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EEE 4101: Control Systems Laboratory

Experiment # 3: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Speed Control of a AC Servo Motor.

Objectives:

1. To control the speed of a small ac motor.

2. To determine the open-loop voltage gain of an ac system.

3. To observe saturation effects when ac signals are used.

4. To understand the principle of an error detector.

5. To learn the fundamental principle of a modulator.

6. To observe the closed-loop behavior of an ac motor when its speed is controlled

by means of a variable dc signal.

Discussion of fundamentals:

Figure 1 shows the control circuit used to vary the speed of an ac motor. Potentiometer P is connected across the AC REFERENCE supply and control voltage V 1 can be varied in amplitude by moving wiper 3. The phase shifter makes V 3 equal to V 1 , but displaced from it by 90 0 . Amplifier input voltage V 3 produces a higher voltage E b which acts on the motor control winding. The ratio E b /V 1 depends on the setting of the power amplifier gain. The motor reference winding is permanently connected to the 18V, ac source. Vc
+15V
- 15V
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The ac tachometer (GEN) produces an output voltage V 2 which is directly proportional to the speed of the motor. The voltage gain of the system is then given by G=V 2 /V 1 . Voltages V 1 and V 2 can be measured by means of an ac voltmeter. In the exercise, the gain of amplifier A is set at 5, and so E b is 5 times greater than

V 3 . The saturation level of the amplifier (15V) will be reached as soon as V 3 is about 2V (RMS). Saturation causes E b to level to become distorted because the voltage peaks are clipped at the 15V level. Therefore, the voltage across the control winding will not increase beyond 15V. The result is that the speed remains nearly constant once amplifier

A saturates. Consequently, voltage V 2 also levels off when the speed stops increasing.

You will plot the voltage gain G of the system for different values of V 1 .You will discover that it is fairly constant until saturation sets in, after which it begins to decrease.

Equipment required:

 1. Power supply 8846 2. Connection leads and accessories 8944 3. Potentiometer 9036 4. Power amplifier/Phase shifter 9039 5. AC motor/generator 9319

6. Multimeter

 Procedure: A. 1. Connect the ac motor, power amplifier and potentiometer as shown in the schematic circuit diagram of Fig. 1. Do not make the feedback connection. 2. Select the ac amplifier made and set the amplifier gain equal to 1. B. When the control signal V 1 is very small, the resulting voltage V a may not be enough to cause the motor to turn, due to the friction of the bearings. In this experiment, we shall

determine the range of voltage V 1 over which the motor does not turn.

a) Set V 1 =0 so that the motor does not turn. Then gradually increase V 1 (positively) and record the critical positive voltage when motor starts turning. The

approximate critical positive voltage is V 1 (crit +)=

V

b) Reset V 1 =0 and gradually increase V 1 (negatively) and record the critical negative

voltage when the motor starts turning. The approximate critical negative voltage

is V 1 (crit -)=

V

The so called “dead-band” of the control system ranges from the critical negative voltage to the critical positive voltage V. This dead-band is a highly non-linear portion of the control system.

If time permits, do parts C and D.

C.

a) Adjust the amplifier gain to 5. This will increase the overall system gain by a factor of 5. Observe what effect this has on the input-output (V 2 – V 1 ) characteristics, and upon the width of the dead-band.

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D.

a) Repeat procedure 2 to measure the dead-band, but with the amplifier gain equal to 5. Determine the critical positive and negative voltages that cause the motor to start running.

 b) Critical positive voltage is V 1 (crit +) = V c) Critical negative voltage is V 1 (crit -) = V

d) The dead-band range is between V 1 = V

V

and

V 2

=

Compare the dead band between open-loop systems of different gains and also between open-loop DC and open-loop AC motor.

Discussions of fundamentals:

Error Detector:

In control circuits we often have to add or subtract two or more voltages to get a resulting output voltage. A device that is able to add and subtract several signals and give a resulting output signal is called an error detector. The name is somewhat misleading, and the term “signal processor” is actually more appropriate. However, in control systems, the must lie along name error detector is preferred.    The error detector in your servomechanism trainer has four terminals and one(unseen) ground terminal. The ground is common to all four terminals. Consequently, all signals are measured between the respective terminals and ground. The schematic diagram of the detector is shown in fig.2. The input signals are e 1 , e 2 , e 3 and the resulting output is V 1 . The positive and negative symbols on the error detector tell us whether the signals are added or subtracted by the detector. The error detector can simultaneously accept both ac and dc input signals. The output voltage V 1 is then thinstantaneous sum of the input signals. Although you will unusually be working with low frequency signals, the error detector can add and subtract ac signals of up to several hundred hertz. However, to prevent distortion, none of the signals (including V 1 ) should exceed 10V peak.

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Suppose that an ac signal e s having a peak voltage of 6V is connected to terminal 1. The output V1 will have the same frequency and amplitude, and so V1 is in phase with e s . But, if e s is connected to terminal 2, the output V 1 will be 180 0 out of phase with e s . The reason is that at the instant when e s is maximum (+), V1 is maximum (-). The instantaneous action of the error detector means that the output signal V 1 is equal to phasor sum of up to three ac input signals. Suppose, in fig.2, that e 1 =3V and e 2 =0V, and that e 2 lags 90 0 behind e 1 . Because V 1 =e 1 -e 2 , it will have an amplitude of 5V and will lead e1 by 53 0 (fig3).

