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BUILDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY

Lawrence J. Zwier

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ADVANCED PRACTICE FOR EAP CLASSES AND SELF-STUDY

BUILDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY


Lawrence J. Zwier

The University of Michigan Press - 2005

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Developing Academic Vocabulary


Beverlee Jobrack Educational Consultant Introduction For many years, much of vocabulary instruction consisted of teachers identifying words and students looking up and then writing the definitions of those words. The 2001 National Reading Panel Report put a spotlight on vocabulary instruction (National Institute for Literacy 2001). The Report summarized the research that identifies the five fundamental elements of learning to read, and vocabulary, along with phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and comprehension was one of the five. The Report presented three key findings about vocabulary: 1. Vocabulary is critically important to readers who use the words they speak and hear to make sense of the words they see in print. Decoding without understanding what words mean is not reading meaningfully. 2. Vocabulary is critical to reading comprehension throughout the grades. A reader cannot comprehend what is read if he or she doesnt know the meanings of most of the words. As children advance in reading, they encounter words that are not part of their oral vocabularies, which they need to learn in order to understand what they are reading. 3. Most vocabulary is learned indirectly through everyday experience with oral and written language, but some words that represent complex concepts that are not part of everyday experrience must be taught directly. The National Reading Panel Report is not the only work that has shed light on the importance of vocabulary instruction in recent years. Some studies demonstrated the critical importance of a solid vocabulary in academic achievment. Some showed the connections between vocabulary and conceptual understanding in science, math and social studies. Others identified the most effective methods for learning and teaching new words. This white paper summarizes the conclusions reached from research about teaching and learning academic vocabulary. What is Academic Vocabulary? Given the importance of academic background knowledge and the fact that vocabulary is such an essential aspect of it, one of the most crucial services that teachers can provide, particularly for students who do not come 5
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from academically advantaged backgrounds, is systematic instruction in important academic terms. (Marzano and Pickering 2005). Academic vocabulary includes the words that are critical to understanding concepts taught in school. Academic vocabulary focuses on specialized words, as opposed to the highfrequency words that students learn through reading and speaking. Learning academic vocabulary is not just for preparation for college. Academic vocabulary can include school related words that form the language of learning that children encounter when they start school in kindergarten all the way through advanced placement courses they may take in high school. Academic vocabulary development is important for student achievement throughout the grades. A profound study (Hart and Risley 1995) observed interactions between infants and their parents over a period of time. The study found that based on these interactions, some children enter preschool at age 4 with oral vocabularies that are up to two years behind their peers. These children simply havent been exposed to many words. This vocabulary deficit can make it seem as if teachers are speaking in a foreign language. Unless academic vocabulary is taught, a child can get behind at the earliest levels and never catch up. A person with more expertise has a larger knowledge base, and the large knowledge base allows that person to acquire even greater expertise at a faster rate (Stanovich 1986). Thus is it critically important that academic vocabulary be taught at every level and particularly reinforced for those students who have a vocabulary deficit. .those who enter fourth grade with significant vocabulary deficits show increasing problems with reading comprehension, even if they have good reading (word identification) skills. The available evidence does not suggest a substantial catching up process, but rather a continuing slippage relative to those with average and above-average achievment. (Biemiller 1999). As students progress in school, academic vocabulary becomes more and more specific to content studies. To support vocabulary instruction, academic vocabulary is often highlighted in instructional materials. These highlighted words are considered key to understanding the content of a particular passage or chapter. To support vocabulary instruction efforts further, several academic vocabulary word lists have been generated by publishers, academics, and state boards of education (Tennessee Department of Education 2009). These lists include academic vocablulary that is determined to be critical to content-area studies. What Effect Does Vocabulary Have on Understanding? 6
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Knowledge of this vocabulary will not guarantee success, but lack of knowledge of vocabulary can ensure failure. (Biemiller 1999). Words, reason, and understanding are intertwined. The Greek word logos means word but also reason, thought, and speech. The Greek -log is used as a root in logic, analogy, geology, and anthropology. To know what a word means, helps define the thought or concept behind the word and develops understanding. Vocabulary is critical to reading comprehension. Vocabulary knowledge is involved in a reciprocal relationship with reading abilitythe relationship is one that continues throughout reading development and remains in force for even the most fluent adult reader (Stanovich 1986). Language, along with sense perception, reason, and emotion are the fundamental ways of knowing. Of course language is only one way of knowing and yet it is an important contributor to understanding, particularly abstract concepts that cannot be experienced. Research shows that vocabulary knowledge is a strong predictor of reading comprehension than most variables, even cognitive ability. Twothirds of all academic English words come from Latin, French (through Latin), or Greek. Understandably, knowledge of the most high incidence academic words in English can significantly boost a students comprehension level of school-based reading material. (Coxhead 2000) People's knowledge of any topic is encapsulated in the terms they know that are relevant to the topic. For example, people who know a great deal about snow skiing understand terms such as fall line, snow plow, corn snow, unweight, powder, packed powder, green slope, blue slope, black slope, mogul, carving, and face-plant. Likewise, students who understand the content in their state mathematics standards document regarding data analysis and statistics have an understanding of terms such as mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, and central tendency. The more students understand these terms, the easier it is for them to understand information they may read or hear about the topic. On the other hand, without a basic knowledge of these terms, students will have difficulty understanding information they read or hear (Marzano and Pickering 2005). What does it mean to know a word? One can know a word deeply, superfically, or not at all. A knowledge continuum might include these kinds of stages (Beck, McKeown and Kucan 2002). 1. Never heard or saw the word before. 2. Heard or saw the word and know that it is related to a particular topic or concept. 3. Heard or saw the word and have a general sense of what it means. 7
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4. Have a narrow contextual understanding of a word. 5. Can define a word in context but not use it in appropriate situations. 6. Can recall or use a word in specific contexts. 7. Know of multiple meanings of a word. 8. Can apply a word correctly and recognize inappropriate use. 9. use the word naturally in thinking, writing, and talking. 10. Has a rich knowledge of a words meaning and how it relates to other words with similar meanings, roots, or affixes. 11. Has deep knowledge of a word. Can conjugate forms and use it appropriately in figures of speech, such as puns, metaphors, and understand its use in idiomatic exppressions. Vocabulary instruction can have a significant effect on concept knowledge, reading comprehension, and school achievement. Given that vocabulary is so connected to understanding and having a deep understanding of words enriches content knowledge, the most effective and efficient ways of teaching vocabulary should be part of every teachers repertoire. Teaching Academic Vocabulary Teaching specific terms in a specific way is probably the strongest action a teacher can take to ensure that students have the academic background knowledge they need to understand the content they will encounter in school. When all the teachers in a school focus on the same academic vocabulary and teach it in the same way, the school has a powerful comprehensive approach. When all the teachers in a district embrace and use the approach, it becomes even more powerful (Marzano and Pickering 2005). All teachers can provide effective vocabulary instruction. As students advance in school, continuous vocabulary reinforcement from all subject areas can have a significant effective on student achievement. There are an estimated 88,500 words in printed school English (Nagy and Herman 1984). It is impossible teach each one through direct instruction, nor would that be effective or efficient. Some strategies, however, are more effective than others. Strategies that are not effective include the following (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986): 1. Looking up definitions (in the absence of other strategies). 2. Providing only one or two exposures to a word. 3. Drill-and-practice methods of instruction that involve multiple repetitions of the same type of information. Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies 8
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If simply having students look up vocabulary words in a dictionary and write the definitions is not an effective teaching strategy, what is? Below are basic strategies that have been identified as effective for acquiring vocabulary (M. F. Graves 2006). 1. Use context to unlock the meanings of unknown words. a. Read carefully and ask yourself, Does this make sense? b. Notice when you dont know the meaning of a word and slow down. c. If necessary, reread the preceding sentence looking for clues to the words meaning. d. Substitute your meaning for the unknown word to see if it makes sense. If not, go back again. 2. Use word parts (prefixes, suffixes and roots to unlock the meanings of words. a. More than 60% of new words can be broking down into parts. Then students can use their word parts to figure out their meanings. 3. Use dictionaries and related reference tools. Learn to use an appropriate dictionary. a. Find the word and read the whole definition. b. Think about multiple meanings. c. Decide which definition makes sense in the passage you read. 4. Develop strategies for dealing with unknown words. a. Recognize unknown words. b. Decide if you need to understand it to understand the passage. c. Attempt to infer the meaning from context. d. Attempt to infer the meaning from word parts. e. Attempt to sound out the words to see if it is familiar. f. Use the dictionary or other resource. 5. Adopt a personal approach to building vocabulary and to developing word consciousness. Multiple exposures to a word, particularly in different contexts, are also important to securing vocabulary (Laflamme 1997). Selecting Words to Teach The first step in teaching academic vocabulary is to identify the words to teach. These may include the words that are highlighted in the reading materials, along with words that appear on state lists, coupled with words that are suggested or identified in the classroom. Some words are critical to understanding a concept; for example, understanding the difference between mean, median, and mode will help to critically evaluate data. Other words may be useful, but not critical to understanding. Some words may be interesting but not useful to understanding a concept. It is 9
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wise to take time to identify the small selection of words that will have the most effect on student understanding. Deciding The Most effective Way to Teach Vocabulary Once words have been selected, the next step is to determin the most effective methods to teach the words. Different words lend themselves to different strategies: Context Some words are best learned in context; for example, if students are studying parts of a flower, the stigma and sepal would probably be best taught in context with the more familiar terms, petal and stalk. Categorization Some words are best understood when they are related to words that are similar or opposite in meaning; for example, the word pelf can be related to wealth or riches, although it conveys the idea of ill-gotten gains. Antonyms would include poverty, need, or want. Word Parts Word parts and word derivations are valuable tools to making meaning of words. Knowing that the word pelf is related to pilfer, for example, may help in deepening understanding. Six-Step Strategy For teaching specific vocabulary, the following six steps form a strategy shown to be highly effective (Marzano 2009). This strategy works at every grade level, from kindergarten to high school. It provides multiple exposures to a word in a varieity of contexts and is most effective when all the steps are used. Employing the whole process promotes student achievement much more effectively than using any step individually. Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Ask students to restate the description or explanation in their own words. (The results are not as strong when students copy the teachers explanation instead of generating their own.) Ask students to construct a picture, pictograph, or symbolic representation of the term. (This step is crucial. When students do this step well, achievement soars.) Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their vocabulary notebooks. Periodically ask students to discus the terms with one another. Involve students periodically in games that enable them to play with the terms. (Games engage students at a high level and have a powerful effect on recall.) Summary The attention drawn to the important role of vocabulary in reading also unveils the importance of academic vocabulary and the most effective ways to teach vocabulary. Academic vocabulary is a critical element in 10
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concept understanding. Teaching academic vocabulary can begin when children enter school in the primary grades and develop over time to include specific terms that represent key concepts in content area studies. The most effective strategies for teaching academic vocabulary involve multiple exposures to new words in a variety of contexts. This type of instruction leads to deep understanding of words and concepts. Given the importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension, as well as academic achievement, empowering all teachers with effective strategies for vocabulary instruction has the potential to have dramatic positive effects on student achievement. References Beck, Isabel L., Margaret G. McKeown, and Linda Kucan. Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press 2002. Biemiller, Andrew. From Reading Research to Practice: Language and Reading Success. Brookline Books, 1999. Coxhead, Averil. The New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 2000. 34, 213-238 Graves, Michael F. The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction. Teachers College Press 2006. Graves, Michael F., editor. Essential Readings on Vocabulary Instrucrtion. International Reading Association 2009. Hart, B., and T. R. Risley. Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children: The everyday experience of oneand two-year-old American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes 1995. Laflamme, John G. "The effect of the Multiple Exposure Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading/Writing Strategy on test scores." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy (International Reading Association) 40, no. 5 (February 1997): 372-381.

