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CONESTOGA COLLEGE

DC MULTIMETER FINAL REPORT


FINAL REPORT
PREPARED BY: ALEKSANDAR VUKASINOVIC 10/18/2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 LIST OF FIGURES . 3 LIST OF TABLES ... 3 LIST OF EQUATIONS . 3 INTRODUCTION .. 4 DC AMMETER 4
I) II) III) IV) RESULTS FROM DESIGN EQUATIONS RANGE DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION MULTISIM SCHEMATIC

DC VOLTMETER 6
I) II) III) IV) V) RESULTS FROM DESIGN EQUATIONS RANGE DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION MULTISIM SCHEMATIC VISUAL REPRESENTATION

DC OHMMETER 9
I) II) III) IV) RESULTS FROM DESIGN EQUATIONS RANGE DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION MULTISIM SCHEMATIC

DC MULTIMETER. 10
I) II) MULTISIM SCHEMATIC VISUAL REPRESENTATION

CONCLUSION. 13

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: AMMETER RANGE 0-5MA 5 FIGURE 2: AMMETER RANGE 0-10MA. 5 FIGURE 3: VOLTMETER RANGE 0-1 VOLTS 7 FIGURE 4: VOLTMETER RANGE 0-10 VOLTS. 7 FIGURE 5: SINGLE AND DUAL RANGE VOLTMETER AND AMMETER 8 FIGURE 6: VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF VOLTMETER/AMMETER 8 FIGURE 7: OHMMETER... 9 FIGURE 8: MULTIMETER. 10 FIGURE 9: LOGARITHMIC REPRESENTATION OF OHMMETER. 12 FIGURE 10: VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF MULTIMETER 12

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: TEST CASES FOR AMMETER4 TABLE 2: TEST CASES FOR VOLTMETER7 TABLE 3: TEST CASES FOR OHMETER.9 TABLE 4: TEST CASES FOR MULTIMETER..10

LIST OF EQUATIONS
EQUATION 1: AMMETER SHUNT RESISTANCE ..3 EQUATION 2: PERCENT ERROR .5 EQUATION 3: VOLTMETER SERIES RESISTANCE ... 5

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INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project is to investigate the most used measuring instrument in the electrical laboratory, also known as the multimeter, and demonstrate the results of my design. My multimeter consisted of an Ammeter that produces results from ranges 0-5 milliamps and 0-10 milliamps, a Voltmeter that produces results from 0-1Volts and 0-10 Volts, and finally an Ohmeter that measures the resistance of anything between its leads. DC Ammeter The DC Ammeter was designed to measure amperage between two ranges; a single range, 0-5milliamps, and a dual range, 0-10 milliamps. Results from the Design Equations The Ammeter needs to be able to read the amperage in the set ranges and it cannot do this if there are no shunt resistors. Shunt resistors allow electric current to pass around another point in the circuit by creating a low resistance path in parallel and they cut off excess current that is flowing through the analog meter. To calculate the shunt resistance, I used the equation below:

Equation 1: Ammeter shunt resistance

Rshunt = shunt resistance Rin = internal resistance of the analog meter (2.1117 kOhms) Imax = maximum amperage reading for each Ammeter range (Single: 5 milliamps, Dual: 10 milliamps) Ics = maximum amperage reading of the analog meter (100 microamps)
To determine the shunt resistance for the single range Ammeter (0-5mA):

43.1 To determine the shunt resistance for the dual range Ammeter (0-10mA):

21.3 It is evident that by the use of the shunt resistance equation, my shunt resistor for the single range Ammeter is 43.1 and 21.3 for the dual range Ammeter. *Both shunt resistors go in parallel with the meter movement and go in series with the power source. Page | 3

Range Design After calculating the theoretical values of each shunt resistor for the single and dual range Ammeter, I needed to measure the actual values of the resistors that were going to be laid out onto my breadboard. The actual (measured) values of each resistor were not exact to the theoretical value. Thus, it was challenging to get the sum of multiple resistors to equal the calculated values of the shunt resistors. Moreover, I designed a MultiSim schematic that used the actual values of the shunt resistors; the sum of each shunt resistor is parallel to the analog meter and in series with the test resistor. Implementation Using the design from the MultiSim Schematic, I implemented my exact design and placed all of the required parts onto the breadboard. The rotary switch was used to alternate between the single and dual ranges. Nevertheless, the double pull double throw toggle switch was incorporated to switch between the Ammeter and Voltmeter.