Modulator:

A modulator is a device, which converts a dc signal into an ac signal. The magnitude of the ac output signals directly proportional to the dc input signal. A modulator is basically a two-pole reversing switch, as shown in fig.4. The dc signal is applied to input terminals 1, 2. The switch connects output terminals 3, 4 to input terminals 1, 2 for a brief instant. Then it reverses the connection so that terminals 1, 2 are briefly connected to terminals 4, 3. This reversing action is repeated many times per second. Consequently, the polarity of terminals 3, 4 changes continually. The dc signal is thereby converted into an ac square wave. If the dc signal is 6V, the output is a square wave having amplitude of 6V. The peak-peak amplitude is 12V. The frequency of the square wave depends upon the switching rate of the modulator. It is typically 50Hz, 60Hz or 400Hz. When the polarity of the dc signal reverses, the ac output reverses its phase by 180 0 .    Although a mechanical switch could be used, most modulator are switched electronically. In industrial control circuits, the switching rate is precisely in step with the utility company. In some control systems, the switching rate is 400Hz. Some modulators are equipped with a filter to convert the square wave into a sine wave. The electronically-switched modulator in your servomechanism trainer has such a filter, and it yields a sine wave output. In practice, a modulator has two input terminals (2, G), two output terminals (3, G), and two switch-actuating terminals (5, G) as shown in fig.5. Terminals 5 and 6 are connected to a low-voltage utility source. This voltage no effect on the dc input or the ac output; it merely serves to switch the output at a constant rate. The modulator used in this trainer uses a common ground for all inputs and outputs. The ground connection is made automatically when the modulator is pushed into place.

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As a result, the modulator has only three external terminals. The dc signal is applied between terminal 2 and ground. The switch actuating voltage is connected between terminal 1 and ground. The ac output voltage appears between terminal 3 and ground.

Close-loop control:

In open-loop experiments on the ac motor, we observed that the no-load motor speed is not directly proportional to the voltage applied to the control winding. Now, we start with the open-loop circuit (fig.6). It is identical to the circuit you used in open loop control, except that a dc instead of an ac control signal V c is now used. An error detector has also been added. Modulator M converts the dc signal V c into an ac signal Vc1. The open-loop gain is given by G=V 2 /V c . Note that this gain is expressed as the ratio of an ac signal V 2 to a dc signal V c . Up till now, the gain of a system was always expressed as the ratio of two dc signals or of two ac signals. AC
Vc
V1
+ 15V
- 15V
V2 After we have found the relationship between V 2 and V c , in open loop, we will feed the V 2 signal back to input. This feedback connection is shown by the dotted line in fig.6. You will find the resulting closed-loop relationship between V 2 and V c is much more linear. This is because the closed-loop gain H is more contant than the open-loop gain G. You will recall that H=V 2 /V c .

Equipment required:

 1. Power supply 8846 2. Connection leads and accessories 8944 3. Potentiometer 9036 4. Error detector 9037 5. Modulator/Demodulator 9038 6. Power amplifier/Phase shifter 9039 7. Ac motor/generator 9319

8. Multimeter

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 Procedure: A. a) Place the friction lever in the zero position. Make sure the inertia wheel is not mounted on the shaft. Adjust the amplifier gain to 1. Connect the open-loop circuit as shown in fig.6. Do not make the dotted feedback connection. b) Adjust the potentiometer so that V C = 0 V initially and then Vc increments by 1 V. Measure the value of V 1 . V 1 = V. Is V 1 = V C ? c) Measure the value of V 2 . V 2 = V. Record values of Vc V1, upper and lower values of V2 (since V2 fluctuates), gain and a percent measure of V2 fluctuation. Take values for both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of the motor. Note that, V2 fluctuation = 100* [V2 (upper) – V2 (lower)] / V2 (lower). Gain = V2 (average)/ Vc. Also, measure rpm and regulation for one set of data. Note: If V 2 fluctuates, indicate its upper and lower values. The speed may vary up and down, because the friction is not constant from one place to another during a complete revolution of the belt. Complete the following table. TABLE 1 Vc V1 V2 V2 V2 Gain V2 No-Load Full-Load Regulation* (upper) (lower) (average) fluctuation Speed* Speed* 0 0 0.5 0.5 1 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 -0.5 -0.5 -1 -1 -1.5 -1.5 -2 -2 -2.5 -2.5

* Measure rpm and regulation for only one set of data.

If time is constrained, take data for only the positive values of Vc and V1 (for Table 1).

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d) Measure the no-load speed of the output shaft for V1 = +2 V by counting the

number of turns in one minute. No-load speed =

r/min.

e) Without changing the setting of V C , move the friction lever down to the 10 position. Record the new value of V 2 . If V 2 fluctuates, indicate the upper and

lower values. V 2 =

V.

f) Measure the full-load speed by counting turns (Friction lever in position 10). Full-

r/min.

g) Calculate the speed regulation in percent using the following equation:

Speed regulation =

%.

h) Plot V2 (average) versus Vc (or V1).

