[0,0305t+0,0589S-8,68]
(4.100).
(4.100)
(, - ),
, , ,

- ,

, , , -
.
:
In (-ln(l-Q(t)))= 1.069 lnt-6.16.
,

, ,

= (21; 33; 31).

, -

(4.99) ,
:
VyCT=11.3-0.09t + 0.66S

(4.101).

. ,
265

, (4.101):
Vyc = 9.8 + 0.668

(4.102).


- .
(4.101)- .
, , ,

:
( = 890.5 - 4.72 t - 7.14 S

(4.103),

. , ,
560 .
,

[ ., 20036].


.
4.5.
1.

- , , - -

266

..
2.


:
( 1,5 4 )
( ).
,

: ,

.
3.

v(t)

. ( -),
v(f) ={(1)}= { + (/ - ,)* (-)},

Y{t)-At exp{-kt)

a0=to=0; [3=1.
- , :

,
,

"" v(t).

.

267

2- .

r 0 (t)=

{atb

exp(-kta)},

, b,
:
In v(t) = 1 + b lnt - kt a

, , , a

; ae[0.2;3].

.
,

() (Pi) :
: ^ ( t ) = 65+0.0256*Y^exp(-1.093 *10^f)
P i : ^(t) = 85+0.0301*t' *^exp(-2.289*10'Y)

r 0 (t), ao=to =0, (3=1,
:
- Ts(t) = atb, ( ao = t 0 = k = 0, P=l);
e

- Te(t) =aexp(-fa ), ( = t 0 = b = 0, p=l);


p

- Th(t) = ao + a{t - toy', ( k = 0, b= -1);


- - .

.
4.
tKp, ,

v(tKp)=vKp., .

268

tKp, v(tKp)=
vKp.
, vKp =19 /2.

([ ) ( ) .
1.003

v= 11619.4 t"1 UUJ ; R=0.945;

v= 6359.7 f ^

; R=0.94 ;

v= 9395.8 f ^

; R=0.95;

, 600 , 2 616 , - 629 ,

.
5. q(t),
, ,
tKp, - vKp -
.
Q(t) = q(t)/q0= 1 - ( -^A(t)dt), q 0 - .

,
Q(t) :
Q(t)=l-exp(-kf),
6. ,

- , 7580% :
Q(T^) = q(T^)/qo=0,75-08
, :
: ()=659-680 . (-681 .).
()=654-668 , (-681 .).
269

()=562-619 , (-639.).
()=553-612 , (- 639 .).

()=470-514 , (- 361 ., ).
()=480-513 , (- 535 .).

7.

- .

2- 6-
.

ln(-ln(l- q(t)/q0)) = lnk+ a Int.


,
,
,

t m a x ,


, , - .
Q(x)
t m a x ,
,
.

()

()

%/().
- , = t m a x + {5 4-20}, (3- ,
: (31 ;
(3=1.35-1.4- ; (3=1.75 -2- - .
- :
270

150 ; Q(x) 0.24, 1 600 - ;


f,,:

=130 ; Q(%) =0.28-0.29, t ^ ( 600^640) ;

-
f:

=65 ; Q(%) 0.22, ( ( 490 -560) .

.
8.

S06P t
:
So6p=100exp{-exp(-X(t))}, So6p<70%
X(t) = A, t + , k>0, <0 .
X : ,

S06P t.

tKp-

SKp - :
tp= t (Sp) = [{-ln(-ln(Sxp/100))-b}/ a].
SKp
.
,

SKp =10%

-5153 - 12.6 , -5225 -17.9 ,


- 33.6 , 36 . SKp =5%
-01 tKp =43.3 , t K p = 31.5
271

9.
. , -

, .

,
.

-,

,
: t () S (%0) .

Q(t)

"" Q(t) t S:
In (-ln(l-Q(t))) = [1,298-3,1*10"31- 5,2*10- S] In t + [0,0305t + 0,0589S - 8,68]

"", , ,
- ,
t=19C , , , - .
:
In (-ln(l-Q(t))) = 1,069 In t -6,16
560 .
,

,
.
""
1 :
^ = 890.5-4,72 t-7,14 S

272

5.