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Marzano, Robert J. Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2004. "Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction." Educational Leadership, September 2009. Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary: A Framework for Direct Instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development 2009. Marzano, Robert J., and Debra J. Pickering. Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher's Manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Association for Supervision and Curriclum Development 2005. Nagy, W.E., and P.A. Herman. "Limitations of Vocabulary Instruction." Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois: Champaign 1984. National Institute for Literacy. "Put Reading First." Government Report, 2001. Stahl, Steven A., and Marilyn M. Fairbanks. "The Effects of Vocabulary Instruction: A Model- Based Meta-Analysis." Review of Educational Research (American Educational Research Association) 56, no. 72 (1986). Stanovich, K.E. "Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy." Reading Research Quarterly 21 (1986). Tennessee Department of Education. Tennessee Academic Vocabulaary: A Guide for Tennessee Educators. 2009.

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CH 01 CC CCH DIN T MI QUAN H GIA MT TNG TH VI CC B PHN CU THNH HOC MT TP HP VI CC THNH VIN CA N. Nhm 01: consist of, comprise, be composed of 1. consist of: bao gm Ng cnh 01: The nuclear family traditionally consists of a married couple and their children. Din t tng ng: In a nuclear family, traditionally, there are a woman and a man (married to each other) and their children. Ng cnh 02: The research described a procedure consisting of several timeconsuming steps. Din t tng ng: The people doing research told about a process in which there were many steps, each taking a long time. Ghi nh: * Cm ng t ny KHNG dng dng B NG. * C th dng mt s trng t ch mc nh primarily, mostly, entirely, solely v largely xen gia consist v of. * Ch ng ca cm t ny thng l H THNG, S SP T, HN HP. 2. comprise: gm c Ng cnh 01: A Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMA) comprises a large city and surrounding counties within reasonable comuting distance. Din t tng ng: A SMSA is made up of a large city and the counties close enough so that people who live there can travel to the city to work. (A county is a governmental unit larger than a city but smaller than a state)

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Ng cnh 02: A new therapy, comprising muscle massage and a cocktail of antiinflammatory drugs, significantly reduces the pain of arthritis. Din t tng ng: A new treatment for arthritis (swelling of joints like knees and elbows) work well. The parts of the treatment include muscle rubbing and a mixture of several drugs that reduce swelling. Ghi nh: * ng t ny KHNG dng dng B NG. * ng t ny thng dng dng v-ing (ng cnh 2) * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l NHM, H THNG, SP T, SU TP, KHU VC. 3. be composed of : bao gm Ng cnh 01: The peptide molecule is composed of at least two amino acids. Din t tng ng: At least two amino acids make up each peptide molecule. Ng cnh 02: The third category is composed of males between the ages of 25 and 40. Din t tng ng: In the third group are men between the ages of 25 and 40. Ghi nh: * Cm ng t ny LUN dng B NG. * dng ch ng compose ngha hon ton khc l bin son, sng tc (tc phm m nhc, ngh thut hoc vn hc). *************************************************** Nhm 02: involve, encompass, include, contain 1. involve: i hi, gm c Ng cnh 01: Successful budgeting involves not just accurate numbers but also a realistic knowledge of your needs and tastes.

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Din t tng ng: Successfully planning how to use your money requires you not only to know the correct amount of your income and expenses but also to be aware of what you need and what you like. Ng cnh 02: The researchers described a complex protocol involving the meticulous cleaning of equipment and strict controls on access to the laboratory. Din t tng ng: The researchers described a complicated procedure that included very careful cleaning and tough limits on who could enter the laboratory. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng dng b ng nhng dng dng ch ng th tt hn. V d: - Many decisions are involved in setting up a website. - Setting up a website involves many decisions. * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l t ch QU TRNH, H THNG hoc S KIN. * Tn ng ca ng t ny KHNG l CC B PHN CU THNH, m l CC BC THC HIN, CC CNG C, PHNG, IU KIN thc hin. 2. encompass : cha ng, bao gm Ng cnh 01: The Animal Rights Coalition (ARC) encompasses several smaller organisations that advocates better treatment of animals. Din t tng ng: Within the ARC are many smaller groups that want people to treat animals better. Ng cnh 02: Todays children live in a digital environment, encompassing everything from electronic pets to cellular phone systems. Din t tng ng: Children are now surrounded by digital things (using electronic 1 or 0 signals) that range from electronic pets to cellular phone systems. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l NHM, H THNG, S SP XP. 15
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* Tn ng c th lit k mi th t n, hoc tp hp nhiu t chc, hay vt khc nhau. 3. include: bao gm Ng cnh 01: The governments plan includes measures to limit currency trading. Din t tng ng: As part of the governments plan, there are steps to control the buying and selling of money from various countries. Ng cnh 02: The order Lagomorpha includes rabits, hares, and pikas. Din t tng ng: In the category of animals known as Lagomorpha, there are rabits, hares, and pikas. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng KHNG PHI L SINH VT m l NHM, H THNG, KIN, K HOCH, THI GIAN BIU. 4. contain: cha ng Ng cnh 01: Each cell contains two sets of DNA one in the nucleus and another in the mitochondria. Din t tng ng: Inside each cell are two groups of DNA one in the centre of the cell and another in the mitochondria. Ng cnh 02: The film contains sexually explicit scenes that some viewers may find offensive. Din t tng ng: Some parts of the film show sexual activity very clearly. Some people who watch this film may not like seeing these things. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l tc phm ngh thut, vn hc; hc thuyt, cc kin. ***************************************************

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Nhm 03: constitute, make up, form 1. constitute: to nn, cu thnh Ng cnh 01: Rabits, hares, and pikas constitute the order Lagomorpha. Din t tng ng: The members of the group of animals called Lagomorpha are rabits, hares, and pikas. Ng cnh 02: A large city and the surrounding conties within reasonable commuting distance constitute a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). Din t tng ng: The parts of an SMSA are a large city and the counties close enough to it so people can drive from there into the city to work. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng dng ch ng l cc b phn to thnh tng th l tn ng. 2. make up: to thnh Ng cnh 01: Two violins, a cello, and a bass viol make up the classic string quartet. Din t tng ng: The parts of a traditional grouping of four string instruments are two violins, a cello, and a bass viol. Ng cnh 02: Strictly speaking, all counties with Pacific shores make up the socalled Pacific Rim. Din t tng ng: In a totally correct use of the phrase Pacific Rim, this group should include all countries with land beside the Pacific Ocean. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c tn ng l danh t ch NHM, H THNG, S SP XP, T CHC. * Thng s dng dng b ng. V d: The classic string quartet is made up OF two violins, a cello, and a bass viol. * Make up cn c ngha khc l ba t, dng chuyn. 17
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V d: Jim and his friends made up that meeting to get out of a test. 3. form : thnh lp Ng cnh 01: Seven opposition parties came together to form the National Revolutionary Front. Din t tng ng: Seven political groups that do not agree with the government came together to set up a new group called the National Revolutionary Front. Ng cnh 02: The pistil, stamen, and anthers form the reproductive system of a flowering plant. Din t tng ng: The parts of a flowering plants system for creating new plants are the pistil, stamen, and anthers. Ghi nh: * Thng s dng dng b ng. V d: The reproductive system of a plant is formed by the pistil, stamen, and anthers. *************************************************** Nhm 04: comprehensive, all told 1. comprehensive (adjective): bao hm, ton din, ph qut Ng cnh 01: Doctors performed a comprehensive autopsy, but the cause of death remained a mystery. Din t tng ng: The doctors examination of the dead body covered all the necessary points, but they still couldnt discover why the person died. Ng cnh 02: Albertsons book offers a comprehensive but rather superficial review of genetic research. Din t tng ng: Albertsons book look at all the important branches of research into genes, but the books description are not very deep or detailed. Ghi nh: * Thng dng m t bo co, iu tra hoc nghin cu. 18
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2. all told (adverbial ): c thy Ng cnh 01: All told, 14 new elements were added to the periodic table as a result of the new research. Din t tng ng: If you count up all the elements added to the periodic table as a result of the new research, you get the number 14. Ng cnh 02: Police confiscated a large number of handguns in the raid 253, all told. Din t tng ng: Police took away a large number of handguns a total of 253 - after they raided the place. Ghi nh: * V tr ca cm t ny thng u cu hoc sau mt cm t ch s lng. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 02 CC CCH DIN T KHNG BAO GM, LOI TR RA, TCH RI Nhm 01: anomalous, exception, egregious, marginal 1. anomalous: ngoi l, bt thng Ng cnh 01: Although most materials contract as they cool, water is anomolous in that it expands when it freezes. Din t tng ng: Most things take up less space as they get cooler, but water does not. It takes up more space after it becomes ice. Ng cnh 02: Grimaldia is an anomalous socialist country in a free-market region. Din t tng ng: Grimaldia does not fit the pattern of countries near it. The government controls the economy a lot in Grimaldia, but nearby countries tend to let private companies be the strongest influence. Ghi nh: * Tnh t ny thng c i sau bi cc cm t in that, because, hoc by virtue of nu r c tnh ngoi l, khc thng . * Cm t ch nhm ngi, vt, s vt m n khng thuc v thng ng sau gii t in hoc among (xem ng cnh 02). 2. exception: s ngoi l Ng cnh 01: Crops failed throughout the Midwest, Delton County being the sole exception. Din t tng ng: Throughout the Midwest, plants on farms failed to produce. The only place this was not true was Delton County. Ng cnh 02: With exception of the samples from Lab 4, all the virus cultures showed significant growth after 3 days.

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Din t tng ng: Almost all the populations of viruses that the scientists were trying to grow did increase a lot after 3 days. The only ones that did not were in Lab 4. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny thng dng vi cc tnh t nh lone, only, sole, notable (ng cnh 01). * Danh t ny thng dng trong cm t With the exception of (ng cnh 2) * Danh t ny thng c gii t to i sau (v d: The exception to the quick growth observed in the experiment occurred in the samples from Lab 4). 3. egregious : ti t, d nhn thy, ph trng (cc ngha trn cha c trong cc t in Anh Vit hin nay) Ng cnh 01: The banks practices were so egregious that regulators had to take strong punitive action. Din t tng ng: The banks (bad) practices were very obvious, so the people who control banking had to punish the bank very strongly. Ng cnh 02: The neighbourhoods egregious wealth makes it a frequent target of buglars. Din t tng ng: It is easy to see that the neighbourhood is very wealthy, so thieves often choose that area as a place to break into houses and steal things. Ghi nh: * Cc ngha trn c suy ra theo t in Anh-Anh v trong ng cnh ca cu v d. * Tnh t ny thng c miu t cc danh t nh behaviour/action, possessions, styles. ***************************************************

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Nhm 02: keep out, exclude, ban 1. keep out: ngn cn, khng cho vo, trnh Ng cnh 01: Australias strict quarantine rules aim mostly to keep out diseases of cattle and sheep. Din t tng ng: Australia has very strong rules against bringing plants or animals into the country. The main purpose of these rules is to make sure that illnesses of cattle and sheep do not get into the country. Ng cnh 02: Most members of the marketing department keep out of the battle between the two top managers. Din t tng ng: Most of the people in the marketing department did not support one side or another in the struggle between the two top managers. Ghi nh: *Cu trc cu to keep out something/sombody of smth/sbd. 2. exclude : ngn, khng cho vo, loi ra, tr ra Ng cnh 01: In the 1950s, the club excludes people on the basis of colour and national origin. Din t tng ng: The club would not let people of some races or nationalities in. Ng cnh 02: The people who took this poll excludes any responses that were illegible or incomplete. Din t tng ng: The people who took this poll (a measure of public opinion) did not include any answers that were hard to read or were not complete. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l NHM, T CHC, THNH VIN NHM hoc NI QUY DO NHM RA.

