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The Mediterranean Journal of Computers and Networks, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2011

159

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION USING FINGERKNUCKLES BASED ON LDA AND DCT

A. Th. Abd El Monaim 1,* , M. Kouta 2 , N. M. Amer 2

1 Dept. of Computer Science, HICIT, Cairo, Egypt 2 Dept. of Computer Engineering, AAST, Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT

Finger Knuckle recognition system is one of the recent biometric methods used to identify people such as face, iris, finger print, and others. In this paper we aim to improve the accuracy of the Finger Knuckle recognition system through using single feature extraction methods such as LDA and DCT based on many single classifiers and try to compare between the recognition rate of each feature extraction method. Also, we try to identify which finger has features more than other fingers. The two single feature extraction methods have been applied on FKP database (7920 grayscale images). And as a result of the comparative study, the LDA technique based on RBE or KNN classifiers achieves recognition rate better than DCT.

Keywords

FingerKnuckle, LDA, DCT, Image Processing, Feature Extraction.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Recently, it has been noticed that the textures in the outer finger surface has the potential to do personal authentication. Woodward et al. [1] used the 3D range image of the hand to calculate the curvature surface representation of the index, middle, and ring fingers for similarity comparison. In [2], Ravikanth et al. applied the subspace analysis methods to the finger-back surface images for feature extraction and person classification. The above works made a good effort to validate the uniqueness of biometric features in the outer finger surface; however, they did not provide a practical solution to establishing an efficient system using the outer finger surface features. In addition, the method [1] mainly exploits the 3D shape information of finger back surface but does not fully use the texture information; while the subspace analysis methods used in [2] may not be able to effectively extract the distinctive line and junction features in finger back surface.

Later, Kumar and Ravikanth [2, 3] proposed another approach to personal authentication by using 2-D finger-back surface imaging. They developed a device to capture hand-back images and then extracted the finger knuckle areas by some preprocessing steps. The sub-space analysis methods such as

*Corresponding author: E-mail: engalaatharwat@hotmail.com

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Copyright © 2011 SoftMotor Ltd.

ISSN: 1744-2397

PCA, LDA and ICA were combined to do feature extraction and matching. With Kumar et al.’s design, the acquisition device is doomed to have a large size because nearly the whole hand back area has to be captured, despite the fact that the finger knuckle area only occupies a small portion of the acquired image. Furthermore, subspace analysis methods may be effective for face recognition but they may not be able to effectively extract the distinctive line features from the finger knuckle surface.

The anatomy of human hands is quite complicated and intricate but highly responsible for the individuality of hand- based biometrics. The finger skin surface is highly rich in texture which consists of palmer friction ridges and palmer flexion creases [3,4]. The palmside hand surface regions are highly popular for personal identification and employed to acquire fingerprint, palmprint and hand shape features.

The forefinger and little finger have very high mobility and agility. The ring finger is regarded as the clumsiest and stiffest of all fingers. Therefore the ring finger offered high user inconvenience even with the peg-free imaging considered in this work. The middle finger offered higher surface area and higher stability in acquiring knuckle patterns. Therefore middle fingers images were selected for evaluating knuckle identification. It may also be noted that the comparative evaluation of performance from the four finger knuckle images in [3] suggested that middle finger achieves the best performance. It is also possible to acquire four fingers simultaneously, as in [3], and improve the performance from the combination since four knuckle patterns present quite distinct texture.

In this paper we try to apply two different single features extraction methods and many classifiers to get the most suitable features extraction method and classifier. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the recognition system of finger knuckle print. Section 3 presents the enhancement of finger knuckle image. Section 4 explains the feature extraction methods in this paper. Section 5 shows the results and discussion. Conclusion and recommendations explained in Section 6.

2. FINGER KNUCKLE PRINT (FKP) RECOGNITION SYSTEM

The block diagram for the proposed personal identification system using finger knuckles is shown in Fig. 1. The backside (knuckle side) fingers images are conveniently acquired from a digital camera for the identification. Each of these images requires localization of region of interest for the feature extraction as in Fig. 2. This region of interest is the region having maximum knuckle creases and automatically extracted using the edge detection based approach detailed in reference

[3].

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION USING FINGERKNUCKLES BASED ON LDA AND DCT

IDENTIFICATION USING FINGERKNUCKLES BASED ON LDA AND DCT Figure 1. Block diagram fo r the human

Figure 1. Block diagram for the human identification

DCT Figure 1. Block diagram fo r the human identification Figure 2. (a) is a sample

Figure 2. (a) is a sample FKP image; (b) is the ROI image of (a)

[5]

The extracted knuckle images have non uniform illuminations and therefore require image enhancement. The enhanced knuckle images are employed for the feature extraction. The feature extraction approach employed in this work is detailed in Section 4 and generates binarized codes (KnuckleCodes) for each of the localized pixel positions.