5.1. -

-

[,

1990].

,
,
,
, , . ,
,
,
,
[ ., 1987].
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. 60-70


9-10 / , , ,

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273

), ,
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: ,

()


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1992,2000].

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;

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[, , 2000; ,
2008; ., 2008].

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[Marine fouling..., 1952]
1927, 1930, 1934, 1943 .
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275

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;
276

3. ,
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5.3.


.

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[New antifouling..., 1997; ANTIFOULING..., 2000].


, ,

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2008]). , , ,

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,
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:

277

;
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18-22

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50-60%-

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[ 2394864, 2010].

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1
2

-

.
280


40 /2
.



.
.

5.4.

,

(. 5.2).

),

[Dobretsov et al., 2006].

5.2.

, .

0.2-0.5

0.1

5-11

10

6
0.004

0.2

0.0005

0.38

0.44

0.37
281

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(, , , ); 3)
[, 2008].



, , , , .

, , .

.
[, 1971]. ,

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. -

282

: ,

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); -
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+ ); - 50% (, ).
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5.3

Acartia clausi)

,
.

5.3. Acartia clausi


(.) .
, /
0.65
0.79
1.21

()

()

() -

1.97

292

13.8

8.55

5.75

5.73

390

13.5

7.90

5.34

4.87

295

30

25

21

28 ^

. 5.3, ,
, ,
.
,

(Artemia

salina)

(5) , , 50%
2 , 0.054 /, 1 / 1
283

100%- [ ..., 1979;


., 1987; ., 1988].
,
,

( 3,4)

-
.

1995-2010 . ,

[ ., 2003].
1 - ,
. .
.
.
,

.
0.5-1.0 0.2-0.5 - .
2

, .
.
,

, , ,
[, ,
1988]. - 5-7
1.5 .
3 - ,

: (
), .
284

.
10-15 3 -
4.5 .

:
1.
, ;
2. ;
3.
,
;
4.

(,

SPC)

, ( -

1 2).

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.

.

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.

285

.
.

. 5.2. () , 3
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.

286

. 5.2. () , 3
"", ( 600).
.
3 . (
) Nikon
600 ,
.
(. 5.2).
,
[, , 1988].
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.
287

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,

-.

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3.

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288

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2.

(QBK)

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4

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Yj-Rj , Yj -

( , , ,
), R; -


Q BK

-, ,

68.414, 24.683 36.683 ,

QBK

.
3.

QBK

().

.
( / .) . ,
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:
= 2.56-18.651.

289

.
4.

. ,


,
.
5.

.
,

.
6. - ,

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7.

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8.

.

290

1.5-2 .
9.

. ,

, -
-
.

291

.., .., .., ..



// . . 3-
-. . . 1986. . 46-47.
.., ..
// . 1981. . 43. 2. . 139-145.
.., .., ..
. 1983-1993 . //
. . 1997. .7-50.

..,

..,

..,

..


() // : , . 2010. 6. .40-47.
.., .., ..

// . 2010. . 36, 2.
. 145-150.
.., .. //
. .: . 1971. 159 .
.., ., .., ..
. .: . 1973. 392 .
.. 1981-1987. .: .
2002. 28 .
.., .., .., .., ..,
.. // ,
. .: . 1996. . 37-39.
.., .., ..,

..

//
292

,
. . 1989. 18-20.
.., ..

//

. .: . 1987.
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..,

..

. .: . 1983. 464 .
.. . : .

1985.

124 .
.., .., .., ..
// . 1993. .
33,. . 889.
.., .., .., A.M.
//
. .:
. 1987. . 65-68.
.., .., ..
. .: . 1965. 560 .
.. . :
. 1977. 252 .

..,

..,

..

. : .
1991. 100 .
..,

..

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.., . .

: . .: . 2005.
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293

9.412-2001. .

. . 2001.
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.., .., A.M., .., ..,
.., .., A.M.

