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CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF EMERGING WORK STRESS RELATED CONSTRUCTS A MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE

AUTHORS Roohi Kursheed Khan. S, Ph.D Scholar, Bharathiar School of Management & Entrepreneur Development, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore !"#$"! Email: rooja89@gmail.com, Ph.no: 9840952 2! "r. Ru#a $unaseelan, %ssociate Professor, Email: ru#aguna@gmail.com, Ph.no: 9488! Bharathiar School of Management & Entrepreneur Development, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore !"#$"! 255

ABSTRACT

&he pressure on employees for performance an' competition increases 'ay by 'ay in the fast changing (orl'. &his increase in competition has given rise to increase' amount of stress in in'ivi'uals to outshine others in all the activities they 'o. &his paper mainly focuses on the theme stress, levels of stress, the 'ifferent types of stress, effects of stress an' their outcomes. &he paper emphasi)es the importance of stress management strategies an' helps employees in han'ling pressure an' gives valuable suggestions to the organi)ations to han'le stresse' employees. &he research (as carrie' out to 'efine ho( an' (hy stress is important an' the techni*ues an' strategies that shoul' be use' so that they can manage the stress effectively. +or con'ucting the stu'y many articles an' referre' ,ournals (ere revie(e'.

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Keywords: Stress, &ypes of stress, stress management strategies, outcomes INTRODUCTION S%ress is deri&ed 'rom %he (a%in )ord *S%ringere* )hich means %o dra) %igh%. S%ress is a d+namic condi%ion in )hich an indi&idual is con'ron%ed )i%h an o##or%uni%+, demand or resource rela%ed %o )ha% %he indi&idual desires and 'or )hich %he ou%come is #ercei&ed %o ,e ,o%h uncer%ain and im#or%an% -.oo#er e%.al 2002/. S%ress can ,e #osi%i&e or nega%i&e. S%ress can ,e #osi%i&e )hen %he si%ua%ion o''ers an o##or%uni%+ 'or a #erson %o gain some%hing. 0% ac%s as a mo%i&a%or 'or #ea1 #er'ormance. S%ress can ,e nega%i&e )hen a #erson 'aces social, #h+sical, organi2a%ional and emo%ional #ro,lems. S%ress is an im#or%an% as#ec% in e&er+ human3s li'e. E&er+ indi&idual ha&e %o use %he s%ress managemen% %echni4ues a% some #oin% o' li'e. S%ress can occur 'or an indi&idual a% %he )or1#lace or i% can ,e some%hing rela%ed %o his #ersonal li'e.

DEFINITION

S%ress is de'ined as 5%he #a%%ern o' emo%ional s%a%es and #h+siological reac%ions occurring in res#onse %o demand 'rom )i%hin or ou%side an organi2a%ion3 -$reen,erg 6 7aron, 20089 Singh, 2008/. Triggers of stress: .ommon e:%ernal 'ac%ors include, ;)or1 schedule, #ace o' )or1, jo, securi%+, rou%e %o and 'rom )or1, )or1#lace noise, and %he num,er and na%ure o' cus%omers< -"essler, 20!0, #. 809/. =he in%ernal 'ac%ors included hea&+ or di''icul% )or1 load, )or1ing long hours, leadershi# -or lac1 %hereo'/, and )or1 en&ironmen% -7ha%%i, >., Shar, ?., Shai1h, @., 6 >a2ar, A., 20!0, #. 8/. Some o' %he im#or%an% reasons o' S%ress in %he Bor1#lace are as 'ollo)s: @ear o' o,solescence: "ue %o change o' %echnolog+ and 4uic1 learning o' ne) %echnolog+. 0ndi&idual and %eam in%erac%ion: 0n%erac%ion o' anal+s%, de&elo#er and #rojec% manager. .lien% in%erac%ions: 0n%erac%ion during ,usiness anal+sis and s+s%em anal+sis.

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Bor1C'amil+ in%er'ace: =a1ing )or1 home or )or1ing 'or la%e hours. Role o&erload: ?ssuming di''eren% roles in a di''eren% or same #rojec%. Bor1 cul%ure: =ra&elling a,road and 'acing di''eren% cul%ures. =echnical cons%rain%s: (ac1 o' %echnical e:#er%ise. @amil+ su##or% %o)ards career: ?%%i%ude and rela%ion o' %he 'amil+ %o)ards )or1. Bor1load: E:cessi&e and di&erse )or1. =echnical ris1 #ro#ensi%+: Ris1 due %o using inno&a%i&e %echnolog+ or #rocess.

