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1.

Introduction on Phonology and Phonetics

Phonology can be defined as the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages. The phonological system of language includes:a. An inventory of sounds and their features b. The rules which specify how sounds interact with each other.

Phonology is one of the several aspects of language. They are related to other aspects such as phonetics, morphology, syntax and pragmatics.

There are differences between phonology and phonetics. They are shown in the table below. Phonetics s the basis for phonological analysis. Phonology s the basis for further wor! in morphology,

syntax, discourse, and orthography design. Analyzes the production of all human Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular speech sounds, regardless of language

language by

determining which phonetic sounds are significant, and

explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native spea!er.

A pupils should be mastered the phonology and phonetic rules to avoid ma!ing mispronunciations. There is the sample"s text with its transcription from varies sources is attached. #oreover, there is also a list of difficult word have been identified before the sub$ect is interviewed.

%ample"s text

The Legend of Mat Cincang and Mat Raya &nce upon a time, there lived two giants. They were called #at 'incang and #at (aya. &ne day, #at (aya had a grand feast. )is daughter was getting married to #at 'incang*s son. the wedding did not ta!e place. #at (aya became very angry. )e threw away the wedding ring and it fell on a cape. Today that place is called *Tan$ung 'incin* or *The 'ape of the (ing*. )e threw away all the food. The place where the pot of gravy landed is called *+uah*. The place where the pot of hot water landed is called *)ot %prings* or *Air )angat*. The two giants turned into mountains of stones. The man who tried to stop them from fighting changed into a hill. This hill now separates the two mountains- ,unung #at 'incang and ,unung #at (aya.

Adapted from: -ang!awi The -and of -egands by Pec! 'hoo et. Al. ./0012. 3nglish 4ear Three Text5oo!. 5andar 5aru 5angi: 6tusan Publication 7 8istributors %dn. 5hd.

Transcription A . nternet 9 http:::upodn.com:phun.asp2

ldnd v Mat Cincang nd Mat Raya wns pn tajm, r lajvd tu dajnts. e wr kld Mat Cincang nd Mat Ra a. wn de, Mat Ra a !d grnd "ist. !#$ dtr w$ gt#% mrid tu Mat Cincang&s sn. wd#% d#d nt tek ples. Mat Ra a '#kem vri %gri. !i (ru we wd#% r#% nd #t "l n kep. tde t ples #$ kld )tanjung cincin) *r kep v r#%. !i (ru we l "ud. ples wr pt v grevi lndd #$ kld ) kua!). ples wr pt v !t wtr lndd #$ kld !t spr#%$ *r ) air !angat). tu dajnts trnd #ntu mawntn$ v st+n$. mn !u trajd tu stp m "rm "ajt#% t,endd #ntu !#l. #s !#l naw sprets tu mawntn$- gunung mat cincang nd gunung mat ra a.

Transcription 5 . &xford Advanced -earner 8ictionary2

lednd v Mat Cincang nd Mat Raya

w.ns ;pn ; ta#m, e;/r0 l#vd tu1 da#nts. e# w21r k*1ld Mat Cincin ;nd Mat Ra a. w.n de#, Mat Ra a !;d ; grnd "i1st. !#$ d*1t;/r0 w;$ get#% mrid tu1 Mat Cincang3s s.n. wed#% d#d nt te#k ple#s. Mat Ra a '#ke#m veri %gri. !i (ru1 ;we# ; wed#% r#% ;nd #t "el n ; ke#p. t;de# t ple#s #$ k*1ld 34anjung Cincin3 *1/r0 ; 3ke#p ;v ; r#%3. !i (ru1 ;we# *1l ; "u1d. ; ple#s we;/r0 ; pt ;v gre#vi lnd#d #$ k*1ld 35ua!3. ; ple#s we;/r0 ; pt ;v !t w*1t;/r0 lnd#d #$ k*1ld 3!t spr#%$3 *1/r0 36ir 7angat3. ; tu1 da#nts t21nd #nt; tu1 ma8nt;ns ;v st;8ns. ; mn !u1 tra#d tu1 stp ;m "r;m "a#t#% t,e#ndd #nt; ; !#l. #s !#l na8 sepr;ts ; tu1 ma8nt;ns- 9unung Mat Cincang ;nd 9unung Mat Ra a.

-ist of difficult words found in the text.

No < / = 1 ? @ B C D <0 << </ <= <1

Word &nce ,iants >east 8aughter #arried Aedding 'ape Threw ,ravy )ot springs -anded #ountains %eparates Pot

Transcription !"