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3. ban: chnh thc cm Ng cnh 01: Police banned journalists from the area while they searched for survivors of the crash. Din t tng ng: The police announced that journalists would not be let into the area during the search for people still alive after the crash. Ng cnh 02: In an attempt to stop the spread of apple blight, the importation of all foreign fruit was banned. Din t tng ng: To keep the apple blight from travelling further, the government said that foreign fruit could not be brought into the country. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l cc c quan chnh quyn (cnh st, chnh ph) hoc ni quy, quy nh. * Thng dng vi gii t from (ng cnh 01). C th cm ai khi mt ni, mt t chc, hnh ng, s kin hay qu trnh. * Thng dng trong cu b ng. * Khi dng l danh t ban i vi gii t on. V d: A ban on (smth) * Danh t ban c th ng sau ng t impose (p t), declare (tuyn b) *************************************************** Nhm 03: filter, screen 1. filter: lc ra, loi b Ng cnh 01: The lens coating filtered out most frequencies of light. Din t tng ng: The material on the surface kept most frequencies of light from passing through the lens (a piece of glass that changes the direction of light). (Frequency of light = light with a certain wavelength) Ng cnh 02: Official student groups on campus filter most forms of expression, so that only very bland statements are never made publicly.

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Din t tng ng: Student groups keep most things from being said at the college. Only very uninteresting things can be said openly. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng trong cu trc to filter out s c tn ng l nhng th khng mong mun. (Ng cnh 01) * Nu khng c out i cng th tn ng thng l cht lng hoc mt s t ch nh sang, m thanh, kin, li ni/vit hoc thm ch l ngi hay vt ra khi nhm. (Ng cnh 02) 2. screen: sng lc Ng cnh 01: The hospital screened its blood supply for HIV. Din t tng ng: The hospital did tests on the blood it kept. The tests were to find evidence of HIV (the virus that can lead to AIDS) Ng cnh 02: After carefully screening thirty five applicants, the committee shortlisted three. Din t tng ng: After carefully examining thirty five people who applied for the job (and looking for posible problems that might make the unsuitable), the committee selected three top possible choices. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng miu t cc bin php an ton hoc iu tra cn thn. * Ch ng thng l mt ngi mt hoc mt nhm ngi c trch nhim v quyn hn lm vic ny. * Trong cu trc cu to screen out th tn ng thng l vt khng mong mun b loi b ra khi. * Trong cu trc cu to screen smth for smth th tn ng sau for thng l vt mun tm loi b ra khi. * Trong cu trc cu khng c out ng sau thng ch nhm ngi hay vt c sng lc. ***************************************************

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Nhm 04: rogue, outcast, alien 1. rogue (adjective): khc thng, xu Ng cnh 01: The tumors originate with rogue cells that suddenly begin producing. Din t tng ng: The unnatural growths in the body start out as cells that behave unusually by reproducing in a fast, uncontrolled way. Ng cnh 02: Many of the banks losses stemmed from the activities of a rogue officer in the corporate loan section. Din t tng ng: Much of the money lost by the bank was because of things done by a person in the office that lends money to businesses. He or she acted alone and in a way outside normal procedures. Ghi nh: * T ny trong t in khi dng vi ngi thng ch ngi c hnh vi khng trung thc vi t elephant c ngha l con voi c (thng i mt mnh v rt hung hn). 2. outcast (Noun-countable ): k b rung b Ng cnh 01: Among her baseball-loving colleagues, Dr. Prakash, a cricket fan, felt like an outcast. Din t tng ng: Most other people with whom Dr. Prakash worked were interested in baseball. Because she liked cricket, she felt like she was outside the group. Ng cnh 02: The cult attracted social outcasts and misfits. Din t tng ng: The small, unusual religious group drew in misfits (people who i not fit well into society) and people who had not been accepted into mainstream society. Ghi nh: *Mt s tnh t c th i vi t ny: social, complete, miserable.

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3. alien (adjective): ngoi quc, nc ngoi, l lng, xa l Ng cnh 01: The concept of a free press was alien to the region. Din t tng ng: The idea that news media should be free to report on almost all issues was strange and foreign in this area. Ng cnh 02: Branson claims the government is covering up evidence that aliens have visited Earth. Din t tng ng: Branson says the government is trying to hide facts that show our planet has been visited by beings from other planets. Ghi nh: * Danh t alien: ngi ngoi hnh tinh * Cu trc to be alien to sbd/smth * Khi l tnh t thng ng trc cc danh t nh: concept, idea, system * ng t to alienate sbd from smth: lm cho ai cm thy thy tch bit. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 03 CC CCH MIU T S GING NHAU, TNG T Nhm 01: equality, parity 1. equality: s bng nhau, s bnh ng Ng cnh 01: The report shows that women still have not achieved equality in the workplace. Din t tng ng: The report shows that women still have not come up to the same positions as men in the places where they work. Ng cnh 02: Because the north has most of the important natural resources there can never be economic equality among the nations regions. Din t tng ng: Because most of the valuable natural things (such as coal or oil or wood) are in the northern part of the nation, the other regions will never be as rich or important as the north. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny c th i vi mt s gii t sau: - equality of smth: bnh ng v - equality in: bnh ng (ni no) - equality between: bnh ng gia (hai) - equality among: bnh ng trong (mt nhm) * equality thng ng sau cc ng t nh: achieve, gain, win, earn, enjoy * cc dng khc: equal (adjective), equalise (verb), equally (adv). 2. parity : trng thi bng nhau, s ngang bng Ng cnh 01: By adding three fighter squadrons to its air force, the country achieved military parity with its neighbours. Din t tng ng: By getting three more groups of fighter airplanes, the country become approximately as strong as other countries near it. Ng cnh 02: For a while, the Euro slipped below parity with the dollar. 27
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Din t tng ng: For some time, the value of the Euro was lower than the value of the dollar. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny thng dng khi ni v lc lng, sc mnh, a v, tin lng, cch i x. * Danh t ny thng dng vi with smth * Danh t ny thng i sau ng t gain hoc enjoy. *************************************************** Nhm 02: parallel, echo 1. parallel (verb): bng vi, snh vi, song song vi Ng cnh 01: Japans economic downturn in the 1990s paralleled that of the U.S in the 1980s. Din t tng ng: The slowing down of Japans economy in the 1990s was similar in many ways to what happened in the U.S during the 1980s. Ng cnh 02: Dr. Lewiss research at Standford paralleled Dr. Vus at the University of Iowa, though neirther knew of the others work. Din t tng ng: The research Dr. Lewis did at Stanford was very much like what Dr. Vu was doing at Iowa, but the two did not know about each others studies. Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng dng ni v cc s kin, qu trnh, cu truyn xy ra song song vi nhau. * ng t ny cng c dng khi cp hai s vic xy ra hai giai on v hai ni khc nhau. (ng cnh 01) * parallel khi l danh t c th dng vi gii t between (e.g., parallels between Dr. Lewiss work and Dr.Vus) * parallel khi l tnh t i vi gii t to (e.g., Dr. Lewiss work was parallel to Dr. Vus)

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2. echo: gi nh li, tng t nh Ng cnh 01: Americas current war on drugs echoes the Prohobition Era of the 1920s. Din t tng ng: Americas efforts now to get rid of drugs are similar to the situation in the 1920s, when alcoholic drinks were illegal in the U.S. Ng cnh 02: Tylers technique of understated surprise echoes the work of Ford Maddox Ford. Din t tng ng: The way she surprises readers in a simple, quiet way reminds us of how Ford Maddox Ford wrote. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c dng vi ngha n d, khc vi ngha thng thng ch s di li ca m thanh. * Ch ng ca ng t ny lun ch s kin hay tnh hung xy ra sau s kin hay tnh hung tn ng. * Khi dng vi t cch l danh t c gii t of (e.g., There are echoes of Prohibition in the war on drugs). *************************************************** Nhm 03: alike, identical, equivalent 1. alike (adj): ging nhau, tng t Ng cnh 01: The American robin and the European robin may look alike in their coloring, but thay are not the same species of bird. Din t tng ng: The two kinds of bird have similar patterns of colour, but they are two different kinds of birds. Ng cnh 02: The new rules will create problems for students and faculty alike. Din t tng ng: The new rules will cause problmes for both students and teachers. Ghi nh: * Tnh t ny c th dng trong 2 cu trc cu nh sau: 29
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- A and B + be/look/seem + alike + in (smth)/ because + Clause / because of (smth). (Ng cnh 01) * Ch ng + ng t + A and B + alike. (Ng cnh 02). * alike KHNG bao gi ng trc danh t. 2. identical: ging ht, y ht Ng cnh 01: Two clones of the same organisms are genetically identical but may look different because of environmental influences. Din t tng ng: Two organisms grown artificially from the cells of another will be exactly the same in their genes, but they can look different because theyve been influenced by different things in their surroundings. Ng cnh 02: Singapores copyright-protection laws are virtually identical to Britains. . Din t tng ng: The laws protecting ownership of printed or broadcast ideas in Singapore are almost exactly the same as Britains. Ghi nh: * Tnh t ny miu t s ging ht nhau hon ton hoc mt kha cnh no . * Thng c gii t to ng trc tn ng ngi, vt c so snh. *C th dng trng t trc tnh t Identical (ng cnh 01). 3. equivalent :Tng ng, tng ng. Ng cnh 01: To be admitted to this school you need an MLLE score of 220 or an equivalent score on various other tests. Din t tng ng: To become a student at this school you need an MLLE score of 220 or some other test score that indicates the same level of ability. Ng cnh 02: A British A- level qualification is roughly equivalent to an American high school diploma. Din t tng ng: Someone completing an A level in Britain has done work similar to that done by someone who completes high school in the U.S . 30
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Ghi nh: * Tnh t ny thng c to ng sau (ng cnh 02). * Khi l danh t thng c of ng sau. (e.g,. An A-level qualification is the equivalent of a high school diploma) *************************************************** Nhm 04: just as, likewise 1. just as: tng t nh Ng cnh 01: Just as a dog obeys its master, a wolf defers to the leader of the pack. Din t tng ng: The way a wolf follows the instructions of its group leader is similar to the way a dog obeys the human who care for it. Ng cnh 02: Glaciers may look stationary but they flow, just as rivers do. Din t tng ng: Even though glaciers (large, thick sheets of ice on top of land) look like they arent moving, they move downhill in the same way rivers do. Ghi nh: * Cm t ny LUN LUN ng trc mnh trng ng (Ng cnh 01 v 02) v KHNG NG TRC cm danh t. (KHNG VIT Just as wolves, dogs need to belong to a group) * Khi din t ngha thi gian, cm t ny cn c ngha l Cng mt lc 2. likewise (trng t): tng t nh vy Ng cnh 01: Push factors such as war or famine are notorious for causing great population shifts. Likewise, pull factors such as economic opportunity can lead to large scale immigration. Din t tng ng: War or widespread hunger can cause lots of people to move to other places. So can pull factors like the chance to make money in other places. Ng cnh 02: A stalk of grass, of course, remains non-woody and withers after producing seed. The banana does likewise, and this makes it technically an herb. 31
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Din t tng ng: The upright part of a grass plant does not become like wood, and it dries up and dies after the plant produces seed. The banana plant does the same thing, so the banana is technically an herb. Ghi nh: * T ny c th b ngha cho mt cu hai v tr: - u cu, c du phy sau (ng cnh 01) - Sau ch ng * T ny c th b ngha cho ng t: - ng sau cc tr ng t do/have/be (ng cnh 02) These birds are likewise interesting. Our department is likewise eager to They have likewise insisted Nhm 05: counterpart, clone, image 1. counterpart: i tc, ng nghip Ng cnh 01: Minnesotas Jesperson was in daily contact with her counterpart at Iowa State. Din t tng ng: Jesperson, who worked for the university of Minnesota, spoke every day with the person at Iowa State who had a job similar to her. Ng cnh 02: There is no counterpart to the U.S. Senate in the Malindian parlianment. Din t tng ng: In the Malindian parliament, theres no group similar to the U.S. Senate. Ghi nh: * T ny thng dng ch ngi, nhm hay t chc. * Dng khi ni v cng vic hoc v tr trong cc c quan, t chc. * Thng dng cc gii t of hoc to sau n . (ng cnh 02) 2. clone : ci c nhn bn ra, ci c bt chc Ng cnh 01: Everyone in the office had short hair and wore dark blue suits, as if they were all clones of their boss. 32
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Din t tng ng: Everyone in the office had hairstyles and clothes that made them look like exact copies of their boss. Ng cnh 02: Rentons new novel is just another Scarlet Letter clone. Din t tng ng: Rentons new book is not very original. It is very much like The Scarlet Letter (A novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne). Ghi nh: * Ngha ban u ca t ny l Mt sinh vt c sinh sn v tnh. * N c th dng vi ngha bng m ch s bt chc hoc copy mt nguyn bn no . * thng c gii t of ng sau. * khi l ng t th ch ng l ci c sao chp, bt chc v tn ng l ci nguyn bn (e.g.They cloned the program = They made a copy of the program). * C th dng cu trc to clone something from smth 3. image: bn sao chp, s bt chc Ng cnh 01: The teams research design was the image of an earlier project at Stanford. Din t tng ng: The plan for the structure of the teams research was exactly like one used in an earlier project at Stanford. Ng cnh 02: The Pandas are a roots reggae band in Marleys image. Din t tng ng: The Pandas play traditional reggae music (a style associated with the island of Jamaica). Their performance style reminds people of Marleys. Ghi nh: * t ny ngha trung tnh hn t clone, (t clone mang ngha ma mai). * cu trc i vi gii t of (ng cnh 01) hoc gii t in (ng cnh 02)