Note that the relationship is nonlinear. Non-linearity means that the speed is not proportional to the magnitude of the control signal.

B. (I) a) Connect a wire (feedback loop) from the generator output V 2 to the error

detector as shown in Fig. 6. This provides the required negative feedback. Place the friction lever in the zero position. Make sure the inertia wheel is not mounted on the shaft. Adjust the amplifier gain to 1.

b) Adjust V C so that the speed is the same value as in step A(c). You can easily do this by making V1 or V 2 the same as in step A (c).

You should also note that it takes a much larger control voltage V c to obtain a given speed. The reason is that the control signal is now equal to the sum of the input signal V 1 with V 2 .

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 c) Measure V C , V 1 and V 2 . V C = V, V 1 = V, V 2 = V. Complete the following table. TABLE 2 Vc V1 V2 V2 V2 Gain V2 No-Load Full-Load Regulation* (upper) (lower) (average) fluctuation Speed* Speed* 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5

* Measure rpm and regulation for only one set of data.

If time is constrained, take data for only the positive values of Vc and V1 (for Table 2).

d) Measure the no-load speed of the output shaft for V1 = +2 V by counting turns.

r/min.

e) Without making any other change, bring the friction lever down to the 10 mark.

V, V 2 = -

Then measure V C , V 1 and V 2 . V C =

V, V 1 =

V.

f) Measure the speed by counting turns. Full-load speed =

g) Calculate the speed regulation in percent using the following equation:

r/min.

Speed regulation =

%.

h) Plot V2 (average) versus Vc (or V1).

Note that the relationship is much more linear than in the open-loop case. This shows that even such a “disturbance” as the non-linearity of a system tends to be eliminated when the system operates in closed-loop.

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It is true that a higher control voltage V c is needed to attain this result. But this creates no problem, because a signal amplifier can be used to raise a control voltage to any value we want.

Is speed regulation better in part B (I) as compared to part A? Also compare V2 fluctuations and V2 (avg) vs. V1 plots for part A and part B (I). Does the transition from open-loop to closed-loop improve these performance parameters?

 B. (II) a) Place the friction lever in the zero position. Make sure the inertia wheel is not mounted on the shaft. Keeping the feedback connection, adjust the amplifier gain to 5. b) Complete the steps (b) through (h) just like part B (I). TABLE 3 Vc V1 V2 V2 V2 Gain V2 No-Load Full-Load Regulation* (upper) (lower) (average) fluctuation Speed* Speed* 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5

* Measure rpm and regulation for only one set of data.

If time is constrained, take data for only the positive values of Vc and V1 (for Table

3).

c) Measure the no-load speed of the output shaft for V1 = +2 V by counting turns.

r/min.

d) Without making any other change, bring the friction lever down to the 10 mark.

V, V 2 = -

Then measure V C , V 1 and V 2 . V C =

V, V 1 =

V.

e) Measure the speed by counting turns. Full-load speed =

r/min.

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f) Calculate the speed regulation in percent using the following equation:

Speed regulation =

%.

h) Plot V2 (average) versus Vc (or V1).

Is speed regulation better in part B (II) as compared to part B (I)? Also compare V2 fluctuations and V2 (avg) vs. V1 plots for part B (I) and part B (II). Does increasing open loop gain improve these performance parameters?

C.

Note that the speed regulation is now much better than in the open-loop condition. You may also have noticed that V 2 does not fluctuate as much as it did before. The speed is

therefore more uniform in closed-loop operation.

 (a) Using an oscilloscope, and with V c =+4V, observe the waveshapes of V c1 , V 1 and V 2 . (The circuit is still in closed-loop). (b) Is V c1 reasonably sinusoidal? (c) Is V 2 reasonably sinusoidal? (d) Is V 1 reasonably sinusoidal?

In this experiment, although V c1 and V 2 both appear to be sinusoidal, they are in fact slightly distorted. This means that they both contain harmonics which are invisible in V c1 and V 2 , because the fundamental component is so large. However, the error detector gives an output V 1 that is the difference between V c1 and V 2 . As a result, the fundamental components in V c1 and V 2 nearly cancel each other, but the harmonics do not. Consequently, V 1 can be badly distorted because the harmonics are now much bigger relative to the fundamental signal. Such a poor waveshape applied to the amplifier input produces a corresponding poor waveshapes at the amplifier output V 0 (fig.6). This nonsinusoidal wave is applied to the ac motor control winding. However, it does not affect the basic operation of the motor. It only causes the motor to run slightly hotter.

Report:

 1. Submit the report with all graphs and questions asked during laboratory experiments. 2. Compare open-loop and closed-loop control systems with respect to your experimental data. 3. Compare closed-loop control systems with Gain = 1 and the same system with Gain = 5 with respect to your experimental data. OR

Compare between closed-loop DC motor (with Gain = 5) and closed-loop AC motor (with Gain = 5) with respect to your experimental data.

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