LEVELS OF STRESS =here are %)o %+#es o' le&els. =he+ are

EUSTRESS S%ress resul%ing 'rom #leasan% e&en%s or condi%ions is called eus%ress. 0% can ,e de'ined as a #leasan% or cura%i&e s%ress. Be canD% al)a+s a&oid s%ress, in 'ac%, some%imes )e donD% )an% %o. E'%en, i% is con%rolled s%ress %ha% gi&es us our com#e%i%i&e edge in #er'ormance rela%ed ac%i&i%ies li1e a%hle%ics, gi&ing a s#eech, or ac%ing. DISTRESS S%ress resul%ing 'rom un#leasan% e&en%s or condi%ions is called dis%ress. BAD STRESS 0' a s%imulus )e reac% %o is nega%i&e, )e are ac%uall+ 'eeling ;dis%ress< %hough )e la,el i% s%ress. e. g. dea%h o' a close 'riend, rela%i&e e%c. as

ACUTE STRESS

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?cu%e s%ress is usuall+ 'or shor% %ime and ma+ ,e due %o )or1 #ressure, mee%ing deadlines #ressure or minor acciden%, o&er e:er%ion, increased #h+sical ac%i&i%+, searching some%hing or mis#laced i%, or similar %hings.

CHRONIC STRESS .hronic s%ress is a #rolonged s%ress %ha% e:is%s 'or )ee1s, mon%hs, or e&en +ears. =his s%ress is due %o #o&er%+, ,ro1en or s%ressed 'amilies and marriages, chronic illness and successi&e 'ailures in li'e. Peo#le su''ering 'rom %his %+#e o' s%ress ge% used %o i% and ma+ e&en no% reali2e %ha% %he+ are under chronic s%ress. 0% is &er+ harm'ul %o %heir heal%h. 7o%h dis%ress and eus%ress elici% %he same #h+siological res#onses in %he ,od+. Bhile s%ress ma+ no% al)a+s ,e nega%i&e, our res#onses %o i% can ,e #ro,lema%ic or unheal%h+. 7o%h #osi%i&e and nega%i&e s%ress'ul si%ua%ions #lace e:%ra demands on %he ,od+F+our ,od+ reac%s %o an une:#ec%ed change or a highl+ emo%ional e:#erience, regardless o' )he%her %his change is good or ,ad. 0' %he dura%ion o' s%ress is rela%i&el+ shor%, %he o&erall e''ec% is minimal and +our ,od+ )ill res%, rene) i%sel', and re%urn %o normal. Types of stress ? managemen% consul%an% and con'erence s#ea1er ,ased in .ali'ornia, "r. Karl ?l,rech%.& is a #ioneer in %he de&elo#men% o' s%ressCreduc%ion %raining #rogrammes. Ge de'ined 'our common %+#es o' s%ress in his !9H9 ,oo1, *S%ress and %he Aanager.* Albrec t!s fo"r co##o$ types of stress %re: =ime s%ress ?n%ici#a%or+ s%ress Si%ua%ional s%ress Encoun%er s%ress