3. FINGER KNUCKLE IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

The finger surface is highly curved and results in uneven reflection which also generates shadow. The knuckle images therefore have low contrast and uneven illuminations. These undesirable effects are reduced in the pre-processing step using nonlinear image enhancement. The image enhancement steps are summarized as follows: (a) Each of the knuckle images is divided into 10 × 10 pixels sub-blocks, and the gray-level in each of the blocks is computed by summing up all pixel values in this block and then divided by a constant N. The gray-level in each block represents the average background illumination from the corresponding sub-block. (b) The estimated blockwise average from (a) is used to construct a background illumination image, of the same size as original knuckle image, using bi-cubic interpolation. (c) The background illumination image from (b) is subtracted from the original image for the normalization of uneven illumination. The resulting normalized image is subjected to the histogram equalization to obtain the final enhanced knuckle image.

equalization to obtain the final enhanced knuckle image. Figure 3. (a) Finger image, (b ) segmented

Figure 3. (a) Finger image, (b) segmented finger knuckle image, (c) mean bi-cubic image, (d) enhanced knuckle image

[6]

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION USING FINGERKNUCKLES BASED ON LDA AND DCT

161

Fig. 3 shows a sample of finger knuckle image and the corresponding steps to obtain the enhanced image. It can be noticed from Fig. 2(d) that the employed steps for the image enhancement have been quite successful in improving the illumination and the contrast of the finger knuckle images [5, 6].

4. FEATURE EXTRACTION METHODS

There are many different approaches to extract the features from FKS images as described below.

4.1 LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis)

Linear Discriminant analysis has been successfully used as a classification technique for a number of problems, including speech recognition, face recognition, and multimedia information retrieval. While PCA takes the complete training data as one entity, LDA’s goal is to find an efficient way to represent the vector space by using class information (class is defined as a collection of data belonging to a particular entity, for example a collection of images belonging to a person.) [7-9]. The FK images in the training set are divided into the corresponding classes. LDA then compute a set of vectors W as follows:

W = max

W T SW S b b = max W T SW S w w
W
T SW
S
b
b
= max
W
T SW
S
w
w

(1)

Where S b is the between-class scatter matrix and S W is the within-class scatter matrix, defined by:

1 M S = ∑ ( Γ− mm )( Γ− ) i k ik i
1
M
S
=
(
Γ−
mm
)(
Γ−
)
i
k
ik
i
N
i = 1
i
M 1
S
=
S
w
i
i = 1
M
M 1
T
S
=
(
m
−− mm )(
m
)
b
ii
i
= 1
M

T

(2)

(3)

(4)

Where N i is the number of training samples in class i, M is the number of distinct classes, m i is the mean vector of the samples belonging to class i. S W represents the scatter of features around the mean of each FK class and S b represents the scatter of features around the overall mean for all FK classes. Solve for the generalized eigenvectors (V) and eigenvalus (λ) of the within class and between class scatter matrices.

(5)

Then, sort the eigenvectors according to eigenvalus and project all the original (i.e. not centered) images onto the Fisher basis vectors

SV = SVλ

b

w

Y =WΓ

i

(6)

4.2 DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform)

DCT is a well-known signal analysis tool used in compression standards due to its compact representation power. A detected

and enhanced FK image is divided into 8x8 blocks. Then, apply DCT Eq. (7) on each block. DCT will push the lower frequencies toward the upper left corner of each block. Then, extract the information from each block using zig-zag scan. To fuse the local information, the extracted features from 8x8 pixels blocks can be combined at the feature level or at the decision level [10].

B

pq

=

where

π

(2

+

1)

mp

π

(2

1)

+

nq

 

cos

 
 

2

M

2

N

 

qN

≤≤ −

1

p = 0

0

≤≤ p M

1

p = 0

0

≤≤ q N

1

q

∑∑

m

=

0

n

=

0

A

mn

cos

0

α

p

α

q

pM

1, 0

⎧ 1 ⎪ M = ⎨ ⎪ 2 ⎩ M ⎧ 1 ⎪ N =
1
M
= ⎨
2
M
1
N
= ⎨
2
N

(7)

M

1

N

1

αα

p

5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In order to evaluate the proposed FKP recognition technique, we will make two experiments and use FKP database. The FKP images were collected from 165 volunteers, including 125

males and 40 females. Among them, 143 subjects are 20~30 years old and the others are 30~50 years old. We collected the images in two separate sessions. In each session, the subject was asked to provide 6 images for each of the left index finger, the left middle finger, the right index finger and the right middle finger. Therefore, 48 images from 4 fingers were collected from each subject. In total, the database contains

7,920 images from 660 different fingers. The average time interval between the first and second sessions was about 25 days [11].