Transcription #"

wns dajnts "ist dtr mrid wd#% kep (ru grevi !t spr#%$ lndd mawntn$ sprets pt

w.ns da#nts "i1st d*1t;/r0 mrid wed#% ke#p (ru1 gre#vi !t spr#%$ lnd#d ma8nt;ns sepr;ts pt

1.1

$u%&ect's #ac(ground

#y sub$ect"s name is Thesigan s:o Parthiben. )ere is some information about my sub$ect. )e is <0 years old whom is a pupil of %e!olah Eenis +ebangsaan Tamil, +ampung %imi, poh. )e is a year four pupil. Thesigan"s father"s name is P.Parthiban s:o Perumal whom is wor!ing as a contractor whereas his mother"s name is Ananthi d:o #anicham whom is a housewife. They are staying at Fo. ?0, -eboh 5ercham %elatan <:D, Taman +inta #as, =<100 5ercham, poh, Pera! with his two siblings. >irst is <C years old sister and second is <? years old brother. The language that they commonly use in their house is their mother tongue that is Tamil. )is favorite sub$ect is #athematics. 3ven though, he loves mathematics but he does not ignore other sub$ects li!e 3nglish, Tamil, #alay and so on. Therefore, he loves to read boo!s in order to improve his language. #oreover, he is able to read around ? to @ 3nglish boo!s per wee!. According to him, he started to spea! or learn 3nglish

language when he was six years old and until today he is in the process of learning 3nglish.

1.)

*escription of $ti+ulus ,sed

This interviewing process is started when the sub$ect with his family came to my house for 'hinese Few 4ear school holidays. >or the first time as! him to read the text, he refused. )e scares of doing any mista!es. #oreover, me myself as a trainee teacher as!ing a small boy to read the text. n his thought, am doing that to identify the level and ability of him in reading. Then, explain my tas! to his parents and they help me in the way of as!ing Thesigan to cooperate. give him ten minutes to read the text for his own and after he gained self confident, then he started to read the sample"s text aloud. )is clear voice pro$ection helped me to record his reading in the first attempt.

1.-

*ata Collection Procedures

After the briefing on this tas! is given, started to search for my sub$ect. have interviewed many people from %e!olah Eenis +ebangsaan Tamil #aha Eothi, %ungai Petani, +edah. 6nfortunately, never too! them as my sub$ect because:-

a. Their voice pro$ection is not clear enough b. The surrounding is Guit noisy which disturbed the interviewing process c. The recording is not clear

As a alternative way, ma!e use the 'hinese Few 4ear brea! to get my sub$ect. Aith his parents permission and his siblings helpH he committed to read the text aloud. choose a suitable place with less disturbance .noise2 and my sub$ect cooperate with me in reading the text aloud and clear.

).0

*ata !nalysis and *iscussion of .indings

The mispronounced words by sub$ect

The Legend of Mat Cincang and Mat Raya &nce upon a time, there lived two giants. They were called #at 'incang and #at (aya. &ne day, #at (aya had a grand feast. )is daughter was getting married to #at 'incang*s son. the wedding did not ta!e place. #at (aya became very angry. )e threw away the wedding ring and it fell on a cape. Today that place is called *Tan$ung 'incin* or *The 'ape of the (ing*. )e threw away all the food. The place where the pot of gravy landed is called *+uah*. The place where the pot of hot water landed is called *)ot %prings* or *Air )angat*. The two giants turned into mountains of stones. The man who tried to stop them from fighting changed into a hill. This hill now separates the two mountains- ,unung #at 'incang and ,unung #at (aya.

Analysis of #ispronounced Aords by %ub$ect No Mispronounced /ords < / = 1 ? @ B C D <0 Aere ,rand >east 8aughter Angry 'ape ,ravy ,iants #ountains %eparates Transcription ! Transcription # $u%&ect pronunciation

wr grnd "ist dtr %gri kep grevi dajnts mawntn$ sprets

w21r grnd "i1st d*1t;/r0 %gri ke#p gre#vi da#nts ma8nt;ns sepr;ts

we; grand "#s da8ter !%gri kep grevi% dnts ma8ntens spe#t

).1

!nalysis of Three *ifferent Phone+es

No < / =

Mispronounced /ords Angry 8aughter #ountains

!nalysis of phone+es

Type of phone+e 'onsonant 8iphthong Iowel

!%gri da8ter ma8ntens

).)