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Ti#e Stress

E&er+ indi&idual e:#eriences %ime s%ress )hen %he+ )orr+ a,ou% %ime. )e )orr+ a,ou% %he num,er o' %hings %ha% )e ha&e %o do, and )e 'ear %ha% )eDll 'ail %o achie&e some%hing im#or%an%. Be migh% 'eel %ra##ed, unha##+, or e&en ho#eless. .ommon e:am#les o' %ime s%ress include )orr+ing a,ou% deadlines or rushing %o a&oid ,eing la%e 'or a mee%ing. &%$%gi$g Ti#e Stress 0% is essen%ial %o learn ho) %o manage %his %+#e o' s%ress i' )eDre going %o )or1 #roduc%i&el+ in a ,us+ organi2a%ion. @irs%, learn good %ime managemen% s1ills. =his can include using =oC"o (is%s or, i' )e ha&e %o manage man+ simul%aneous #rojec%s, ?c%ion Programs. >e:%, ma1e sure %ha% )eDre de&o%ing enough %ime %o our im#or%an% #riori%ies. In'or%una%el+, i%Ds eas+ %o ge% caugh% u# in seemingl+ urgen% %as1s )hich ac%uall+ ha&e li%%le im#ac% on our o&erall o,jec%i&es. =his can lea&e us 'eeling e:haus%ed, or 'eeling %ha% )e )or1ed a 'ull da+ +e% accom#lished no%hing meaning'ul. Eur im#or%an% %as1s are usuall+ %he ones %ha% )ill hel# +ou reach our goals, and )or1ing on %hese #rojec%s is a ,e%%er use o' our %ime. Eur ar%icle on =he Irgen%J0m#or%an% Aa%ri: e:#lains #u% o''. 0' )e o'%en 'eel %ha% )e donD% ha&e enough %ime %o com#le%e all o' our %as1s, )e mus% learn %o crea%e more %ime in our da+. =his hel#s us %o 'ocus on our mos% im#or%an% %as1s .)e mus% also ma1e sure %ha% )eDre #oli%e ,u% asser%i&e a,ou% sa+ing *no* %o %as1s %ha% )e donD% ha&e %he ca#aci%+ %o do. A$ticip%tory Stress ho) %o ,alance urgen% and im#or%an% %as1s, and our ar%icle on #riori%i2a%ion hel#s us %o se#ara%e %as1s %ha% )e need %o 'ocus on 'rom %hose )e can sa'el+

?n%ici#a%or+ s%ress is %he s%ress %ha% )e e:#erience on concerning %he 'u%ure. Some%imes %his s%ress can ,e 'ocused on a s#eci'ic e&en%, such as an u#coming #resen%a%ion %ha% )eDre going %o

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gi&e. Go)e&er, an%ici#a%or+ s%ress can also ,e &ague and unde'ined, such as an o&erall sense o' dread a,ou% %he 'u%ure, or a )orr+ %ha% *some%hing )ill go )rong.* &%$%gi$g A$ticip%tory Stress ?n%ici#a%or+ s%ress is 'u%ure ,ased, s%ar%s ,+ recogni2ing %ha% %he e&en% )eDre dreading doesnD% ha&e %o #la+ ou% as )e imagine Research sho)s %ha% our mind o'%en canD% %ell %he di''erence, on a ,asic neurological le&el, ,e%)een a si%ua%ion %ha% )eD&e &isuali2ed going )ell re#ea%edl+ and one %ha%Ds ac%uall+ ha##ened. @or %his %echni4ues li1e medi%a%ion )ill hel# +ou de&elo# 'ocus and %he a,ili%+ %o concen%ra%e on )ha%Ds ha##ening righ% no), ra%her %han on an imagined 'u%ure. @or e:am#le, )e migh% ,e s%ressing o&er a #resen%a%ion %ha% )eDre gi&ing ne:% )ee1, ,ecause )eDre a'raid %ha% our #resen%a%ion )onD% ,e in%eres%ing. (as%l+, )e mus% learn ho) %o o&ercome a 'ear o' 'ailure : ,+ ma1ing con%ingenc+ #lans and anal+2ing all o' %he #ossi,le ou%comes, )eDll ge% a clearer idea o' )ha% could ha##en in %he 'u%ure. =his can hel# diminish our 'ear o' 'ailure and gi&e us a grea%er sense o' con%rol o&er e&en%s.

Sit"%tio$%l Stress

Si%ua%ional s%ress is e:#erienced )hen )eDre in a scar+ si%ua%ion %ha% )e ha&e no con%rol o&er. =his could ,e an emergenc+. Aore commonl+, ho)e&er, i%Ds a si%ua%ion %ha% in&ol&es con'lic%, or a loss o' s%a%us or acce#%ance in %he e+es o' our grou#. @or ins%ance, ge%%ing laid o'' or ma1ing a major mis%a1e in 'ron% o' our %eam are e:am#les o' e&en%s %ha% can cause si%ua%ional s%ress. &%$%gi$g Sit"%tio$%l Stress Si%ua%ional s%ress o'%en a##ears suddenl+, 'or e:am#le, +ou migh% ge% caugh% in a si%ua%ion %ha% +ou com#le%el+ 'ailed %o an%ici#a%e. =o manage si%ua%ional s%ress )e mus% learn %o ,e more sel'C a)are. =his means recogni2ing %he *au%oma%ic* #h+sical and emo%ional signals %ha% our ,od+ sends ou% )hen )eDre under #ressure.