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CH 04 CC CCH DIN T S KHC NHAU V KHNG BNG NHAU Nhm 01: Disparity, inequality 1. disparity: s khc bit, s chnh lch Ng cnh 01: The disparity between a teachers pay and that of other certified professionals is high. Din t tng ng: There is a very large difference between the amount of money a teacher earns and the amount that any other professional whose work requires a licence would earn. Ng cnh 02: Amanda Huggins dedicated her career to correcting the disparities in service among the agencys clients disparities usually based on race. Din t tng ng: Amanda Huggins spent most of her working life correcting situations in which the agency gave people of some races much worse service than it gave people of other races. Ghi nh: * y l danh t m c. * Thng dng trc gii t between hoc among. * Dng gii t in trc t din t lnh vc m c s khc bit. * Thng dng khi tho lun v cc iu kin kinh t v x hi. * C th dng cm t to correct a disparity. * Cc tnh t thng ch kch thc, mc thng i vi disparity: huge, enormous, great, significant. 2. inequality: s khng bng, s khng ngang bng Ng cnh 01: There is a disturbing inequality in the way the police respond to calls from people of different races.

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Din t tng ng: The police answer a call from a person of one race very differently from the way they respond to a call from a person of another race. This difference is something we should worry about. Ng cnh 02: The inequality among test scores of otherwise similar students is puzzling. Din t tng ng: Its very hard to understand why students who are similar in most ways had such different test scores. Ghi nh: * y l danh t KHNG m c nhng i khi cng ddwwocj dng nh danh t m c. * Thng dng trc gii t between hoc among. * Dng gii t in trc t din t lnh vc m c s khc bit. * Thng dng khi tho lun v x hi, vic lm v cc ng cnh v cc mi quan h ca con ngi. *************************************************** Nhm 02: differ, diverge 1. differ: khc nhau Ng cnh 01: The DNA sequence of chimpanzees and that of humans differ by only a few nucleic acid pairs. Din t tng ng: A few pairs of nucleic acids are not the same in a chimpanzee as they are in a human, but in other ways the DNA patterns of the two are the same. Ng cnh 02: European socialists differ from their African counterparts in their distaste for revolution. Din t tng ng: Unlike African socialists, European socialists did not really want to get rid of their current governments. Ghi nh: * Mt s cu trc cu: - to differ in smth: Khc nhau v (ci g) (Ng cnh 02) - to differ from smth: Khc vi (ci g) (Ng cnh 02) - to differ by smth: Khc bi (ci g phm vi) (Ng cnh 01) 35
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2. diverge : khc nhau, r ra, phn k Ng cnh 01: From the graph, you can see that tax revenue and infrastructure spending diverge after 1994. Din t tng ng: The graph has a line showing how much money the government took in from taxes and another line showing line showing how much the government spent on basic services like roads and water supply. The two lines run near each other for a while but then start separating at the point on the graph that shows 1994. Ng cnh 02: I agree that guns should be controlled, but I am afraid my views diverge from yours when it comes to confiscating guns from innocent citizens. Din t tng ng: We both agree that guns should be controlled, but I do not think (as you do) that the government should take guns away from people who have never committed a crime. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c s dng khi cp n nhng s vt lc u tng t nh nhau nhng sau s tng t yu dn i. * Cu trc cu: diverge from: khc vi (ci g) . *************************************************** Nhm 03: differentiate, distinguish 1. differentiate : to nn s khc bit, phn bit vi Ng cnh 01: a) Colour differentiates the two types of mushroom. b) Colour differentiates one mushroom from the other. Din t tng ng: The two kinds of mushroom are similar in many ways, but you can tell them apart by their color. Ng cnh 02: a) It is hard for me to differentiate between Bachs style and Telemanns. b) It is hard for me to differentiate Bachs style from Telemanns. 36
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Din t tng ng: I have a hard time hearing differences between the musical style of Johann Sebastian Bach and that of Georg Philipp Telemann. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng l nhng c im hoc thuc tnh to nn s khc bit. (Ng cnh 01) * Khi dng vi ngha phn bit thng dng vi gii t between hoc from. (Ng cnh 02) 2. distinguish : lm cho khc bit, phn bit vi Ng cnh 01: a) Financial savvy distinguished Barnard from earlier governors. b) Light weight and low radiation distinguish the Apex 4000 cellular phone. Din t tng ng: a) Barnard was different from earlier governer in that she knew a lot about managing money. b) The Apex 4000 is different (from other cellular phones) because it weighs less and emits less radiation. Ng cnh 02: a) Fog and darkness made it hard for us to distinguish humans from trees. b) With enough training, you can learn to distinguish among the many varieties of maple tree. Din t tng ng: a) Because of the fog and darkness, it was hard for us to see clearly enough to know which objects were trees and which were people. b) If you study enough about maple tree, you can learn to tell the difference among various kinds. Ghi nh: * Trong Ng cnh 01, ch ng lun l t ch c im gy nn s khc bit. Cu trc cu: smth distinguish smth from smth. * Trong Ng cnh 02, Ch ng thng l mt ngi mt hoc mt nhm ngi hoc thit b cm bin nh my nh, micr. * Khi phn bit ci ny vi ci kia dng gii t from. * Khi ni v nhn ra s khc bit hay phn bit dng between hoc among. *************************************************** 37
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Nhm 04: discrete, disparate 1. discrete : ring bit, ring r Ng cnh 01: Phonetics students must learn to break a stream of speech down into discrete sounds. Din t tng ng: Students learning about the sounds of language have to know how to separate a long piece of connected speech into separate, individual sounds. Ng cnh 02: The two companies were discrete from one another, despite having a common parent company. Din t tng ng: The two companies were totally separate from each other even though they were both owned by the same larger company. Ghi nh: * Thng dng khi ni v cc b phn, n v, phn, * Cu trc: discrete from (Ng cnh 02). 2. disparate (adj): khc bit, khc hn Ng cnh 01: Attending to the disparate needs of the community after the tornado was a massive undertaking. Din t tng ng: Taking care of the many different things the community needed after the tornado (a violent windstorm) struck was a huge job. Ng cnh 02: Because disparate broadcast formats are used worldwide, a TV from one country will not necessarily work in another. Din t tng ng: Because the countries of the world broadcast their television programmes in many different formats, a TV made in one country might not work in another country. Ghi nh: * Thng dng vi cc t ch cc nhm, cc h thng, cc t chc, cc phn, b phn hoc cc thnh vin ca nhm, cc i hi, nhu cu.