. :

. 1989.271.
.., .. . .:
. 1982. 192 .
..
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..,

..,

..

// .
. 13. 1960. . 309-314.
.., ..
//
. .: . 1968. .
132-136.
.., .., .. '. . .:
. 1982. 208 .

..

. .: . 1986. 232 .

..,

..,

B.C.,

..,

.., .., .., ..,


..
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294

.. -
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..
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1989. 3 . . 46-50.
.., .
// . 1985. 4. . 16-20.
..,

//
.
. : . 1988. . 137-158.
.. . .: . 1994. 134 .
.., .., ..
. : . 1992. 144 .
.., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., -
.., . . .1.
, , , . .: -
. 2004. 219 .
.., .. //
, . .:. .
1992. . 4-20.

'

. / . . . . .: . 1991.349 .

. .: - . 1987. 132 .
.. //
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295

..
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..

. .:

. 2008. 241 .
.., ..

//

.
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.
( -, ): ,
//
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.., .., ..
. .: . 1985. 262 .
.., .., B.C., ..
-
// . -
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..,

..

.:

. 1984. 272 .

.., ..,

..

//

. 2004. 3. .29-31.
.., .., . .
. .: . 1989. 256 .

.., .., ..,

..

// .
1998. 34. 1.. 89-93.
296

. . . // . 2010.
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.., .., .. , ,
// . 2001. 12. . 3335.

..,

.., .


. //
.

.-: .

2003. . 34-37.

..,

. .: . 2010. 2394864.

..,

..


// . .-: .
2003. .63-69.
.., .., .., ..,
.., .
//
. .-: . 2003. .41-50.

..,

..,

..

//
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..,

..,

..,

..

. .:
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..,

..,

..

10 - // :

, . 2006. 2. 21-24.

297

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.., .., .., ..,
..

//

. .. ,
2001. . 210-212.
.., .., .., ..,
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.

.-: .

2003.. 88-90.
.., .., .., ..
// : ,
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.., ..
//
. .
2 - .: . 2000. .
12-15.
.., .., ..

// . 2002. 1. . 28-34.
.., .., .., .., ..,

..

(. ). //
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298

..,

..,

..,

..


// .
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.., .., ..
//

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..,

..

.., .., ..,

(III) // . 2002. .
75, 6 . . 971-975.

..,

. .

. /
02.09.92. 2707-92. . 1992. 12 .
.., .., ..
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. .
- . . 1996. .: .
1997. . 88-96.
.., .., .., ..
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.: . 2000. . 5-14.
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//3-
: . , 18-20 1988 . .
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.., ..
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299

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.., .., ..

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.., .., .., .. //
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.., .., .. // .
1995. . 31. 2 . . 219-221.
. . .-:
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..
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.., .., .., ..,
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.., .., .., ..,
..

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..


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.. . .: . 1978. 400 .

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, . :
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/ . ... .:
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. / . . . .: . 1983.
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//

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.., .., .., ..
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:
,
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7-12. .
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.,

B.C.,

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..

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.
/ . ... .: . 1983. 488 .
.. . .
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.. . .
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.. . .: . 1990. 639 .
302

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.., .., .., ..,
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//
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2-

.,

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..

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303

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. 2. / . ., .
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1971. . 37-42.
.. //
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.. . // .
. 4.1. -: .
1995. . 63-78
--. 1974. 90. . 16-20.
.. : . ...
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.., .., .., ..
Mytilus galloprovincialis L. //
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..,

.., .., ..

Balanus improvisus Darwin

// . - . 1961(6). . 49. . 235


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.., ..,

..,

B.C.

.
. .: . 1983. 85 .
., O.K. , 3 . . 29. 1970. .
629-631.
..
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304

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A.M., .., .., ..,
..
// .
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.., .., ..
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3 . . 309-311.
., .,

., .

. . .: . 1989. 512 .
. . -

.

. ... . . . 2005.

25
..
// : ,
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..,

..,

..,

..

// : ,
. 2009. 9. . 42-46.
. . .: . 1984. 304 .
.., .., .
. /
08.04.87.. 2492-87. . 1987. 12 .
305

.. . .: . 1969. 432 .
.., .., .., O.K.