0rror Correction and 1ustification

No <

Mispronounced /ords Angry

!nalysis of phone+es

!ctual phone+es

!%gri

%gri /wit!+ut !0

/ =

8aughter #ountains

da8ter ma8ntens

d*1t;/r0 ma8nt;ns

1ustification

#ispronounce is one of the common mista!e which is done by young to old peoples while spea!ing. These mista!es can be overcome by understanding phonology and phonetic very deeply.

Thesigan, the sub$ect of mine is able to read the given text fluently. 6nfortunately there are some mispronounced and seemed to have difficulties in pronouncing certain words. The words li!e Jgravy" where is sound it as Jgraving" and the word Jthem" where he sound it as Jthe" are the mista!es ta!e place when the reader is in rushing. #ay be my sub$ect is excited and nervous to the voice recording of him. )owever, the mispronounced words as listed above are slightly differ. t is because the mista!es are occurring in various types of phonemes li!e vowel, consonant and also diphthong. The main cause of this problem is my sub$ect"s first language as well as his mother tongue is Tamil. Tamil also is the language that they commonly used in their house as a communication tool. Ahereas, his second language is #alay and followed by 3nglish language. Therefore, the tendency of my sub$ect in pronouncing certain 3nglish words is slightly poor. t is because, the discrepancy between spelling and sounds in 3nglish and #alay motivated the development of phonetic alphabets in which one letter corresponds to one sound. Therefore, he tried to spell the word alphabetically li!e in #alay pronunciation. >or example: while pronouncing the word Jdaughter" as

da8ter instead +" d*1t;/r0.

t is because in #alay Jdau"

sounds as da8. %ame way is also goes to the word Jmountains" where he pronounced it as ma8ntens

instead +" ma8nt;ns.

&n the other hand, as stated by Iictoria >rom!in ./00B2, all 3nglish speech sounds come from the movement of lung air through the vocal tract. The air moves

through the glottis, up the pharynx through the oral cavity and out the mouth or nose. This is the path in producing a good pronunciation. 5ut when the reader"s main intention is in finishing the text, the path would not be completed and also they will stress unnecessarily while pronouncing a word. Therefore, certain sound would not able to voice as in pronouncing the word Jseparate" and also certain words will stressed. t will cause the meaning that the writer trying to convey will not able to reach. >or example the word Jangry", is pronounced as

!%gri instead of pronouncing it as %gri.

5esides that, this mispronunciation is also happen because most of the pupils are illiterate to the rules of phonemes. n other words, the pupils do not expose to the phonetic rules li!e, introduced to the phonetic symbols, where does the consonants and vowels phonemes are produced, where should we stressed in pronouncing a word and so on. Therefore, my sub$ect does not used to these terms and theory seems he is still young. This made him to ma!e this !ind of mispronunciation. >or example while pronouncing the word Jangry", is pronounced as

!%gri instead of pronouncing it as


and also the

%gri,
word

the word Jdaughter" as

da8ter instead +" d*1t;/r0

Jmountains" where he pronounced it as

ma8ntens instead +"

ma8nt;ns.
5esides that, my sub$ect does not expose well to the usage of the dictionary. n his opinion, dictionary is a boo! where we can find out new words with synonyms and

examples. )e ignores the symbols besides the words in dictionary which is loo!s li!e stranger to him. Therefore, he done the mista!es in pronouncing the word Jmountain", Jdaughter" and many other words which is same in spelling but differ while pronouncing. This situation turns complex, when the teacher of my sub$ect is also pronouncing certain words wrongly li!e Jcape". As we !now that teachers are good guider for every pupil. Therefore, they will follow the way the teachers pronounce certain words even though it is wrong. %o teacher must be well !nown and mastered the phonology and phonetic in order to pronounce 3nglish words correctly. t clearly shows that, these are the factors which lead my sub$ect in mispronounce certain 3nglish words.

-.0

Conclusion and Reco++endations

t is so simple to overcome a problem after !nowing the factors which is plays an important role on it. Therefore, the sub$ect should not rush to finish reading a text. 5e calm while reading, learn some important rules in phonemes and ma!e use with the dictionary. At the same time, teachers also should play an important role in overcome this pronunciation problem. Teacher must plan some interesting activities which will engage the pupil and motivate them in pronouncing 3nglish words correctly. As a basic activity, the teacher may select a simple text and read it aloud and as! the pupils to follow him or her. This can be repeated twice. n order to evaluate the activity, we can point a person to read the same text in the class.