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Nhm 05: heterogeneous, diverse 1. heterogeneous: do nhiu loi to nn, c cu to thnh phn khc nhau, khc chng loi Ng cnh 01: India is linguistically heterogeneous, being home to tongues from several distinct families. Din t tng ng: In India there are many different kinds of languages, from many different basic groups of languages. Ng cnh 02: Labour organizers found the heterogeneous construction workers very difficults to unionize. Din t tng ng: People who try to create organizations of workers had a hard time getting the construction workerd to form a group, because there were too many differences among the workers. Ghi nh: * Thng dng trc danh t ch cc nhm ngi hay vt nh collection, group, society. 2. diverse (adj): thuc nhiu loi khc nhau Ng cnh 01: Government regulations encouraged the university to hire a diverse teaching force. Din t tng ng: Rules set by the government led the university to hire teachers of many different races, nationalities, and other characteristics. Ng cnh 02: The obstacles to the research were diverse, ranging from lack of funds to complaints that the research was immoral. Din t tng ng: Many different things from not enough money to complaints by people who thought it was wrong to do such research made the research difficult. Ghi nh: * Thng dng m t cc nhm ngi, cc thnh phn ca h thng, cc v tr, cc tuyn b, cc l do, cc phong cch, 39
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Nhm 06: contrast, discrepancy, gap 1. contrast: s i chiu, s tng phn Ng cnh 01: There was a sharp contrast between life before the oil boom and life afterward. Din t tng ng: The way people lived in this area before they began getting a lot of money from oil was greatly different from the way they lived after, and the differences were very clear. Ng cnh 02: In contrast to its neighbours, Bangsa refused to bring in foreign workers to solve its labour shortage. Din t tng ng: Unlike other nearby countries, Bangsa would not import a lot of workers from other countries to make up for a lack of local workers. Ghi nh: * Thng c cc tnh t nh clear, sharp, great ng trc. * C th dng vi cc gii t between hoc among. * Cu trc cu: In contrast to * Khia l ng t c dng vi cu trc cu to contrast with (= to stand in sharp contrast with/to. e.g Life after the oil boom stands in contrast with life before) 2. discrepancy: s khng nht qun, s tri ngc, s khc bit Ng cnh 01: There was a huge discrepancy between his hopes and his abilities. Din t tng ng: He hopes to be able to do many more things than he was actually able to do. Ng cnh 02: The auditors discovered a discrepancy between the companys financial reports and its bank records. Din t tng ng: The people who examine accounts discovered a big difference between the amount of money the company claimed to have and the amount it actually had in the bank. 40
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Ghi nh: * S dng khi ni v nhng bn khai bo, li ha, bo co k ton. * Dng vi gii t between. * Thng ng sau cc gii t nh huge, vast, large, small, tiny. 3. gap: khong trng, s khc nhau Ng cnh 01: There was a large gap between the governments spending and t income. Din t tng ng: The amount of money the government took in was not very close to the amount it spent. Ng cnh 02: Negotiators worked hard to close the gap between the two sides positions. Din t tng ng: People trying to get the two sides to agree had to work very hard to eliminate the differences between one sides ideas and the ideas of other sides. Ghi nh: * Danh t gap c dng vi ngha n d. * Thng dng vi gii t between. * Mt s cm t dng gap: - to create a gap. - to bridge the gap. - to close the gap. * Thng dng khi ni v s khc nhau gia cc kin, quan im hoc trng hp. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 05 CC CCH DIN T S THAY I, S TNG LN V S GIM I Nhm 01: alter, modify, transition 1. alter: thay i (lm cho khc i), bin i (tnh cht, quy m, hnh dng) Ng cnh 01: The burning of fossil fuels has altered Earths atmosphere more than any other human activity. Din t tng ng: The air around the Earth has been changed more by the burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.) than by anything else people do. Ng cnh 02: The feminist writer Valerie Grissom altered her approach after recognizing that her militant statements were inspiring vilolence against innocent males. Din t tng ng: Valerie Grissom was a feminist writer (a writer who emphasizes the interests of women). She used to say it was okay to use force in making things better for women, but she changed the way she expressed her ideas because she saw that her writing was encouraging women to attack men who had done nothing wrong. Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng dng vi tn ng l cc k hoch, quan im, phong cch, kin, tuyn b, vn bn, lch lm vic, thi quen, th tc, mi trng, s sp t v tnh hung. * C th dng trong ng cnh khoa hc khi lm bin i vi khun, vi rt, h thng min dch nhng KHNG DNG khi ni l lm thay i con ngi m dng ng t change v d: The years at college changed Bob * Va dng vi ngha (ci g) bin i va dng vi ngha lm cho (ci g) bin i. * C th dng trong cu trc cu: , but that doesnt altered the fact that * Cu trc in the alteration of (smth): trong qu trnh bin i ca . * Cu trc A few alterations to/in (smth): s bin i i vi hoc trong (ci g). . 42
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2. modify: sa i Ng cnh 01: It is possible to modify an ordinary car engine so it rn smoothly on ethanol. Din t tng ng: It is possible to make some relatively small changes to a car engine so it operates well by burning ethanol (C2H6O a kind of alcohol that can be made from corn (maize)). Ng cnh 02: If you want to speak about sex to this audience, youll have to modify your approach to avoid offending them. Din t tng ng: If you want to speak about sex to this group, youll have to make a few changes in how to do it, so you do not make them angry or uncomfortable. Ghi nh: * Ngha c bn ca ng t ny l sa i gii quyt mt vn no . * Thng dng vi cc t ch: my mc, h thng, k hoch, kin, tuyn b,l thi, th tc, hoc hnh vi. * Mc ch ca s thay i ny thng c tuyn b mnh vi lin t so hoc cm t ch mc ch to + V hoc in order to + V * Danh t modification c th dng trc of vi ngha l Qu trnh sa i ca (V d: The modification of the plan took a long time). Khi mun din t s bin i, thay i i vi dng gii t to v sau l cm hoc V-ing (v d: We made a few modifications to our schedule). 3. transition: s qu , giai on chuyn tip Ng cnh 01: In the 1960s, the American economy underwent a transition from an industrial system to an information based system. Din t tng ng: In the 1960s, the American economy changed from one that mostly made products to one that mostly processed information. Ng cnh 02: Many of the unemployed Americans in the survey portrayed themselves as persons in transition.

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Din t tng ng: Many of the jobless Americans who answered the researchers questions described themselves as being in the process of changing from one condition to another. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny thng dng vi cc cm gii t nh from to (ng cnh 01). * Danh t ny thng dng trong cm t vi ng tmake hoc undergo (ng cnh 2) * Cm t in transition: ang trong giai on chuyn tip/qu ) vi ngha chung chung. Nu d ng in the transition from to phi cp n mt giai on chuyn tip/qu c th. *************************************************** Nhm 02: transform, redesign, restructure 1. transform: bin i Ng cnh 01: The printing press transformed Flanders from an idea-poor, Churchdominated region into a haven for freethinkers. Din t tng ng: The printing press (a machine that makes many copies of written material by pressing ink onto paper) changed Flanders in very deep and basic ways. Flanders used to be controlled by the church, but it became a place where people felt they could think freely. Ng cnh 02: Shamsuddin was transformed by his journey to the holy cities. Din t tng ng: Travelling to the holy cities changed Shamsuddin in deep and important ways. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng trong cu trc cu to transform from into/ to . * Thng c tn ng sau ng t, nu t bin i dng vi cc dng ca i t phn thn c ui -self (V d: China transformed itself in the 1980s and 1990s). * Danh t transformation c th dng trong cc cu trc cu sau: 44
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- A person/ a thing make/undergoes/ experience/ go through a transformation. - The transformation from to/into . - Transformations take place/ occur. - The main factor in the transformation of - The main cause of transformation of . 2. redesign: thit k li Ng cnh 01: Advocates of Japanese-style management have urged many American businesses to redesign themselves to promote concensus among workers. Din t tng ng: People who like the way Japanese businesses are managed have encouraged many American companies to change their basic character so that workers can more easily reach agreement about how to operate. Ng cnh 02: It would cost many millions of dollars to redesign the aircraft to operate with a smaller, more fuel-efficient engine. Din t tng ng: It would cost several millions dollars to change the basic structure of the airplane so that it could have a smaller engine that uses less fuel. Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng cp n thay i lin quan n cu trc hoc k hoch v chng khng cn ph hp vi hin ti na. * Tn ng thng dng l: my mc, h thng, hay t chc. * khi ch qu trnh c th dng gii t of. V d: The redesign of the marketing system. 3. restructure: ti cu trc Ng cnh 01: Foreign banks agreed to restructure Kalistans debt because of the countrys severe economic problems. Din t tng ng: Banks from other countries agreed to set up new a system for Kalistan to pay back the money it owed them. Ng cnh 02: Restructing the CIA was difficult because of resistance from agency veterans. 45
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Din t tng ng: Making big changes to the basic structre of the CIA was difficult because people who had worked there for a long time did not want the changes to be made. Ghi nh: * Ging vi redesign, ng t ny thng cp n thay i lin quan n cu trc hoc k hoch v chng khng cn ph hp vi hin ti na. * Tn ng thng dng l: h thng, lch trnh, hay cng ty (khng dng vi my mc). * C th khng cn dng tn ng sau ng t ny khi n mang ngha t ti cu trc. V d: The advertising company knew it would have to restructure to handle its new clients. * C th dng cu trc to restructure someones debt vi ngha a ra mt thi gian biu mi/ k hoach mi ai tr n *************************************************** Nhm 03: raise, rise, accelerate, expand 1. raise: gi ln, lm tng ln Ng cnh 01: The new anticancer drug raised the companys profits by 20 per cent this year. Din t tng ng: The new drug to fight cancer caused the companys profits this year to be 20 percent higher than last years profits. Ng cnh 02: Grover University raised its admission standards and began interviewing prospective students more carefully. Din t tng ng: Grover University decided that people who wanted to enter the university had to show a higher level of achievement. The university also became more careful in its conversations with people who wanted to enter. Ghi nh: *. ng t ny l ngoi ng t (transitive verb) nn lun c tn ng ng sau. *. Ch ng c th l ngi hay mt nhm ngi(Ng cnh 02), hoc mt nhn t khng phi l ngi (ng cnh 01), mt iu kin hay mt s kin. 46
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* Tn ng c th l cc chun mc (ng cnh 02), lng, cp , gi tr, hoc im s. * Lu tn ng khng th l cc t money, cash hoc cc n v tin t khc. Tn ng ch c th l ph tn (fee), Thu nhp (income), li nhun (profits). * Danh t raise ch DUY NHT c ngha l s tng lng. 2. rise: tng ln, ni ln, mc ln Ng cnh 01: The danger of war has risen since last years nuclear-missile tests. Din t tng ng: The chance that a war might break out is greater than it was last year, when someone tested missiles that had nuclear explosives attached to them. Ng cnh 02: The departments income from speaking fees rose by about 15% per year in the 1990s. Din t tng ng: In the 1990s, the amount of money the department got when its members spoke to various groups was about 15% higher each year than it was the year before. Ghi nh: * y l ni ng t (intransitive verb) nn khng c tn ng. * Mt s ch ng thng gp ca ng t ny: incidence (of X), temperature, water (in a river, lake or sea), tide, amounts, levels, values, standards, emotions. * Thng dng vi gii t by trc cm t ch s lng tng ln c th (Ng cnh 02): rise by: tng ln khong . * Thng dng vi gii t to trc cm t ch im tng ln: rise to: tng ln ti . * Rise dng l danh t trong cm t a large rise in (smth): mt s tng ln v . 3. accelerate : tng tc, tng vn tc Ng cnh 01: The race to outline the human genome accelerate after private companies claimed to be near success.

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Din t tng ng: People began working faster to chart the entire sequence of human genes after private companies said they were almost ready to complete the task. Ng cnh 02: Oxygen and sunshine accelerate the deterioration of the plastic. Din t tng ng: Oxygen and sunshine make the plastic weaken and fall apart faster. Ghi nh: * ng t ny lun m t s tng ln v vn tc hay mc tin trin. * Ch ng thng l: rate, pace, development, growth, phrases for process or other things that can have speed (ng cnh 01). 4. expand: lm m rng ra, lan rng ra Ng cnh 01: In some thermometers, mercury expands as it heats up. Din t tng ng: In some thermometers, mercury (Hg) gains volume as it gets warmer. Ng cnh 02: The research team expanded their scope to include subjects from a wider geographic area. Din t tng ng: The research team changed their research plan so it would look into a wider range of things specifically so it would include information from people from more places. Ghi nh: * Ngha c bn ca ng t ny l lm tng kch thc v nhiu hng cng mt lc. * Trong ng cnh k thut (Ng cnh 01), n thng m t s tng v th tch, xy ra khi vt liu (c bit l cht lng) nhit cao hoc p sut thp. *************************************************** Nhm 04: reduce, diminish, contract, decline 1. reduce: lm gim i Ng cnh 01: The new regulations helped reduce the nations dependence on foreign oil. 48
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Din t tng ng: The new rules helped the country bring down its need for oil from other countries. Ng cnh 02: The drug Blastophene reduces the flow of blood to the brain by about 17%, which can lead to confusion and fatigue. Din t tng ng: If someone takes the drug Blastophene, the flow of blood to his or her brain will be about 17% less than normal. This can make the person feel confused and very tired. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp ca ng t ny l: humans, organizations, laws, participants in progress. * Tn ng thng gp ca ng t ny l: weight, dependence, conditions, feelings, actions, amount of time or money, abilities. * C th dng vi gii t by trc cm t ch s lng gim i c th. (Ng cnh 02). * Danh t reduction thng dng vi gii t in. (v d: a reduction in smth: Gim i (ci g) 2. diminish: nh i, gim bt i Ng cnh 01: The threat of rebel attacks diminished after the rainy season began. Din t tng ng: After the rainy season began, it became less likely that the rebels would attacked. Ng cnh 02: A financial scandal diminished the presidents influence in Congress. Din t tng ng: The president had less ability to affect the activities of Congress because he was . Ghi nh: * y l ng ch s gim i v sc mnh (strength), gi tr (value), hoc tm quan trng (importance). * C th dng nh l mt ngoi ng t (transitive verb) ch s gim i xung v tr thp hn hoc trng thi thp hn (Ng cnh 01). 49
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* Ch ng thng gp khi l ni ng t (intransitive) v ng thi c th lm tn ng ca ngoi ng t (transitive): threat, danger, influence, strength, conditions, feelings, abilities, hoc bt k t no ch sc mnh v cng . * Trong cu trc b ng trng t ch mc (nh greatly, slightly) thng ng xen gia be v diminished (V d: His energy was greatly diminished by his illness) 3. contract: thu hp li, tr nn nh i , co li Ng cnh 01: The economy contracted by about 4% in the first half of 1973. Din t tng ng: Halfway through 1973, the level of economic activity was about 4% less than it had been at the start of the year. Ng cnh 02: The cold weather caused the rubber seals to contract, and leak developed. Din t tng ng: Because of the cold weather the rubber seals (parts that fit tightly into the opening between sections of a machine) became smaller. This caused an opening through which fluids could get out. Ghi nh: * ngha ca ng t ny ch s thu hp ng thi t mi pha lm vt nh i v nguyn nhn t nhin, thng thng. * C th xem l ng t tri ngha ca expand nhng khc vi expand l ng t ny lun l ni ng t (intransitive verb). * Trong ng cnh k thut n thng ch s vic xy ra khi mt vt liu , c bit l cht lng trong mi trng gim nhit hoc tng p sut. * Ch ng thng gp: physical materials, parts of bodies or of machines, volume, business or trade, or fields of force. 4. decline: gim i, sa st i Ng cnh 01: Our research budget has declined by me than 20% in the past two years. Din t tng ng: The amount of money we are given to do research has gone down by more than 20% in the past two years. 50
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Ng cnh 02: Eventually, Vargass eyesight declined to the point where he could not read a newspaper. Din t tng ng: Over time, Vargass ability to see became so weak that he could not read a newspaper. Ghi nh: *Ch ng thuuwngf gp ca ng t ny: systems, amounts, organizations, conditions, abilities, situations. * C th dng gii t by vi s liu c th v mc gim i hoc yu i. * C th dng vi cm lin t so far that/ to the point where: n mc m (xem Ng cnh 02). @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 06 CC CCH MIU T S LIN H, KT NI V MI QUAN H Nhm 01: link, correlation 1. link (n): mi lin h, mi quan h Ng cnh 01: The article reported that researchers have discovered a link between baldness and mathematical ability, although this could be mere coincidence. Din t tng ng: According to the article, researchers have found that a bald person (someone who has no hair on part or all of the head) is more likely than other people to be good at mathematics, but this connection could have occurred smply by chance, not for any special reason. Ng cnh 02: Its hard to deny smokings link with cancer. Din t tng ng: It is very clear that there is a strong connection between smoking and having cancer. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny khng dng khng nh mt nguyn nhn thc s. * Danh t ny dng trong cu trc a link between and (Ng cnh 01). * ng t thng dng th b ng vi gii t to. * C th dng linkage v link nh nhau. 2. correlation: mi tng quan, mi lin h Ng cnh 01: Our research showed a strong correlation between home ownership and membership in a community-improvement organizations. Din t tng ng: Our research showed that people who have bought houses are very likely to join groups that try to make cities or towns better places to live. Ng cnh 02: Garrity investigated suicides close correlation with unemployment.