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@or e:am#le, imagine %ha% %he mee%ing +ouDre in suddenl+ dissol&es in%o a shou%ing ma%ch ,e%)een %eam mem,ers. Eur au%oma%ic res#onse is %o 'eel a surge o' an:ie%+. Be )i%hdra) in%o our sel' and, i' someone as1s us 'or in#u%, )e )ill ha&e a di''icul% %ime 1no)ing )ha% %o sa+. .on'lic% is also major source o' si%ua%ional s%ress. Be mus% ado#% e''ec%i&e con'lic% resolu%ion s1ills, so %ha% )eDre )ellC#re#ared %o handle %he s%ress o' con'lic% )hen i% arises. 0%Ds also im#or%an% %o learn ho) %o manage con'lic% in mee%ings, since resol&ing grou# con'lic% can ,e di''eren% 'rom resol&ing indi&idual issues. E$co"$ter Stress

Encoun%er s%ress re&ol&es around #eo#le. Kou e:#erience encoun%er s%ress )hen +ou )orr+ a,ou% in%erac%ing )i%h a cer%ain #erson or grou# o' #eo#le L +ou ma+ no% li1e %hem, or +ou migh% %hin1 %ha% %he+Dre un#redic%a,le. Encoun%er s%ress can also occur i' +our role in&ol&es a lo% o' #ersonal in%erac%ions )i%h cus%omers or clien%s, es#eciall+ i' %hose grou#s are in dis%ress. @or ins%ance, #h+sicians and social )or1ers ha&e high ra%es o' encoun%er s%ress, ,ecause %he #eo#le %he+ )or1 )i%h rou%inel+ donD% 'eel )ell, are dee#l+ u#se%.

Effects of stress: =he e''ec%s or %he signs and s+m#%oms o' s%ress are as 'ollo)s: Stress '%r$i$g Sig$s %$( Sy#pto#s Cog$iti)e Sy#pto#s Aemor+ #ro,lems 0na,ili%+ %o concen%ra%e Poor judgmen% Seeing onl+ %he nega%i&e ?n:ious or racing %hough%s .ons%an% )orr+ing * ysic%l Sy#pto#s E#otio$%l Sy#pto#s Aoodiness 0rri%a,ili%+ or shor% %em#er ?gi%a%ion, ina,ili%+ %o rela: @eeling o&er)helmed Sense o' loneliness and isola%ion "e#ression or general unha##iness Be %)ior%l Sy#pto#s
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?ches and #ains "iarrhea or cons%i#a%ion >ausea, di22iness .hes% #ain, ra#id hear%,ea% (oss o' se: dri&e @re4uen% colds

Ea%ing more or less Slee#ing %oo much or %oo li%%le 0sola%ing +oursel' 'rom o%hers Procras%ina%ing or neglec%ing res#onsi,ili%ies Ising alcohol, cigare%%es, or drugs %o rela: >er&ous ha,i%s -e.g. nail ,i%ing, #acing/

?ll %hese s+m#%oms )ill ha&e ad&erse e''ec% on an indi&idual and %hese e&en%uall+ lead %o disru#%ion in %he )or1#lace.

STRESS &ANA+E&ENT STRATE+IES =he ou%comes o' s%ress can s%ud+ ,+ using %he s%ress managemen% s%ra%egies. =he organi2a%ional s%ra%egies are as 'ollo)s:

ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES S%ress is a 'ac%or %ha% e&er+,od+ has %o con%end )i%h on a dail+ ,asis ,o%h in %he )or1 and nonC )or1 s#heres o' li'e. Since %he ,od+ has onl+ a limi%ed ca#aci%+ %o res#ond %o s%ress, i% is im#or%an% 'or indi&iduals %o o#%imall+ manage %heir s%ress le&el %o o#era%e as 'ull+ 'unc%ioning human ,eings. =here are se&eral )a+s in )hich s%ress can ,e handled so %ha% %he d+s'unc%ional conse4uences o' s%ress can ,e reduced. Some o' %hem are: Role A$%lysis Tec $i,"e -RAT.: =he Role ?nal+sis =echni4ue hel#s ,o%h %he manager and %he em#lo+ee %o anal+2e %he re4uiremen%s and e:#ec%a%ions 'rom %he jo,. 7rea1ingC do)n %he jo, in%o &arious com#onen%s clari'ies %he role o' %he jo, 'or %he en%ire s+s%em. =his also hel#s %o elimina%e reduc%ion o' )or1 and %hus lo)ering do)n %he s%ress le&el.
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E#ployee Assist%$ce *rogr%#: ?no%her )idel+ used s%ra%eg+ is %he em#lo+ee assis%ance Programs, )hich o''er a &arie%+ o' assis%ance %o em#lo+ees. =hese include counseling em#lo+ees )ho see1 assis%ance on ho) %o deal )i%h alcohol and drug a,use, handling con'lic%s a% %he )or1 #lace, dealing )i%h mari%al and o%her 'amil+ #ro,lems. 0% includes:

Diagnosis. ?n em#lo+ee )i%h a #ro,lem as1s 'or hel#9 E?P s%a'' a%%em#%s %o diagnose %he #ro,lem

Treatment. .ounseling or su##or% %hera#+ is #ro&ided ei%her ,+ in%ernal s%a'' or ou%side re'erral

Screening. Periodic e:amina%ion o' em#lo+ees in highl+ s%ress'ul jo,s 'or earl+ de%ec%ion o' #ro,lems

Prevention. Educa%ion and #ersuasion used %o con&ince high ris1 em#lo+ees %o see1 hel# %o change

Org%$i/%tio$%l Stress &%$%ge#e$t *rogr%# T%rgets

0% includes: =raining #rograms 'or managing and co#ing )i%h s%ress Redesigning )or1 %o minimi2e s%ressors .hanges in managemen% s%+le %o one o' more su##or% and coaching %o hel# )or1ers achie&e %heir goals .rea%ing more 'le:i,le )or1 hours Pa+ing more a%%en%ion %o )or1Jli'e ,alance )i%h regard %o child and elder care 7e%%er communica%ion and %eamC,uilding #rac%ices 7e%%er 'eed,ac1 on )or1er #er'ormance and managemen% e:#ec%a%ion.

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C%reer Co"$selli$g: .areer .ounselling hel#s %he em#lo+ee %o o,%ain #ro'essional ad&ice regarding career %ha% )ould hel# %he indi&idual %o achie&e #ersonal goals. 0% also ma1es %he em#lo+ees a)are o' )ha% addi%ional educa%ional 4uali'ica%ions or s#eciali2ed %echnical %raining, i' an+, -ha% %he+ should ac4uire. 7+ ,ecoming 1no)ledgea,le a,ou% %he #ossi,le a&enues 'or ad&ancemen%, %he em#lo+ees )ho consider %heir careers %o ,e im#or%an% can reduce %heir s%ress le&els ,+ ,ecoming more realis%ic a,ou% %heir o#%ions and can s%ar% #re#aring %hemsel&es 'or i%.

Deleg%tio$: ?no%her )a+ o' co#ing )i%h jo, s%ress is %o delega%e some res#onsi,ili%ies %o o%hers. "elega%ion can direc%l+ decrease )or1load u#on %he manager and hel#s %o reduce %he s%ress.

&ore I$for#%tio$ %$( Help: Some ne) em#lo+ees ha&e %o s#end more %ime on a jo, %han necessar+ ,ecause %he+ are no% sure )ha% %he+ are doing. So i% is necessar+ %ha% some hel# should ,e #ro&ided ,e'ore doing %he )or1 %ha% )ould lead %o much e''icien%, e''ec%i&e )or1. 0% )ould also reduce an:ie%+ and s%ress among %he em#lo+ees.

0ob Reloc%tio$: Mo, reloca%ion assis%ance is o''ered %o em#lo+ees )ho are %rans'erred, ,+ 'inding al%erna%i&e em#lo+men% 'or %he s#ouses o' %he %rans'erred em#lo+ees and ge%%ing admissions in schools 'or %heir children in %he ne) #lace. =hese arrangemen%s hel# %o reduce %he an:ie%+ and s%ress 'or %he mo&ing 'amil+.

S"per)isor Tr%i$i$g: ?no%her %+#e o' s%ress managemen% Program %ha% organi2a%ions

are

e:#erimen%ing )i%h is su#er&isor %raining. =he em#hasis on su#er&isor+ %raining Program is ho) %o #re&en% jo, s%ress. Aanagers are %rained %o gi&e ,e%%er #er'ormance a##raisals, %o lis%en %o em#lo+ees3 #ro,lems more e''ec%i&el+, and %o communica%e jo, assignmen%s and ins%ruc%ions more clearl+. I$(i)i("%l Stress Re("ctio$ 'or1s ops: Some organi2a%ions ha&e also s#onsored indi&idual s%ress reduc%ion )or1sho#s 'or %heir em#lo+ees. =hese #rograms include ,io'eed,ac1, medi%a%ion %o career counselling, %ime managemen% and in%er#ersonal s1ills )or1sho#s. 0n lec%ures and seminars, #ar%ici#an%s are gi&en a ,asic unders%anding o' %he causes o' s%ress and i%s conse4uences. =hen, #ar%ici#an%s are gi&en ma%erials %o hel# %hem
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iden%i'+ %he major sources o' s%ress in %heir o)n li&es, and some s%ra%egies 'or dealing )i%h %ha% s%ress more e''ec%i&el+. Some o' %he im#or%an% reasons 'or using s%ress managemen% in %he )or1#lace are as 'ollo)s. 0m#ro&es our a,ili%+ %o mo%i&a%e em#lo+ees (essen o##or%uni%+ 'or decreases in #roduc%i&i%+ 0m#ro&es +our a,ili%+ %o lead ?llo)s %he mee%ing o' deadlines "ecreases chances o' une%hical issues Reduces #ossi,ili%ies o' )or1#lace con'lic%s S%reng%hens communica%ion #rocess Smoo%h running #rojec%s 0m#ro&es +our a,ili%+ %o de&elo# %eam)or1 and %eam ,uilding Gel#s in %he )ri%ing #er'ormance a##raisals Reduce jo, s%ress ,+ #riori%i2ing and organi2ing Reduce jo, s%ress ,+ im#ro&ing emo%ional in%elligence

E''ec%i&e s%ress reduc%ion %ools are de#ic%ed ,elo):

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=he s%ud+ highligh%s major 'i&e cons%ruc%s )hich are in&ol&ed )i%h s%ress. =he+ are as 'ollo)s: !2 'or1pl%ce stress %$( 3ell4bei$g: =he )ellC,eing can re'er %o %he men%al, #s+chological or emo%ional as#ec%s o' )or1ers as indica%ed ,+ emo%ional s%a%es and e#idemiological ra%es o' men%al illnesses and diseases.- c'. Shahandeh, !985/. Bor1 and )ell,eing are #ar%icularl+ #o%en% sources o' s%ress, gi&en %ha% mos% adul% de&o%e %heir %ime energ+ and a%%en%ion %o %hese %)o li'e domains. In'or%una%el+ recen% socio economic %rends indica%e %ha% )or1 and 'amil+ )ellC,eing are e:%remel+ s%ress'ul -7ur1e, $reenglass, !98H, Nedec1 !992/ 22 'or1pl%ce stress %$( 3or1 life b%l%$ce: )or1Cli'e im,alance and jo, s%ress are no% ne) #ro,lems9 %he+ ha&e recei&ed more a%%en%ion %his decade %han e&er ,e'ore. =oge%her, %hese %)o #ro,lems #ose ris1s %o )or1ers3 )ellC,eing as )ell as %o organi2a%ional #er'ormance. =o cra'% e''ec%i&e solu%ions %o )or1Cli'e im,alance and jo, s%ress, decisionCma1ers need solid e&idence on %he s co#e and na%ure o' %he Pro,lems %he+ 'ace - Guman Solu%ionsO Re#or% P 200 /. 8. 0ob perfor#%$ce 3it 3or1pl%ce stress: Qarious s%udies ha&e ,een conduc%ed %o e:amine %he rela%ionshi# ,e%)een jo, s%ress and jo, #er'ormance. Mo, #er'ormance can ,e &ie)ed as an
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ac%i&i%+ in )hich an indi&idual is a,le %o accom#lish %he %as1 assigned %o himJher success'ull+, su,jec% %o %he normal cons%rain%s o' reasona,le u%ili2a%ion o' %he a&aila,le resources. ?% a conce#%ual le&el, 'our %+#es o' rela%ionshi#s )ere #ro#osed %o e:is% ,e%)een %he measures o' jo, s%ress and jo, #er'ormance -Mamal A, 200H/. 4. E#ployee pro("cti)ity 3it 5ob stress: 7e%%er managed em#lo+ees are more coo#era%i&e and ser&e as asse%s 'or an organi2a%ion and )hen %heir s%ress is ignored ,+ %he em#lo+er %he resul%s are increased a,sen%eeism, cos%, lo) #roduc%i&i%+, lo) mo%i&a%ion and usuall+ legal 'inancial damages. -=he E''ice o' Radia%ion, .hemical and 7iological Sa'e%+, !999/ 5. 'or1pl%ce stress 3it 5ob i$sec"rity: jo, insecuri%+ is an o&erall concern o' losing one3s jo, or %he discon%inua%ion o' one3s Mo,. Mo, insecuri%+ also im#lies uncer%ain%+ a,ou% %he 'u%ure.so %his au%oma%icall+ crea%es a le&el o' s%ress in %he )or1ers. CONCLUSION
You must learn to let go. Release the stress. You were never in control anyway. Steve Maraboli, Life, the Truth, and Being Free . =his 4uo%e gi&en ,+ S%e&e Aara,oli gi&es %he

correc% a,ou% s%ress and i%3s real. =hus, ,ased on %he la%es% s%udies )e ha&e conce#%uali2ed %he 'i&e cons%ruc%s. Earlier #a#ers used %o sho)s &arious o%her dimensions 'or s%ress ,u% in %his #a#er our s%ud+ sho)s %ha% %hese 'i&e cons%ruc%s #la+ an im#or%an% role in s%ress. S%ress is some%hing )e can3% a&oid, ,u% )e can limi% %he im#ac% o' s%ress'ul si%ua%ions, %ha% are #resen%ed, ,+ ,eing heal%h+, managing our %ime, and esca#ing 'rom our e&er+da+ rou%ine. S%ress can ,e o&er)helming, and nearl+ im#ossi,le %o ge% %hrough li'e )i%hou% encoun%ering. Be ha&e %o learn %o iden%i'+ %hose si%ua%ions and do some%hing a,ou% and %hose )hich )e canD%. Be should also )or1 a% reducing %he cause o' our s%ress ,+ ,eing organi2ed. REFERENCES

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!. 7ashir, ?sad 200H,Em#lo+ees3 S%ress and 0%s 0m#ac% on =heir Per'ormance, @irs% Proceedings o' 0n%erna%ional .on'erence on 7usiness and =echnolog+, "ecem,er !H, 200H , Pages !5 C! !, 04ra Ini&ersi%+ 0slama,ad. 2. 7iron, .., 0&ers, G., 7run, M.CP., 6 .oo#er, .. (. -200 /. Ris1 assessmen% o' occu#a%ional s%ress: E:%ensions o' %he .lar1e and .oo#er a##roach. -ealth, .is/ & Society, 0-4/, 4!HL 429. 8. 7ohle., -!989/, =he 0m#ac% o' nigh% )or1 on #s+chological )ell ,eing, Ergonomics, 82, ## !089C!099 4. .omish, R., S)indle, 7. -!994/ 5Aanaging s%ress in %he )or1#lace3, 1ational Public %ccountant, Qol. 89, >o. 9, ##. 24C28. 5. "o)ell, ?n%hon+ 200!, ? Sur&e+ o' Mo, Sa%is'ac%ion, Sources o' S%ress and . Ps+chological S+m#%oms ?mong >e) Nealand Geal%h Pro'essionals, >e) Nealand Aedical Mournal9 Qol. !!4, Pages 540C544. H. $oogins, 7., 6 7urden, ". -!98H/ 5Qulnera,ili%+ o' )or1ing #aren%s: ,alancing )or1 and home roles3, Social 2or/, ##. 295C800. 8. $reen,erg, M and 7aron R. ?. -2008/ 7eha&ior in Ergani2a%ions: Inders%anding and Aanaging %he Guman Side o' Bor1. >e) "elhi: Pren%iceCGall P&%. (%d. 9. Aaru+ama, Aorimo%o., -!99 /, E''ec%s o' long )or1ing hours on li'es%+le, s%ress and 4uali%+ o' li'e among in%ermedia%e Ma#anese managers. Scandina&ian Mournal o' Bor1 En&ironmen% and Geal%h, 22, ## 858C859 !0. h%%#:JJ))).'or,es.comJsi%esJlisa4uas%J20!!J09J2 J%heCim#or%anceCo'C#roac%i&el+C managingC)or1#laceCs%ressJ !!. h%%#:JJ))).mind%ools.comJ#agesJar%icleJal,rech%Cs%ress.h%mRs%hash.sElui904.d#u'

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