MultiSim Schematics
Figure 1: Single Range Ammeter (0 5mA)
XMM1

Rshunt1 3.9

Rshunt2 39

Figure 2: Dual Range Ammeter (0 10mA)


XMM1

Rshunt3 22

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Equation 2: Percentage Error % Error = Theoretical Actual Actual 100

Table 1: Test Cases for Single and Dual Range Ammeter Range (mA) Current (mA) Theoretical Reading (A) Single: 0-5 Dual: 0-10 0 2.5 5 0 5 10 0 50 100 0 50 100

Actual Reading (A) 0 50 100 0 50 100

% Error 0 0 0 0 0 0

DC Voltmeter The DC Voltmeter was designed to measure voltage between two ranges; a single range, 0-1 Volts, and a dual range, 0-10 Volts Results from the Design Equations The voltmeter needs to be able to read the voltage in set ranges and it cannot do this if there are no series resistors. Series resistors reduce the amount of voltage that travels to the analog meter. Thus, the analog meter will then be able to read measurements within its ranges. To calculate the series resistance, I used the equation below:

Equation 3: Voltmeter Series Resistance

Rseries = series resistance Vmax = maximum voltage that the analog meter can read for each range (Single: 1V, Dual: 10V) VVs = Ics = maximum amperage reading of the analog meter (100 microamps)
To determine the series resistance for the single range Voltmeter (0-1V):

7.888k To determine the series resistance for the dual range Voltmeter (0-10V):

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97.88k It is evident that by the use of the series resistance equation, my series resistor for the single range Voltmeter is 7.888k and 97.88k for the dual range Voltmeter. *Both series resistors go in series with the meter movement and the power source. Range Design After calculating the theoretical values of each series resistor for the single and dual range Voltmeter, I needed to measure the actual values of the resistors that were going to be laid out onto my breadboard. The actual (measured) values of each resistor were not exact to the theoretical value. Thus, it was challenging to get the sum of multiple resistors to equal the calculated values of the series resistors. Moreover, I designed a MultiSim schematic that used the actual values of the series resistors; the sum of each series resistor is in series with the analog meter and also in series with the test resistor. Implementation Using the design from the MultiSim Schematic, I implemented my exact design and placed all of the required parts onto the breadboard. The rotary switch was used to alternate between the single and dual ranges. Nevertheless, the double pull double throw toggle switch was incorporated to switch between the Ammeter and Voltmeter. Figure 3: Single Range Voltmeter
Internal Resistance = 2.1117 kOhms XMM1 Rseries1 10k

Figure 4: Dual Range Voltmeter


Internal Resistance = 2.1117 kOhms XMM1 Rseries2 100k

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Figure 5: Single Range and Dual Range Voltmeter and Ammeter


Internal Resistance = 2.1117 kOhms XMM1

RsDual 100k ToggleSwitch S2 S1

10k RsSingle

Key = Space

Key = Space

RshuntSingle RshuntDual 39 22 RshuntSingle1 3.9

Table 2: Test Cases for Single and Dual Range Voltmeter Range (V) Voltage(V) Theoretical Reading (A) Single: 0-1 Dual: 0-10 0 0.5 1 0 5 10 0 50 100 0 50 100

Actual Reading (A) 0 51 102 0 49 99

% Error 0 2 2 0 2 1

Figure 6: Visual Representation of the Dual Range Ammeter + Voltmeter

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DC Ohmmeter The DC Ohmmeter was designed to measure resistance of any resistor added to the circuit. The analog meter will deflect when positive and negative leads are connected in series resulting in a resistance of 0 while shows 100A on the analog meter; the Ohmmeter is connected backwards compared to every other meter. Results from the Design Equations The Ohmmeter is different from the other circuits because it consists of its own separate power source that produces 3 volts and contains an adjustable variable resistor. Within the Ohmmeter, each component is connected in series. To calculate the series resistance, I used the equation below:

Rin
Equation 4: Ohmmeter Series Resistance Rseries = series resistance E = total voltage supplied (3 Volts) Ics = maximum amperage displayed by analog meter (100 microamps) Rin = internal resistance of the analog meter Zero-adjust = maximum resistance of the variable resistor To determine the series resistance of the Ohmeter:

2.1117k

It is evident that by the use of the series resistance equation, my series resistor for the Ohmmeter is 27.38k. *The series resistor would go in series with the meter movement and the power source.

Range Design After calculating the theoretical values of each series resistor for the Ohmeter, I needed to measure the actual values of the resistors that were going to be laid out onto my breadboard. The actual (measured) values of each resistor were not exact to the theoretical value. Thus, it was challenging to get the sum of multiple resistors to equal the calculated values of the series resistors. Moreover, I designed a MultiSim schematic that used the actual values of the series resistors; the sum of each series resistor is in series with the analog meter and also in series with the test resistor. The variable resistor had to be turned clock-wise or counter clock-wise to adjust the current sensitivity closer to the 100A mark. Page | 8

Implementation Using the design from the MultiSim Schematic, I implemented my exact design and placed all of the required parts onto the breadboard. Since the Ohmmeter has its own power source, two leads were added for the input of the voltage source, with alligator clips on the ends of the leads for secure connection MultiSim Schematic Figure 7: Ohmeter
Internal Resistance = 2.1117K Ohms XMM1 R1 1k Key=A 50% Rseries 27k V1 3V

Table 3: Test Case for the Ohmmeter Resistor Value () 0 10k 47K 100k 270k 390k 470k 1M 10M

DArsenal Reading (A) 100 77 40 24 10 6 5 3 0

DC Multimeter The multimeter is a combination of each meter such as the Ammeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter in one circuit. I created a MultiSim schematic of the multimeter then assembled it onto the breadboard. Using a 5 position rotary switch, I could switch between each meter with ease. In the dual range Ammeter and Voltmeter circuit, I used a double sided 5 position rotary switch but for the Multimeter I decided to use only one side. The toggle switch helped let me create paths for the current/voltage to flow between the Ohmeter/Voltmeter and the Ammeter. Page | 9

Figure 8: Multimeter
XMM1 R1 27k RshuntDual 22 RsSingle 10k RsDual 100k S1 V1 Key = Space 3V RshuntSingle1RshuntSingle 3.9 39 Potentiometer 1k Key=A 50% ToggleSwitch

Table 4: Multimeter: Test cases for the Ohmeter, Ammeter and Voltmeter Range (mA) Input Theoretical Reading (A) Actual Reading (A) Single Ammeter: 0-5 Dual Ammeter: 0-10 Single Voltmeter: 0-1 Dual Voltmeter: 0-10 0mA 2.5mA 5mA 0mA 5mA 10mA 0v 0.5V 1V 0V 5V 10V 0k 10k 47k 100k 270k 390k 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 100 0 50 100 0 50 100 0 51 102 0 49 99 100 77 40 24 10 6

% Error 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 1 -

Ohmmeter

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470k 1M 10M

5 3 0

Figure 9: Logarithmic graph representation of the Ohmmeter

D'Arsenal Reading vs. Resistor Value


120 D'Arsenal Reading (A) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 10000000 12000000 Resistor Value ()

Figure 10: Visual Representation of the Multimeter

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Conclusion
The creation of the DC Multimeter was an overall success in the theoretical and practical aspect. Basic elementary concepts were used to create a fully functional Multimeter that can read Amperage, Voltage and resistance through a 100A analog meter. From the designing of MultiSim schematics to the implementation of circuits onto a breadboard, the amount of errors or troubles I had with this project were very slim. These errors consisted of inexact resistor values resulting in inaccurate Voltage and Amperage readings. After the investigation of creating a DC Multimeter, I have learned a solid amount on the DC theory. This project helped me understand the concept of circuits with resistors in parallel or series and how to implement virtual designs of a Multimeter onto a breadboard. Overall, I found this project to be an enjoyable experience and something to learn from.

-50.50 0 286.12 0 -7.53 0 -131.12 0 -110.74 0 -7.53 0 -85.94 0 -53.24 0.00 -77.50 0 -28.83 0 -35.06 0 -249.01 0 -107.24 Page | 12

-35.44 0 -37.65 0 -97.88 0 4.41 0 2.21 0 -7.53 0 4.41 0 -45.71 7.53 12.85 0 -119.18 0 -27.53 0 -151.12 0 -144.89

0 18.18 0 -30.12 0 -92.56 0.00 -55.45 0 -50.12 0 -26.62 0 -156.45 0 -39.47 0.00 -123.21 0 -59.86 0 -53.24 0 -91.27 0 -83.36 0 -7.53 0 -62.44 0 -47.38 0 -45.71 0 -87.77 0 Page | 13

0 18.18 0 -22.59 0 -24.79 7.53 -85.56 0 -42.59 0 -41.68 0 -126.33 0 -39.47 -75.29 -70.51 0 -97.50 0 -53.24 0 -106.33 0 -60.77 0 -7.53 0 5.32 0 -9.73 0 -105.95 0 -102.83 0

-139.18 0 -7.53 0

-131.65 0 0 0

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