Experiment 1: In the first experiment, we applied LDA as a feature extraction method based on single classifier such as Neural Network (RBE, RBF, GRNN, and PNN), K nearest neighbor (using 3 and 5 neighbors), and Fuzzy KNN (using 3 neighbors). In this experiment, we will try to identify persons using KunckleCodes of the index and right fingers from the left and right hand.

Experiment 2: In this experiment we applied DCT as a feature extraction method based on single classifiers as in Experiment 1. Also, we used the database as in Experiment 1.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The experiments is done using two feature extraction methods LDA and DCT based on three classifiers Neural Network (RBE, RBF, GRNN, and PNN), KNN (using 3 and 5

neighbors), and F_KNN (using three neighbors).

As shown in Table 1 and Fig. 4, we note that LDA is better than DCT in about 68% of all cases. And, RBE and KNN are the best two classifiers and the accuracy of RBE is 92% and KNN is 99.75% while, RBF is the worst classifier. Also, the

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION USING FINGERKNUCKLES BASED ON LDA AND DCT

index finger has features more than other fingers and right hand approximately has a good accuracy in recognition than the left hand (in about 79% of all cases). In addition, the best recognition rate achieved when we applied LDA based on RBE using the right index finger (99.75%).

Finally, A comparison between DCT, and LDA based on different classifiers in Fig. 4 and Table 1 shows that, the recognition rate is approximately reached to its maximum (approximately 99%) when using LDA with RBE and KNN. While the recognition rate decreases when we used DCT as a feature extraction method.

In future work, we will try to increase the recognition rate by combining features and classifiers. Also, we will try to increase the recognition rate through combining two or more fingers from the same hand of different hands.

two or more fingers from the same hand of different hands. Figure 4. Performance compar ison

Figure 4. Performance comparison between LDA and DCT using single classifiers (a) For both LDA and DCT (b) For LDA (c) For DCT

Table 1. Recognition rate of FKP based on LDA and DCT

DCT Table 1. Recognition rate of FKP based on LDA and DCT REFERENCES [1] D. L.

REFERENCES

[1]

D. L. Woodard and P. J. Flynn, “Finger surface as a biometric identifier”, CVIU, Vol. 100, 2005, pp. 357-384.

[2]

C. Ravikanth and A. Kumar, “Biometric Authentication using Finger-Back Surface”, CVPR’07, 2007, pp. 1-6.

[3]

A. Kumar, Ch. Ravikanth, “Personal authentication using finger knuckle surface”, IEEE Trans. Info. Forensics & Security, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar. 2009, pp. 98-110.

[4]

Y. Hao, T. Tan, Z. Sun and Y. Han, “Identity verification using handprint”, Proc. ICB 2007, Lecture Notes Springer, Vol. 4642, 2007, pp. 328-337.

[5]

L. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Zhang, “Finger-Knuckle-Print Verification Based on Band-Limited Phase-Only Correlation”, CAIP 2009, LNCS 5702, 2009, pp. 141-148.

[6]

S. Ribaric, I. Fratric, “A Biometric identification system based on eigenpalm and eigenfinger Features”, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 27, No. 11, Nov. 2005.

[7]

G. L. Marcialis, F. Roli, “Fusion of LDA and PCA for Face Recognition”, Proc. of the International ECCV Workshop on Biometric Authentication, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2359, 2002, pp. 30-37.

[8]

P.Belhumeur, J. Hespanha, D. Kriegman, “Eigenfaces vs. Fisherfaces: Recognition Using Class Specific Linear Projection”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 19, No. 7, 1997, pp. 711-720.

[9]

A. Martinez, A. Kak, “PCA versus LDA”, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2001, pp. 228-233.

[10] H. Kemal, R. Stiefelhagen, “Local Appearance Based Face Recognition Using Discrete Cosine Transform”, 13th European Signal Processing Conf. (EUSIPCO 2005), Antalya, Turkey, 2005.

[11] http://web.iitd.ac.in/~biometrics/knuckle/iitd_knuckle.htm, last date accessed 12/12/2010.

Biographies

Alaa Tharwat Abd El Monaim graduated from faculty of Engineering – Computer Engineering Dept. (2002). M.SC. from Mansoura university faculty of Engineering – Computer Engineering Dept. (2008). And M.SC. was from AAST faculty of Engineering – Computer Engineering Dept. (2009). Research interests are image processing, pattern recognition, medical imaging, and image compression.

Mohamed Kouta Prof. in AAST in Cairo, Dept. of Business and Information Technology and Head of the business and Information Technology Dept. Research interest is image processing, pattern recognition, medical imaging, image compression, data mining.

Nada Mohammed Amer Graduated from HICIT, faculty of Computer Science (2004). Research interests are image processing, pattern recognition, medical imaging, and image compression.