// .
.: . 1989. . 152.
.., .., O.K.,
.., .
// . 1990. .:
. . 147-151.
.. //
. 1990. . 26, 2. . 179 - 193.
..

. ... . . . 1975. 32 .
.., .., ..

//

. 1980. .16. 2. . 10.


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http://www.erudition.ru/ref.
http://www.inokean.ru/oceans/atlanticheskiy
http://.inokean.ru/oceans/tihiy

311


1. Vibrio

/
V.pelaV.algino- V. paraha- V.harveyi V.splendi- V.orien/11
talis/7
gius/6
lyticus132 emolyticus
<W9
/19
+
+
+
+
+
+

V.damsela/5

V.fisheri/5

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

+,-

+,-

+,-

+,-


0/F ()*

312

/
V.pelaV.algino- V. paraha- V.harveyi V.splendi- V.orienlyticus/32 emolyticus
gius/6
/11
dus/9
talis/1
/19

V.damsela/5

V.fisheri/5

+,-

+,-

+,-

+,-

1-

+,-

+,-

NaCl

3 %

6 % NaCl

+,-

8 % NaCl

H2S

NaCl

313


10%NaCl

/
V.pelaV.algino- V. paraha- V.harveyi V.splendi- V.orien/11
dus/9
talis/1
lyticus/32 emolyticus
gius/6
/19
+
-

V.damsela/5

V.fisheri/5

0-129

+,0

+,-

+,-

45.3-46.8

46.8-47.0

47.1-47.6

45.2-45.6

45.3-45.8

45.0-46.2

43.1-43.3

39.5-40.2

Amp

+ ,
. %

1, 2: *0- ; - ; +/+ /
-
** - ; -; / - ; / -
***- ; - ; -; - ; - ; - ; - ; - -

**** glu- ; sue - ; lac - ; - ; malt - ; man - ; fru - ; mt -


***** -
314

Ps - Pseudomonas; PsAlt - Pseudoalteromonas; CFB -Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides; Ent - Enterobacteriaceae;


Photobact - Photobacterium; Chromobact - Chromobacterium; Psychrob - Psychrobacterium; Arthrob - Arthrobacter; CorynefCoryneformes; Agrom - Agromyces; Cellulom - Cellulomonas; Rhodococ - Rhodococcus; Staph - Staphylococcus; Plan Planococcus; Micrococ - Micrococcus; Marinococ - Marinococcus

315

2.

ShewaAeromo
#%f
nella
nas

Photo
bact

Chromo
bact

Psych
rob

/, /

, /

-,

,-

,-

+/+

+/+

+/+

+/+

-/-

Ps

%4%

Halomonas

, /

, /

, /

, ,

, ,
,
+/-, -/-

,-,
,

-/-, +/-

, ,

+,-

,
-/-, + /-,
+/+
+

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,
+/-, -/-

+,-

-,+

' +,-

+
+

**

***
/
* ()

+,-

+ /-,
+/+
+

+,-

-,+

+,-

+,-

+,-

% %

-,+

-,+

+,-

316


H2S
)3-


****:

NaCl

3%NaCl
6%NaCl
9 % NaCl
12.5 %NaCl

0-129

+
, .%

Ps

fj/

CFB

+,-

+,-

+,-

+,-

glu, sue
glu,
sue, lac

Ent
Aeromo
Halomo- Shewanella
nas
nas
+
+
+,-

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bact
+

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bact

Psych
rob

+,-

glu,suc,
lac,ara

glu, sue

glu, lac,
sue

glu,
man

glu, fru,
man

+,-

+,-

+,-

glu,
sue,
lac
+

+,-

+,-

+,-

+,-

+,-

58.7-

42.1-

27.7-

59.3-

40.3-

38.5-

59.9-

39.7-

66.7-

48.3

67.5

48-3

, 39.6

68.2

47.8

50.0

61.3

40.7

67.5

' glu,
malt

317

2.

**

***

Bacil Arthrob
lus
+
+

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Agrom

Cellu- Rhodo
lom
+
+

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Micro
+

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+

/,

/,

/,

/,

-,+

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,-

,
+ /-,
+/+

+/-

+/+

+/-

+/+

+/-

-/-,+/-

-/-

+,-

,,
, / ,
* (-/-, + /)

+,

-,+

-,+

318

Cellu- Rhodococ
lom

Bacil
lus

Arthrob

Corynef

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+,-

glu,
sue

glu,

glu, lac,
sue

glu,suc,
lac,ara

glu,lac,
sue, ara

+,-

+,-

9 % NaCl

+,-

: +r

12.5 %NaCl

+,-

+,-

37.7-

60.3-

70.5-

68.7-

73.0

45.6

67.2

73.8

75.0

H2S
.


****:

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3%NaCl
6 % NaCl

0-129

+
, .%

Micrococ

Marinococ

glu

glu, mt

glu

glu

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67.1-

34,8-

48.3-

69.5-

45.9

71.7

39.0

51.0

73.2

319

Staph

3. (%
). (1106,1112,1114,1117, 1126, 1165),
(1110, 1113, 1132, 1156, 1157, 1161, 1164, 1169, 1170).
Bacil
lus

1105

12:0

CI-

1155

1133

SD

Vibrio
SD

1154

1162

1159
8.4
1.4

13:0-1
14:0-br

Halo- Cory- Ent


monas

1123

1130

Arth- Psychrob
rob

1041

1104

4.8

1.8

1.7

14:0

2.4

15:0-i

41.5

15:0-

21.5

15:1-1

0.6

4.6
0.4

14.2

5.1

0.7

0.8

0.1

2.4

46.9

15:0

18.5

15:1(-8)

5.8
1.3

1.0

1.0

16:0

2.7

1.6

19.1

10.1

16:1(-7)

2.8

26.3

1.6

0.7
3.1

42.8

40.3

9.4

10.9
2.4

5.3

1.6

2.6

2.7

1.6

0.4

3.4

2.9

3.4

2.3

1.4

0.8

2.4

0.5

16.7

2.0

20.2

9.4

1.5

37.0

6.1

22.1

5.6

320

0.8

0.8

7.6

3.5

16:0-1

1.9

0.4

6.8

0.5

21.6
19.6
17.6

36.1

5.1

19.5
17.5

Arth- Psychrob
rob

CN

CN*

in
CN

CN

Halomonas

00

CN

in

en

Ii

in

en

-"

ON

ON

in

-;

CN

OO

in

CN

CN

CN

in

CN

en

CN.

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CN

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CN

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en

en

in

en
en

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oo
en

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in

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CN

en

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en

in

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r-

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&

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in

2.
1.
-5153, -5225, ( , , 1988-1989 ..), .
[ ., 1991].

,
11
20
28
41
52
61
71
80
91
102
111
120
132
141
151
162
172
182
193
202
211
222
232
244
257
266
274
285
294
306
315
323
336
345
356
364

, /
-5225
-5153
41.20
57.60
57.52
41.30
44.50
65.91
45.81
67.69
57.50
45.90
46.42
74.00
72.48
52.50
73.35
70.80
72.88
76.08
74.05
75.97
72.61
67.82
75.01
80.00
81.24
65.60
80.00
85.80
83.05
80.15
91.10
76.08
100.90
72.50
67.74
90.00
70.05
90.81
83.14
67.80
52.64
91.52
72.70
75.35
77.83
45.68
, 71.15
47.90
75.24
54.60
40.15
55.05
45.80
57.65
55.09
40.08
54.12
36.05
50.00
37.56
47.52
35.91
45.00
35.00
40.10
28.13
40.05
28.05
27.00
39.15
25.82
38.55
323

15.16
17.62
24.08
35.58
41.00
56.65
55.87
52.45
50.40
50.34
48.12
40.06
45.09
38.67
36.64
37.00
35.78
35.06
31.09
27.85
23.28
23.50
23.55
23.00
22.44
23.00
23.21
23.80
23.56
22.15
22.20
21.54
21.80
21.50
20.46
20.58

2.
( , , 1978-1980 ) . [ .,
1991].

4
14
24
35
45
55
64
76
85
93
104
114
125
135
146
152
164
173
182
193
203
210
220
231
241
263
273
284
294
304
314
324
334
345

,
/2

17.53
15.61
31.53
55.81
56.43
43.87
47.21
50.10
43.70
47.09
43.31
39.45
41.46
35.03
39.60
33.12
35.71
30.85
29.21
30.20
30.15
29.35
28.64
28.07
23.40
23.75
25.71
23.68
23.53
23.50
21.35
23.06
20.64
21.60
20.12
20.52
22.41
21.20
23.70
23.79
23.61
23.50
23.52
23.12
23.40
23.10
23.10
23.08
23.00
23.08
22.95
23.05
23.00
23.25
22.90
23.45
22.83
23.32
22.85
23.82
22.50
24.96
22.50
24.28
22.00
24.35
22.51
24.46

425
435
445
453
466
476
488
497
507
517
527
536
545
557
566
576
590
599
608
618
627
638
648
659
669
680
689
698
709
720
730
741
751
761
324

,
/2

23.86
22.00
23.89
22.00
23.46
21.19
23.63
22.00
22.00
23.65
22.02
23.43
23.32
22.00
22.02
23.50
22.50
23.26
22.46
23.19
22.47
23.20
22.50
23.19
22.50
23.18
22.50
23.05
22.50
23.00
22.50
23.08
22.48
22.98
22.50
22.98
22.95
22.45
22.92
22.45
22.90
22.49
22.50
22.87
22.85
22.45
22.50
22.85
22.40
22.50
22.31
22.38
22.45
22.38
22.46
22.30
22.50
22.35
22.47
22.32
22.30
22.30
22.17
22.27
22.10
22.25
22.10
22.25

354
363
376
387
396
408
416

,
/2

24.54
22.56
23.00
23.89
24.75
22.50
24.92
22.43
22.53
24.87
22.40
24.89
22.40
23.95

774
783
789
800
810
819
830

325

,
/

22.00
22.28
22.24
22.00
22.22
22.00
21.70
22.20
21.50
20.35
21.45
19.07
20.38
19.50

3.

, /

,
-02
-01
-03
-05

, , 1994-1998 (1 )
64.40
43.30
30.10
0
52,50
14
46.08
68.10
59.01
33.39
34
84.00
55.09
39.05
76.80
95.41
102.0
67.00
46.60
66
94
116.0
100.5
73.46
53.42
109.1
79.00
121.0
190
73.60
95.41
70.50
113.0
73.05
275
96.10
89.20
68.10
57.30
389
60.10
41.30
83.20
566
84,50
80.14
61.10
776
23.60
81.80
70.50
53.42
23.02
76.80
960
1145
53.00
22.90
78.00
67.00
1334
42.10
66.25
62.50
20.05
37.30
19.00
63.10
57.30
1458
- , , 1995 . (1 )
70.4
1
35.1
80.0
67.6
75.0
48.4
14
84.0
77.0
21
872
78.75
73.0
52.5
90.0
752
85.6
47.75
28
99.4
42
100.1
88.5
73.45
110.3
114.5
106.5
56
83.6
109.2
120.0
118.0
66
71.5
94
145.8
106.3
106.2
66.0
97.1
101.3
112
139.6
59.2
130
109.8
95.1
51.0
88.0
195
86.6
70.75
85.3
48.0
, , 1994-1999 (II )
1
41.5
40.4
50.0
32.0
14
50.4
44.9
50.0
36.6
34
54.0
71.5
60.6
39.1
42.4
65.5
66
80.0
76.5
94
50.7
72.1
77.3
80.9
71.2
74.9
772
181
80.7
67.7
275
75.6
69.1
71.1
65.4
552
66.3
389
66.1
571
40.2
60.2
54.0
56.2
326

, /

,
-02
-05
-03
-01

55.6
50.5
775
46.1
23.6
51.2
44.5
39.5
22.3
959
21.1
42.1
37.5
48.9
1083
47.4
1211
34.0
35.0
20.0
42.1
32.4
29.6
16.1
1332
23.2
14.5
36.0
22.0
1458
5.2
12.0
8.0
24.0
1856
- , , 1995-1999 .. ( )
60.94
1
45.08
46.75
56.95
43.83
2
45.49
56.31
58.25
45.28
43.83
5
56.05
56.69
57.78
47.78
7
57.60
56.23
14
60.04
60.97
56.73
57.87
55.70
68.65
65.52
18
67.95
21
67.63
66.13
77.93
72,88
77.83
86.74
66.13
79.05
28
35
88.64
84,73
72.43
85.19
42
89.19
72,88
96.68
89.59
89.42
83.86
70.98
55
97.08
74.98
64,85
93.25
88.73
66
91
63,18
66.63
94.36
88.35
63,18
64.78
107
87.35
89.60
121
58.68
59.68
86.92
87.51
57.87
139
85.62
57.87
77.68
54.13
57.10
76.65
153
84.05
54.55
53.30
73.55
82.47
168
, 54.00
52.88
80.20
71.56
81
52.14
53.54
197
69.09
77.23
64.72
211
49.18
74.73
52.65
241
73.41
47.00
50.40
59.58
35.76
68.73
48.96
55.53
269
35.20
46.19
51.15
61.19
298
34.25
45.66
50.35
326
56.77
34,35
354
42.68
49.83
55.65
46.91
34,93
50.98
389
56.61
23.00
417
46.60
50.83
59.70
20.98
50.13
452
44.78
60.90
17.86
42.55
48.80
480
59.77
41.00
16.29
47.03
54.79
508
327

543
571
600
628
656
684
719
747
775
810
838
873
901
929
960
994
1030
1061
1092
1126
1211
1270

, /
-01

-02

-03

-05

52.83
48.86
46.42
44.72
43.96

44.84
43.30
39.20
37.39
36.88

40.59
39.86
40.00
40.59
43.85

15.88
15.17
11.75
10.35

44.08
43.83
42.85
42.22
39.65
37.56
33.78
32.18
30.30
28.31
19.15
11.55
9.98

38.08
37.68
35.02
35.10
35.01
26.63
19.71
19.53
18.15
11.40
9.72
8.46

45.11
43.67
41.58
41.92
43.33
40.69
39.54
36.21
32.90
31.45
29.13
25.49
21.05

20.05
19.15

9.54

13.00
8.93(
)
:
100%- .
-

328

4.
, , 1999-2000 ..

0
0.5
1
2
3
5
7
9
11
18
25
32
39
46
54
61
79
91
120 ()
151
182
213
243
274
305
335
366
396
427
458
486
515
547
578

, /2

12

, 3

14

29.33
64.97
63.30
62.87
62.3
50.76
47.30
39.10
37.40
36.53
36.43
41.63
47.17
51.70
56.80
60.83
73.37
85.00
101.37
86.93
61.90
49.90
39.60
34,57
33.83
32.90
32.60
32.20
31.77

()
32.63
31.27
31.07
24.80

55.33
84.97
66.87
66.37
60.5
59.57
58.83
56.57
49.53
49.00
50.57
55.00
59.20
63.17
65.70
67.87
74.43
80.07
86.83
78.70
53.70
49.96
39.53
34.57
33.40
32.93
32.60
32.19
31.77
33.30
()
33.07
31.60
31.37
24.67

97.30
94.83
90.53
89.23
88.90
81.23
79.10
72.20
71.13
69.83
59.27
57.73
61.43
66.53
69.50
72.17
79.83
81.77
97.96
88.23
58,57
54.20
40.87
35.83
35.23
34,53
33.83
33.00
32.23
32.03

87.80
88.40
86.93
84.70
80.17
70.37
66.83
63.33
61.47
56.43
56.50
58.13
61.90
64.07
67.20
69.33
77.17
81.47
90.40
80.47
57.43
53.93
41.03
35.83
35.23
34,60
33.80
33.03
32.20
31.97

83.00
98.73
94.43
91.33
82.87
76.03
72.80
68.63
66.47
59.37
59.00
55.63
57.83
63.77
69.97
76.03
89.53
95.90
108.30
94.07
63.76
54.10
41.00
35.83
35.10
34.50
33.80
33.03
32.17
31.90

31.77
31.40
30.97
24.73

31.77
31.43
31.10
24.90

31.77
31.40
30.97
25.13

329

609
639

, /2
Ti

22.27
18.40
(

22.00
18.43
(

, 2

, 3

14

22.13
22.23
22.23
18.47
18.67
18.56
(
(
(

)
)
)

330

5.

- , , 2000 -2001 ..
, /

, 2

22

08

09

62.50

62.8

109.10

108.17

0.5

63.27

63.5

81.03

80.67

66.67

66.70

83.40

84.10

68.10

68.60

88.53

88.03

105.33

101.33

92.50

91.53

108.93

105.23

97.07

97.46

111.87

106.83

102.77

101.37

15

119.33

115.77

111.53

110.90

22

125.67

122.60

118.43

117.30

29

133.27

125.93

124.77

123.13

59 ()

146.67

146.17

135.27

135.27

90

124.93

125.10

119.80

119.60

120

103.37

103.50

98.23

98.37

149

81.90

81.87

76.20

76.40

180

60.10

60.03

54,53

54.67

208-

33.47

38.40

32.97

32.97

243

32.10

16.93

32.03

32.43

(,
,
)
273

31.77

14.13

32.00

32.00

304

31.53

13.40

31.77

31.87

325

31.00

13.20

31.60

31.60

331

361

18.67

12.67

31.10

31.07

(,

)
393

17.27()

12.33 ()

29.77

29.63

420

17.03

11.80

28.30

28.30

450

15.70

11.47

28.10

28.03

477

15.20

11.17

27.97

27.97

506

13.33

10.03

20.40

20.23

535

11.13

9.90

563

9.10
(100%
,

)

8.03
(100%
,
)

332

18.07
18.03
( (
)
)

14.37

14.63

6.
, , 1999-2000 ..


0
0.5
(15 )
1
2
4
8
26
38
68
90
134
159
186
225
252
277
308
327
362
396
420
445
480
508
533
580
610
637
667
681

709

, /

2,

15

16

17

15.10
15.93

17.30
20.00

48.10
18.57

45.70
19.60

51.70
20.17

16.73
18.27
21.57
24.83
31.27
30.53
27.53
36.23
49.13
54.37()
50.80
42.60
36.90
32.47
25.40
24.03
23.67
21.80
21.20
20.80
21.83
21.27
20.30
20.07
19.77
19.50
19.67
16.70
(
)
13.40

21.43
22.87
25.27
28.60
32.83
29.47
34.17
42.23
56.73
62.03()
57.93
46.87
37.43
33.10
25.53
24.07
23.67
21.80
21.30
20.80
21.67
21.30
20.33
20.20
19.77
19.53
19.27
16.63
(
)
13.33

23.90
29.23
30.03
37.03
49.20
53.53
58.33
69.33
86.43()
81.03
69.33
53.37
41.17
31.40
21.77
21.63
21.57
20.97
20.67
20.43
20.67
20.27
20.03
19.80
19.60
19.47
19.23
16.87
(
)
13.63

23.83
26.40
29.10
33.07
45.23
48.76
57.13
66.47
84.27()
79.77
67.20
52.37
41.27
31.57
21.97
21.70
21.57
21.00
20.67
20.40
20.73
20.50
20.20
19.87
19.70
19.53
19.20
16.83
(
)
13.57

23.53
24.50
27.90
31.53
43.10
47.23
55.33
64.70
83.17()
78.17
66.13
50.07
41.33
31.47
21.50
21.80
21.60
20.97
20.63
20.43
20.77
20.67
20.10
19.83
19.70
19.43
19.27
16.73
(
)
13.67

0 ]