-.1

$uggest an !cti2ity to 32erco+e 3ne Identified Pro%le+ Ae can an activity with using cue cards. 'ue cards are cards with small photos

or pictures stuc! on it.

t is also !nown as flashcards with images. The activity to

overcome these problems is depending to the cue cards that we have prepared. The name of the activity is J-uc!y 4ou". This is a pair wor! activity. As the preparation for this activity, we need to prepare =0 cue cards for each pair of pupils. The cue cards should belong to two semantic fields. n simple way, there should be <? pictures from each. The cue cards are put into a non-transparent bag. Fow, let"s we have a loo! on how to conduct this activity in classroom. 3ach pupil in the pair chooses one of the semantic fields. The first pupil .pupil A2 puts his hand in the bag and ta!es out a card. f it belongs to the semantic field that the pupil has chosen, and he or she can pronounce the appropriate word in 3nglish, the pupil !eeps the card and continues to play. -et"s say, pupils A too! a flashcard with showing a angry face, when he or she able to pronounce it as

%gri:

he can continue play the game

by ta!ing another card. )owever, if the word is not from the right group or the pupil does not pronounce the word correctly, his or her partner has the next turn. Therefore if pupil A unable to pronounce it as

%gri

but he pronounced it wrongly as

!%gri.

The automatically goes to pupil 5. The person who is the first to collect all the fifteen cards for his or her semantic field is consider as winner. )opefully, this activity will lead the pupils in pronouncing words correctly and clearly.

-.)

Conclusion

A problem is difficult to overcome when the reason of the problems are hide. &nce we are exposed to the factors or causes of the problem, we can easily overcome it. Therefore, one should be patient and do not rush to finish reading a text. 5e calm while reading, learn some important rules in phonemes and ma!e use with the dictionary. 5esides that, read a lot and if find difficulties in pronouncing an 3nglish word, do not shy to consult with teacher and always treat dictionary as a friend. Therefore, one will feel convenient in using it. At the same time, teachers also should play an important role in overcome this pronunciation problem. Teacher must master the phonology and phonetics. They also should able to plan some interesting activities which will engage the pupil and motivate them in pronouncing 3nglish words correctly.

#i%liography

<. Pec! 'hoo et. Al. ./0012. English Year Three TextBook. 5andar 5aru 5angi: 6tusan Publication 7 8istributors %dn. 5hd.

/. >rom!in,I.,(odman,(., )yams,F../00B2 An Introduction to Language. Cth ed. 6nited %tate of America: Thomson )igher 3ducation

=. Ashby,#., #clntosh,E., Turnbull,E.,Aehmeier,%../00?2 Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Bth ed. Few 4or!: &xford 6niversity Press.

1. http:::elt$.oxford$ournals.org viewed on <1.0/./0<0

;. http:::upodn.com:phun.asp viewed on <@.0/./0<0

<. http:::www.informaworld.com viewed on /1.0/./0<0

=. http:::www.sil.org:linguistics.html viewed on =.0=./0<0

C. http:::itesl$.org:techniGues.html viewed on B.0=./0<0

INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU Kampus SULTAN ABDUL HALIM

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!C5I060M0NT 'ollecting information on Phonology and Phonetics 'ollecting information on Phonology and Phonetics %earching for the sub$ect

/< -/B >eb /0<0

'ollecting information on why pupils mispronounce certain words nterview the sub$ect

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'ollecting information on reasons for mispronunciation Analysis sub$ect"s mispronounced words

B -<= #arch /0<0

Ariting report

<1 9 <B #arch /0<0 3diting and rechec! the report

No
<

Title
<.0 ntroduction on Phonology and Phonetics <.< %ub$ect"s 5ac!ground <./ 8escription of %timulus 6sed <.= 8ata 'ollection Procedures

Page No.

/.0 8ata Analysis and 8iscussion of >indings /.< Analysis of Three 8ifferent Phonemes /./ 3rror 'orrection and Eustification

=.0 'onclusion and (ecommendations =.< %uggest an Activity to &vercome &ne dentified Problem =./ 'onclusion

1 ?

5ibliography Appendixes

7uestionnaire .or+

<. Fame: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL Age : LLLLLLLLLLLLL

%ex: 5oy : ,irl

Fame of school : LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL >avorite sub$ect: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL )ow many 3nglish boo!s do you read per wee!M LLLLLLLLLLLLLL

/. >ather"s Fame: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL >ather"s occupation : LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

=. #other"s Fame: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL #other"s occupation: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

1. Fo. of siblings: LLLLLLLLLLLLL

?. )ouse address: LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL