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Torsional effects in reinforced concrete
Torsion in plain concrete members
Torsion in reinforced concrete members
Combined shear and torsion
ACI code provisions for torsion design
Mongkol JIRAVACHARADET
Reinforced Concrete Design
Reinforced Concrete Design
S U R A N A R E E INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Analysis and Design for Torsion 1
Torsional effects in reinforced concrete
T
T
m
t
Torsion at a cantilever slab
T
T
m
t
Torsion at an edge beam
A
B
A B
Stiff edge beam
A B
Flexible edge beam
Torsion in plain concrete members
T
T
x
y

max
Rectangular section:
max
2
T
x y

=
y/x

1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0


0.208 0.219 0.246 0.267 0.290 1/3
Cracking Strength
Plain concrete rectangular sections in torsion
T
T
45
o
Torsion cracks


f
t
max at 45
o
T
T
T
t
T
b
45
o
Bending: T
b
= T cos45
o
Torsion: T
t
= T cos45
o
a
a
T
T
b
T
t
45
o


f
t
max at 45
o
Concrete crack occurs when
,max
0.80 0.80 2.0 1.6
t r c c
f f f f

= = =
f
r
= Modulus of rupture
Sectional Modulus:
2
3
1 2
/( / 2)
12 cos45 6cos45
a a a a
o o
y x y
S I x x
x


= = =


,
,max
2 2
3 6cos45
cos45 1.6
o
b cr o
cr
t cr c
a a
T
T
f T f
S x y x y


= = = =
( )
2
1.6
3
cr c
x y
T f

=
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Rectangular sections in torsion
ACI 1995: Solid section is analysed as a hollow-box section.
Solid Hollow
0 1 2 3
Percent of torsional reinforcement
0
T
n
T
cr
solid section
T
cr
hollow section
Shear Stress in Thin-walled Tube
Shear flow:
0
kg/cm
2
T
q
A
=
Shear stress:
2
0
kg/cm
2
q
t
T
A t
=
=
Cracking Torque ( T
cr
):
( )
0
0
1.1
2
1.1 2
cr
cr c
cr c
T
f
A t
T f A t


= =

=
A
0
t
ACI318-95:
0
2 3
,
3 4
cp cp
cp
A A
A t
p
= =
p
cp
: outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
A
cp
: area enclosed by p
cp
Neglect torsion when: / 4
u cr
T T
0.85 for torsion
2
1.1
kg-cm
c cp
cr
cp
f A
T
p

=
o.aa++n ..+ rvvuv-vuru:e . .vr::-v.e-.rve-v.e + r:.
.n.e..uv.are.erauevaa.uu-a': -ve f
c
.+c ..r:.
.
3 ton
30 cm
15 cm
60 cm
.en+
.evauu-v.e p
cp
= 2(60+30) = 180 r:.
nvr-v.e A
cp
= (60)(30) = 1,800 r:.
.
|:.:v.ue.. T
cr
= 1.1 (1,800)
2
/(180 1,000)
= 307 .vr:. = 3.07 .v:.
240
re.e|:.:v.ue T
cr
/4 = 0.85(3.07)/4 = 0.65 .v.:.
|:.:v.uer::r T
u
= (3)(0.15) = 0.45 .v.:. < 0.65 .v.:. OK
+vvIroa+ooara+a.+uvo+v
Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members
y
0
h
x
0
b
Gross area A
oh
= x
0
y
0
Shear perimeter p
h
= 2(x
0
+ y
0
)
x
0
, y
0
= Distance from center to
center of stirrup
Space Truss Analogy
T
45
o
Torsional crack
T
x
o
y
o
Stirrup
Crack

V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
Longitudinal bar
Concrete compression struts
Torsional resistance =
sum of contribution from
shear in each four walls
V
4
x
o
4
4
2
o
V x
T =
V
4
y
o
s
A
t
f
yv
A
t
f
yv
A
t
f
yv
y
o
cot
A
t
= Area of one leg stirrup
f
yv
= Yield strength of transverse
reinforcement
4 t yv
V n A f =
n = Number of cracks intercept
stirrup
cot 45 / /
o
o o
n y s y s = =
4
t yv o
A f y
V
s
=
4 1 2 3
2
t yv o o
A f x y
T T T T
s
= = = =
1 2 3 4 n
T T T T T = + + +
2
t yv o o
A f x y
s
=
2
t yv oh
A f A
s
=
V
4
y
o
Diagonal compression struts

N
4
/2
N
4
/2

V
4
V
4
cot
V
4
/
s
i
n

t yv o
A f y
s
= N
4
= V
4
cot
Axial force due to torsion:
x
o
y
o
0
0
2
where 0.85
t yv
n oh
A f A
T A A
s
= =
ACI318-95:
Summing over all four sides,
1 2 3 4
N N N N N = + + +
2( )
t yv
o o
A f
x y
s
= +
t yv h
A f p
s
=
perimeter of stirrup
Longitudinal
reinforcement
A
l
f
yl
yv
t
l h
yl
f
A
A p
s f
=
A
l
= Total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion
f
yl
= Yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement
Combined Shear and Torsion
Torsional
stresses
Shear
stresses
Hollow section
Torsional
stresses
Shear
stresses
Solid section
2
1.7
h
v t
w oh
T p V
b d A
= + = +
2 2
2
1.7
h
w oh
T p V
b d A


= +


Shear stress:
v
= V / b
w
d
Torsional stress:
t
= T / (2A
0
t)
for cracked section: A
0
= 0.85A
oh
, t = A
oh
/ p
h
ACI Provisions for Torsion Design
u n
T T Strength requirement:
where T
u
= required torsional strength at factored load
T
n
= nominal torsional strength of member
= 0.85 strength reduction factor for torsion
0
0
2
where 0.85
t yv
n oh
A f A
T A A
s
= =
ACI318-95:
A
oh
= shaded area
Limitation on shear stress
max
2.1
c
c
w
V
f
b d

+


/ 4
u cr
T T
Neglect torsion when
Minimal Torsion
2
1.1
kg-cm
c cp
cr
cp
f A
T
p

= where
2
2.1
1.7

+ +


u u h c
c
w oh w
V T p V
f
b d A b d
Hollow section:
2 2
2
2.1
1.7

+ +


u u h c
c
w oh w
V T p V
f
b d A b d
Solid section:
Reinforcement for torsion
2
2
/ , 0.85
, 4, 000 kg/cm
2
o t yv
u o oh
u
t yv
o yv
A A f
T A A
s
T s
A f
A f

= =
=
Combined shear and torsion stirrup
(for closed loop stirrup)
2
v t v t
v t v t
A A A
s s s
+
+
= +
A
v
A
t
Max. spacing to control spiral cracking
max
/ 8 30 cm
h
s p
Min. area of close stirrup
( 2 ) 3.5
w
v t
yv
b s
A A
f
+
Min. area of longitudinal steel
,min
1.3
c cp yv
t
l h
yv yl
f A f
A
A p
f s f


=


where
1.8
t w
yv
A b
s f

- Spacing of A
l
30 cm
- Distributed around perimeter
- Bar size 10 mm 1/24 stirrup spacing
- At least one bar on each corner