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Din t tng ng: Garrity tried to find out more about the fact that many people who kill themselves had recently not been able to find jobs. Ghi nh: * Danh t ny thng dng trong cu trc vi between and (ng cnh 01). * Danh t ny thng dng trong cm t correlation with (ng cnh 2) * Danh t ny khng dng khng nh mt nguyn nhn thc s hoc chc chn. * Mt s tnh t c th ng trc danh t ny: strong, weak, high, low, close, direct. * Cu trc cu vi ng t to correlate with . *************************************************** Nhm 02: accompany, go along with 1. accompany: i cng, xy ra cng Ng cnh 01: Muscle aches routinely accompany high fevers. Din t tng ng: Someone who has a high fever ( a body temperature much higher than normal) is also likely to feel some pain in his or h muscles. Ng cnh 02: Cardiac problems are often accompanied by a general depression, even in patients who are unaware that they have heart problems. Din t tng ng: In many cases, a person with a heart problem is likely to feel generally sad and dissatisfied, even that person de not know that he or she has a heart problem. Ghi nh: *ng t ny thng dng trong cu b ng. * Khng dng that- clause sau accompany m nn dng accompany the fact that + clause (v d: Confusion accompanied the fact that telephone that telephone lines had been damaged by the storm). * Accomapnying l tnh t thng dng. (V d: A recession and the accompanying rise in unemployment)

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2. go along with : i i vi, i cng vi Ng cnh 01: Disorientation often goes along with jet lag. Din t tng ng: If you have jet lag (a condition in which someone who has travelled a long distance east or west to a different time zone in a short time feels tired and out of touch with local time) you are also likely to feel confused. Ng cnh 02: Among Americans, an increase in patriotic feeling usually go along with such occasions as the Fourth of July or a presidental election. Din t tng ng: On some occasions like the Fourth of July (a holiday celebrating American independence) and presidential elections, Americans feel more positively about their country than they usually do. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny thng nh hn (smaller), t c bn hn (less basic) hoc km quan trng hn (less important). * Sau go along with khng dng mnh c that (that-clause) m nn dng cu trc go along with the fact that + clause. (V d: Confusion went along with the fact that telephone that telephone lines had been damaged by the storm). *************************************************** Nhm 03: characteristic of, associated with 1. characteristic of: l c tnh ca, l c im tiu biu ca Ng cnh 01: The study found that high telephone rates are characteristic of lowwage economies. Din t tng ng: The study found that where workers do not earn very much money, prices for using telephone are high. Ng cnh 02: Efficiency in the ocean-shipping industry has increased because of the larger docks characteristic of modern port facilities. 54
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Din t tng ng: The business of shipping things over the ocean runs more smoothly and less wastefully because modern ports have larger places for ships to stop. Ghi nh: * C th lc b mnh quan h trong cu trc cu the larger docks (which are) characteristic of modern port facilities. (Ng cnh 02) 2. associated with: gn kt vi, c quan h vi Ng cnh 01: Surprisingly, the questionnaire revealed that, within this population, success as a restaurant manager was strongly associated with a love of cello music. Din t tng ng: After analyzing peoples answers to a set of questions, we are surprised to see that, among people in this group, someone who does well at managing a restaurant is likely to enjoy music played on a cello (a stringed instrument like a violin but much larger and with a lower sound). Ng cnh 02: The PCCs report emphasized the low birthrates associated with affluent, service-based economies. Din t tng ng: The PPCs report made a strong point that, in rich countries that make most of their money by providing services (instead of by producing goods or growing crops), it is very likely that, for each adult in the society, only a small number of children are being born each year. Ghi nh: * Mt trong cc trng t strongly, weakly, intimately, or often. *************************************************** Nhm 04: in conjunction with, to the degree that 1. in conjunction with: cng vi, kt hp vi Ng cnh 01: Archaeologists have found that remains of a grain called millet appear in conjunction with other traces of Malayo-Polynesian people. 55
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Din t tng ng: If you find other signs of Malayo-Polynesian settlements, you will probably also find some old pieces of millet. Ng cnh 02: Freckles, in conjunction with reddish hair and light-coloured eyes, hint at Nordic ancestry. Din t tng ng: If someone has freckles (small dark spots on the skin) as well as reddish hair and light-coloured eyes, some of that persons ancestors may have been from the area near present-day Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Ghi nh: * Cm t ny thng dng nh mt cm trng t (Ng cnh 01) * Cm t ny c th dng nh mt tnh t b ngha cho mt ng t (Ng cnh 02). 2. to the degree that: n mc m Ng cnh 01: Surprisingly enough, to the degree that a respondent was trained in a foreign language, he or she opposed immgration . Din t tng ng: As foreign-language study increased, so did opposition to foreigners coming to ones own country and making it their new home. Ng cnh 02: The bacterias motion increased to the degree that they consumed nutrients. Din t tng ng: The more the bacteria ate, the more they moved around. Ghi nh: * To the degree that + clause c th ng trc mnh n b ngha (ng cnh 01) hoc ng sau (Ng cnh 02).

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Nhm 05: imply, infer 1. imply: cho thy, ng , m ch Ng cnh 01: In yellow-rumped warblers (a kind of bird), a white throat implies one kind of song and a yellow throat implies another. Din t tng ng: All those warblers with white throats sing one way, and all those with yellow throats sing another way. Ng cnh 02: North European ancestry implies that someone will have the genetic ability to produce lactase an enzyme that helps digest milk even in adulthood. Din t tng ng: If someone has ancestors from northern Europe, that persons body is very likely to be able to produce lactase even after that person is fully grown. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc iu kin (conditions), cc s kin (events), cc tnh hung (situations) hoc cc c im c th nhn thy (visible characteristics). Trong trng hp ny, ng t ny c ngha l cho thy rng * Khi ch ng l ngi ng t ny c ngha l ng , m ch. * ng t ny c th dng trc that + clause. 2. infer : suy ra, lun ra Ng cnh 01: From the rapid growth of algae in this pond, we can infer a sudden inflow of organic material. Din t tng ng: By seeing that algae (small, rootless plants that grow in large groups in water) have grown very quickly, we can conclude that organic matter (containing carbon and probably coming from a living thing) has flowed into the pond (a small lake) from somewwhere. Ng cnh 02: By observing the pattern of disease outbreaks, officials infererred that mosquitoes probably carried the infectious agent. 57
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Din t tng ng: By seeing where and when the disease showed up in large numbers of people, officials were able to conclude that mosquitoes (a kind of insect) carried the microorganism that made people sick. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca ng t ny lun l con ngi. * Thng dng sau can hoc should. * Cu trc thng gp: - from smth infer smth (ng cnh 01) - infer by + V-ing - infer that + clause. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 07 CC CCH DIN T NGUYN NHN V KT QU (Causes and effects) Nhm 01: stem from, be due to, derive from 1. stem from: ny sinh t, xut pht t Ng cnh 01: The companys problems stemmed mostly from lax quality control. Din t tng ng: The company had problems mostly because it i not carefully make sure that its products were made properly. Ng cnh 02: Labour unrest, stemming from unsafe working conditions, was rampant early in the century. Din t tng ng: In the early part of the century, there were many disturbances by workers unhappy about working in dangerous conditions. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca cm ng t ny ch kt qu, trong khi tn ng li ch nguyn nhn. * Ch ng thng l: Tnh cm (feelings), tnh hung (situations) v s kin (events). * Cc trng t mc nh mostly, largely thng ng xen gia stem v from. 2. be due to : v, do Ng cnh 01: Delays in the research schedule were due to primarily to funding problems. Din t tng ng: Problems with getting money were the main reason why the research did not go as fast as expected. Ng cnh 02: Coastal fog is due to a moist onshore airflow. Din t tng ng: Wet air blowing to land from the ocean causes fog along the coast. 59
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Ghi nh: * due to nn LUN LUN dng sau ng t be. * due to nn dng sau mt cm danh t b ngha cho n. (v d: Our flights cancellation due to the bad weather) * Cc trng hp khc NN DNG owing to hoc as a result of THAY TH ch nguyn nhn (V d: Our flight was cancelled owing to the bad weather/ as a result of the bad weather). * Ch ng thng l: Tnh cm (feelings), iu kin (conditions) v s kin (events). * Cc trng t mc nh primarily, largely, mostly thng ng TRC hoc SAU due. 3. derive from: ngun gc, bt ngun t Ng cnh 01: Most stomach ulcers derive from infection by a bacterium, not from stress. Din t tng ng: Most stomach ulcers come from (are caused by) infection by this bacterium, not from stress. Ng cnh 02: Richardson claims that Africas current problems derive from nineteenth century colonialism. Din t tng ng: Richardson claims that foreign control of African territories in the 1800s is the basic cause of todays problems. Ghi nh: * Ch ng ca cm ng t ny ch kt qu, trong khi tn ng li ch nguyn nhn. * Cm ng t ny c th dng th ch ng (Ng cnh 01 v Ng cnh 02) nhng n cng c th dng dng b ng m khng thay i v ngha. V d: Cu Ng cnh 01 c th vit Most stomach ulcers are derived from infection by a bacterium, not from stress. ***************************************************

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Nhm 02: lead to, yield, generate: 1. lead to: dn n kt qu Ng cnh 01: He then discovered he had been infected with HIV, the virus that can lead to HIV. Din t tng ng: Then he found that the human immuno-deficiency virus (which can eventually cause AIDS) had entered his body and begun reproducing there. Ng cnh 02: An excess of nutrients in the water can lead to oxygen imbalance, which can eventually lead to the collapse of the entire aquatic system. Din t tng ng: Too many nutrients in the water can cause the amount of oxygen in the water to be wrong. This can then cause the whole system of living things in the water to fall apart. Ghi nh: * C th s dng ch chui nguyn nhn (v d: X leads to Y, which leads to Z). (Ng cnh 02) * Trng t ch tc hoc tn sut thng ng trc hoc sau lead (V d: leads eventually to ; often leads to). * C th dng vi can hoc may. 2. yield: sinh ra, mang li Ng cnh 01: A medical students sacrifices early in life yield substantial rewards later. Din t tng ng: For someone studying to be a medical doctor, doing without some comforts early in life [so he or she can concentrate on studying] will give that person big rewards later. Ng cnh 02: Automating the car industry yielded great improvements in quality control. Din t tng ng: Because most processes in amking cars were controlled by machines, it seemed easier to make sure the cars were of high quality. 61
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Ghi nh: * Mang ngha sn xut ra, to ra. * Tn ng thng dng: kt qu (result), s tng ln (increase), phn thng (rewards), s ci thin (improvement), li ch (benefit), t ch tin bc hoc little. * Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch hnh ng (action), iu kin (conditions), s kin (events). 3. generate: to ra, pht ra, sinh ra Ng cnh 01: Rodriguess presidential campaign generated great excitement in the villages. Din t tng ng: Rodriguess attempt to become president caused a lot of excitement among people in villages. Ng cnh 02: Sales of licensed products generated more income than the movie itself. Din t tng ng: More money was made by selling things related to the movie (e.g., toys, T-shirts,etc.) than by selling tickets to the movie. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng dng: hnh ng (actions), qu trnh (processes), s kin (events). * Tn ng thng gp: tnh cm, sc lc, sc mnh hoc tin *************************************************** Nhm 03: render, make 1. render: lm cho, bin thnh Ng cnh 01: Corruption in the police force rendered the drug laws ineffective. Din t tng ng: Dishonest activity among the police caused the laws against drugs to become ineffective. Ng cnh 02: A tough question from a reporter rendered the president speechless. 62
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Din t tng ng: A difficult question from a reporter caused the president to become speechless (disturbed her so much that she could not think of anything to say). Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng trong cu trc to render sbd/smth + adjective . (Ng cnh 01v 02) * Tnh t thng dng ch cht lng km i hoc yu i. 2. make: lm, lm ra Ng cnh 01: Currency devaluation makes imports more expensive. Din t tng ng: Drops in the value of a countrys currency cause imports to be more expnsive. Ng cnh 02: Retirements and resignations made Sue Williams the most senior employee in the office. Din t tng ng: Because many people either retired or resigned, Williams became the longest-serving employee in the office. Ghi nh: * ng t ny c th dng trong cu trc to make sbd/smth + adjective .(Ng cnh 01v 02). Tnh t c th c ngha tt hoc xu. * ng t ny c th dng trong cu trc to make sbd/smth + verb. ************************************************************* Nhm 04: favour, promote 1. favour: ng h, thin v, to iu kin cho Ng cnh 01: Heat and an oxygen-poor environment favour the formation of long, opaque crystals.

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Din t tng ng: Conditions in which there is a lot of heat and there is not much oxygen are likely to cause the formation of long crystals that light wont pass through. Ng cnh 02: Strict antidrug laws tend to favour an underground economy controlled by gangs. Din t tng ng: Strict laws against drugs are likely to result in a system of trade that is hidden from most people and is controlled by organized groups of criminals. Ghi nh: * KHNG DNG ch ng l NGI hoc SINH VT. * C th dng trong ng cnh k thut (Ng canh 01). * Tn ng thng l cc thut ng ch s ch qu trnh [nh hnh thnh (formation), pht trin (development, growth)] hoc cc thut ng ch kt qu ca qu trnh. * Ch ng thng dng: cc t ch ch iu kin (conditions), quy tc (rules), s kin (events). * Thng dng sau tend to + V (Ng cnh 02). 2. promote: xc tin, y mnh Ng cnh 01: Flexible scheduling promotes a sense of personal responsibility among staff members. Din t tng ng: Allowing staff members to set their own schedules tends to make them feel personally responsible for the success of their work. Ng cnh 02: Ultravilolet radiation promotes the growth of melanoma. Din t tng ng: Ultravilolet radiation commonly leads to the growth of dark tumors on the skin. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch iu kin hoc qu trnh. * Tn ng thng gp: cc t ch qu trnh (growth, development,etc.) hoc t ch sn phm ca mt qu trnh (Ng cnh 02). *************************************************************

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Nhm 05: be responsible for, provoke, be blamed for 1. be responsible for: chu trch nhim v Ng cnh 01: Nickel mining is responsible for the deadliest pollutants in Aconnak River. Din t tng ng: The most harmful pollutants in the river come from nickel (Ni) mines. Ng cnh 02: Unexpectedly high temperatures were responsible for deterioration of the rubber seals. Din t tng ng: The weakening or breakdown of the rubber seals occurred because they got hotter than expected. (Seals help fill the space between two parts of a machine or a building). Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch iu kin (conditions), s kin (events) hoc cc hot ng (activities). * C th s dng ch ng l ngi. * Tn ng thng ch nhng ci KHNG mong mun. 2. provoke : khiu khch, chc tc, gy ra Ng cnh 01: The new tax laws provoked an angry response. Din t tng ng: The new tax laws caused people to react angrily. Ng cnh 02: By refusing to meet with the workers representatives, management provoked a two-week strike. Din t tng ng: Because the managers refused to meet with their representatives, the workers refused to work, and this continued for two weeks. Ghi nh: * Tn ng thng gp: cm gic kh chu hoc s kin kh chu (v d: retaliation). * Nu tn ng l NGI, ng t ny c ngha l CHC TC * Tn ng thng l nhng t ch s phn ng hoc s p tr tiu cc. 65
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* Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch s kin, quy tc, lut l, li ni, hnh ng. 3. be blamed for: b quy trch nhim cho, b quy cho Ng cnh 01: Slash-and-burn farming has been blamed for many of Asias brushfires. Din t tng ng: Someone claims that many of the fires in brush-covered area of Asia are caused by farming methods that clear land by burning the plants. Ng cnh 02: Stress had long been blamed for most stomach ulcers. Din t tng ng: For a long time, people used to say that stress caused most stomach ulcers. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc iu kin, con ngi v s kin * C th dng dng ch ng nhn mnh vo ngi a ra pht ngn : - Doctors blamed stress for most stomach ulcers. (Stress was blamed by doctors for most stomach ulcers) * C th dng cu trc to be blamed on: c quy cho l do . Trong cu trc ny ch ng l kt qu, cn nguyn nhn l tn ng sau on. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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CH 08 CC CCH DIN T S CHO PHP V TO IU KIN D DNG Nhm 01: permit, allow 1. permit: cho php Ng cnh 01: WTO regulations permit looser trade practices in developing countries. Din t tng ng: The rules of the WTO let developing countries trade in ways that other countries may not. Ng cnh 02: Sending personal email messages from the office is not permitted; official business only. Din t tng ng: You may send email messages from the office only if the message relates to work. You may not send private messages to your friends. Ghi nh: * Cc ch ng thng gp: cc t ch ngi, cc t chc, ni quy, quy tc. * Nu ch ng l t ch iu kin, th ng t mang ngha lm cho c th (make possible) nhng thng dng trong cu ph nh (V d: Time did not permit more discussion). * Cc cu trc vi tn ng: - permit + simple noun phrase (Ng cnh 01). - permit + noun phrase + to + V (V d: The dean permitted Ray to starrt classes three weeks later). * Thng dng trong cu b ng (Ng cnh 02). * Cm t nn nh: time permitting: nu thi gian cho php; weather permitting: nu thi tit cho php. * C th din t ngha cho php bng cu trc: give/grant + sbd + permission to + V. (V d: Ray got permission from the dean to begin classes three weeks later). * C th din t ngha c php bng cu trc: receive/get permission from. (V d: Ray got permission from the dean to begin classes three weeks later). 67
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2. allow : cho php Ng cnh 01: The hospital allowed the police to interview the victims of the bombing. Din t tng ng: The hospital let the police speak to the people who had been hurt by bomb explosions. Ng cnh 02: The raised floor and wall vents allow free air circulation. Din t tng ng: An above-ground floor and some small openings in the walls make it possible for air to move freely in and out. Ghi nh: * C th dng thay permit trong hu ht cc tnh hung. * Ch ng thng gp: cc lut (laws), cc trng hp (circumstances), cc iu kin (conditions), t ch ngi (people). * Cc cu trc dng tn ng: - allow + noun phrase + to + V (ng cnh 01). - allow + noun phrase (ng cnh 2) *************************************************** Nhm 02: permissive, lenient 1. permissive: d di, bung th Ng cnh 01: Harveys problems stem from his permissive upbringing. Din t tng ng: Harvey has problems now because there were not enough controls on him when he was a child. Ng cnh 02: President Fong criticised U.S society for being permissive. Din t tng ng: President Fong said that U.S society is babd because people are allowed to do too many things. Ghi nh: * Thng b ngha cho danh t ch ngi, nhm ngi, quy tc, ni quy, hay thi . 68
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2. lenient : khoan dung, nhn hu Ng cnh 01: Judge Abernathy was exceptionally lenient. He sentenced fewer convicted thieves to jail than any other judge in Minesota. Din t tng ng: Judge Abernathy was remarkably easy in his treatment of criminals. Of all the judges in Minesota, he sent the fewest thieves to jail after the court found them guilty. Ng cnh 02: The finance department was lenient with late-paying customers, causing a severe cash-flow problem. Din t tng ng: The finance department did not force customers to pay money they should have paid. This caused a big problem for the company, because the money it needed was not coming in on time. Ghi nh: * Thng dng trong tnh hung lin quan n s trng pht. * Thng dng miu t ngi (people), h thng (systems), lut (laws) hc s trng pht (punishment). * Mt s cu trc cu: - to be lenient with sbd. (V d: The judge was lenient with criminals) - to be lenient in smth. (V d: He was lenient in his sentencing) - to show leniency toward sbd. (V d: He showed leniency toward single mothers). *************************************************** Nhm 03: consent, approval 1. consent: s ng , s chp thun Ng cnh 01: Reporters hoping to interview General Nawab waited for hours before he finally gave his consent to be interviewed. Din t tng ng: Reporters who wanted to ask Nawab some questions waited a long time before he finally agreed to do it. Ng cnh 02: Baldridges consent for several cost-cutting measures allowed us to balance the budget. 69
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Din t tng ng: Because Baldridge said formally that she would let people take action to reduce expenses, we were able to avoid spending more money than we took in. Ghi nh: * Cu trc cu: to give consent to + V. * Ch ng thng l ngi hoc mt t chc. * C th dng ng t nguyn th c to ng trc. (Ng cnh 01) * C th dng vi gii t to hoc for ch s cho php v ci g (Ng cnh 02) * the consent of sbd: s ng ca (ai) * age of consent: tui c th ng vic g. 2. approval: s tn thnh, s chp thun Ng cnh 01: NATO gave approval for the deployment of troops near the airport. Din t tng ng: NATO gave formal permission for soldiers to be put into positions near the airport. Ng cnh 02: The research cannot go ahead without approval from FDA. Din t tng ng: The research cannot continue unless the FDA (Food and Drug Administration, a governmental body) gives formal permission. Ghi nh: * Approval cng c dng s nhiu c ngha l nhng tuyn b chnh thc tn thnh. * Cu trc cu: Give approval for smth/to + V: Tn thnh ci g/lm g (Ng cnh 01). * approval from/by (sbd): s tn thnh t/bi (ai) (Ng cnh 02). * Ngi hoc nhm ngi tn thnh l nhng ngi c thm quyn. *. ng t approve smth: tn thnh (ci g) ***************************************************

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Nhm 04: exempt, excuse 1. exempt: min, khng phi thc hin Ng cnh 01: The highway code exempts motorcyclists from paying tools. Din t tng ng: The law says it is okay for motorcyclists to not pay tolls (A toll is an amount of money collected from the people who use the road). Ng cnh 02: People whose religious beliefs forbid making war were exempted from military service. Din t tng ng: If someones religion did not allow fighting in a war, that person did not have to serve in the army or navy or airforce. Ghi nh: * Cu trc to exempt sbd from (an obligation or a duty). * Ch ng thng gp: cc lut (laws), quy tc, ni quy (rules), cc h thng (systems). * exempt cng l tnh t trong cu trc: be exempt from (smth) hoc dng cu trc b ng nh mt ng t. (be exempted from) nhng dng b ng ny t ph bin. 2. excuse: min cho Ng cnh 01: Harding asked to be excused from the meeting because he had a headache. Din t tng ng: Harding asked someone to give him permission not to go to the meeting (or to leave a meeting that had already started) because his head hurt. Ng cnh 02: The need to develop economically does not excuse the government from enforcing environment protection laws. Din t tng ng: The countrys need to grow economically does not make it okay for the government to let people break laws that would protect the natural environment. 71
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Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: t ch ngi (persons) (Ng cnh 01). * Cu trc excuse smth: th li, b qu cho (li), bo cha chuyn g. * Cu trc to be excused from (smth)/v-ing: c min lm g. (Ng cnh 01) * Cu trc excuse sbd from v-ing/smth: min tr (ai) lm (g). (Ng cnh 02) Nhm 05: facilitate, ease 1. facilitate: lm cho d dng, to iu kin d dng Ng cnh 01: You could facilitate the discussion by circulating your proposals before the meeting. Din t tng ng: If you pass out copies of your proposals before the meeting, talking about them will be easier. Ng cnh 02: Opening the lid slightly will facilitate evaporation. Din t tng ng: If you open the top of container a little bit, the liquid will more easily turn to gas and go up into the air. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch hnh ng (actions), iu kin (conditions), qu trnh (processes), ngi (people). * Tn ng thng l t ch mt qu trnh, hay mt hot ng (activity). * Thng dng trong ng cnh ca cc cuc hp (meetings), mi quan h (relationships) hoc cc cuc tho lun (discussions). 2. ease: lm du i, ni lng Ng cnh 01: Proper financial planning can ease the process of retirement. Din t tng ng: If you do a good job of planning what to do with your money, it can be easier for you when you stop having a job. Ng cnh 02: The World Bank hoped to ease the countrys transition to a market economy. 72
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Din t tng ng: The World Bank hoped to make it easier for the country to change to an economic system controlled mostly by the needs and wants of buyers and sellers, not mostly by the government. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng l t ch hnh ng (actions) hay qu trnh (Ng cnh 01), hoc ngi hoc nhm ngi (Ng cnh 02). * Tn ng lun l t ch mt qu trnh (c s thay i) hay mt iu kin. * Tn ng thng gp: transition (s chuyn tip, s qu ), pain (s au n), hoc suffering (chu ng). Nhm 06: clear the way for, remove obstacles to 1. clear the way for: dn ng cho Ng cnh 01: Bobs resignation clears the way for Alice to become vice pressident. Din t tng ng: Bob left his job. Now there is nothing blocking Alice from becoming vice president. Ng cnh 02: The collapse of the central government cleared the way for by vicious gangs. Din t tng ng: After the nations central government fell apart, it was easier for groups of violent people to take control. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: cc t ch s kin (events), hnh ng (actions), iu kin (conditions). * Thng dng khi vit v cc t chc (organizations), cng ty (companies), t chc chnh tr (politics). * Cc cm t dng tng ng: clear the path for, smooth the way for 2. remove obstacles to: d b nhng tr ngi Ng cnh 01: The Smith familys donation removed a huge obstacle to the universitys expansion.

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Din t tng ng: The Smith family gave some money to the university. This would make it easier for the university to expand. [ The obstacle is understood to be lack of money]. Ng cnh 02: By passing the English test, Martha removed the last obstacle to beginning her Ph.D. programme. Din t tng ng: Martha had not been able to start her studies for a doctoral degree, but passing the English test made it possible for her to start. Ghi nh: * C th dng tnh t trc obstacle : huge, last,etc,. * Ch ng thng l cc t ch qu trnh hay hnh ng. (Ng cnh 01) * Cc cm t dng tng ng: take away an obstacle to, remove a barrier to, remove a roadblock to. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Ti liu chia s ti DIN N HC TING ANH Admin: Trn Mnh Trung

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CH 09 CC CCH DIN T S DNG LI V S NGN CHN Nhm 01: halt, cease, suspend 1. halt: lm cho dng li Ng cnh 01: The new law required American companies to halt exports of computer technology to the republic of Briggandia. Din t tng ng: The new law said that American companies could no longer ship computer equipment or plans to the republic of Briggandia. Ng cnh 02: Work on the new mall halted after interest rates rose. Din t tng ng: Work on the new very large shopping center stopped after it became more expensive to borrow money. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp khi l ngoi ng t: lut (laws), quan chc hoc c quan ca chnh ph (government officials or divisions), nhng tnh hung kh khn (difficult circumstances) hoc nhwgx tr ngi (obstacles). * Tn ng thng gp: chin tranh (war), chin u (fighting), chin dch (campaign), s sn xut (production), t ch qu trnh hay s kin (processes or events). * Mt s cu trc thng gp: - bring smth to a halt - call a halt to smth - come to a halt - grind to a halt: t t dng li - coast / roll to a halt - screech to a halt: dng li t ngt 2. cease : kt thc, dng Ng cnh 01: The storm raged on day after day, and we began to wonder whether the rain would ever cease. 75
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Din t tng ng: The storm continued with violent force day after day, and we started to wonder whether the rain would ever stop. Ng cnh 02: As wages in the private sector rose, government employment ceased to attract many talented young people. Din t tng ng: As jobs with private companies paid more and more money, jobs with the government stopped drawing in many young people who were smart and had the ability to do good work. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp ca dng ni ng t (intransitive form): qu trnh (processes), s kin (events), iu kin (conditions) (ng cnh 01). * Tn ng ca dng ngoi ng t thng l: qu trnh (processes) hoc s kin (events), thng l dng nguyn th c to ng trc hoc dng ving. (Ng cnh 02) 3. suspend: nh ch, tm dng Ng cnh 01: To encourage people to return books, the library declared an amnesty period, during which it suspended fines for oeverdue materials. Din t tng ng: To get people to return books, the library declared an amnesty perioda time when it temporarily stopped requiring people to pay fines (money they must pay as a punishment) for materials that were not returned on time. Ng cnh 02: Last November, classes were suspended indefinitely because of campus unrest. Din t tng ng: Last November, classes stopped being held because there were protests and occasional fights on the property of the college and this stoppage was indefinite (no one knew how long it would last). Ghi nh: * Ch ng trong cu ch ng thng l ngi hoc l t chc hoc mt nhn t no gy ra s nh ch hoc tm dng (ng cnh 01). * Cc tn ng thng gp: lut, quy ch, quy tc, bn n, cc t ch qu trnh, hnh ng, iu kin, s kin hoc hi hp. * Thng dng dng b ng (ng cnh 2). * Mt s cu trc cu thng gp: 76
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- suspend sentence: nh ch bn n - suspend smth indefinitely: nh ch ci g v thi hn *************************************************** Nhm 02: restrict, restrain 1. restrict: hn ch Ng cnh 01: Though he was not formally under arrest, General Bosevichs movements were restricted to a 2-square-kilometre area near his party headquaters. Din t tng ng: Although he was not actually being held by the police, General Bosevich was allowed to move around only within an area of about 2 square kilometres near the place where his party had its offices. Ng cnh 02: Rising fuel prices have restricted the growth of FlightComp Airlines during the past few years. Din t tng ng: Higher prices for fuel have kept FlightComp Airlines from growing as fast as it otherwise would have grown during the past few years. Ghi nh: * Thng c gii t to i sau phm vi hiu lc hn ch (khu vc, mt phn hoc nhm). (Ng cnh 01) * Tn ng thng gp ca cu ch ng: phm vi, s di chuyn, s lng, hnh ng, quyn lc, hnh vi. * Ch ng thng l ngi hay s vt to ra hn ch, tn ng l vt b hn ch. * Thng dng trong cu b ng. * Cu trc: restrict oneself : t hn ch 2. restrain : km gi, kim ch, cn tr Ng cnh 01: The seawall at Port Burke can control ordinary waves but could not restrain the fury of a tidal wave.

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Din t tng ng: The seawall (a wall stretching out from the shore into the water) at Port Burke can keep ordinary waves from causing truoble but would not be able to limit the destructive forrce of a tidal wave. (A tidal wave is a large wave caused by an earthquake, a vocanic eruption, or some other large force). Ng cnh 02: Only a direct appeal from the religious leaders restrained people in their violent protests against the president. Din t tng ng: The people who were demonstrating against the president were held back from becoming more violent only after religious leaders made a direct request. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng gp: t ch ngi(people), t chc (organizations), lut (laws), c cu (structures) hoc dng c (instruments). * Tn ng thng l ngi hoc mt lc lng ngi. * Gii t in thng c dng trc cm t ch hnh ng b hn ch (Ng cnh 02). * Cu trc: restrain oneself : t km ch *************************************************** Nhm 03: forbid, deny 1. forbid: cm, ngn cm Ng cnh 01: The law in Forgonia forbid marriage between people of different religions. Din t tng ng: The law in Forgonia says that people may not get married if they belong to different religions. Ng cnh 02: Throughout the peace talks there was a news blackout, during which members of delegations were forbidden to talk to the press.

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Din t tng ng: While officials were trying to agree about a way to stop a war, the people on each side of these talks were not allowed to speak to reporters from newspapres or other media. Ghi nh: * Thng dng trong ng cnh mt tuyn b chnh thc. * Khi ng t dng ch ng (active form) (Ng cnh 01): - Ch ng thng dng: cc lut (laws), quy tc, quy ch (rules), cc c quan chnh ph (governmental bodies), ngi c quyn lc. - Cu trc tn ng thng dng (Ng cnh 01): + Cm danh t n (simple noun phrase). + Danh ng t (gerunds) (v-ing form of a verb) (V d: The Park Board forbids swimming after Labour Day) + Cm danh t + ng t nguyn th c to ng trc. (V d: The law forbids people of different religions to marry) *. Khi ng t dng b ng (Ng cnh 02) - Dng V-ing c th lm ch ng (Vi d: Talking to the press was forbidden) 2. deny: t chi Ng cnh 01: (active) The department chair denied our request for more research funding. (passive) Our request for more research funding was denied by the department chair. Din t tng ng: The person in charge of our department said that we could not have more money to conduct our research. Ng cnh 02: (active) The government denied foreign researchers access to files describing weapons technology. (passive 01) Foreign researchers were denied access to files describing weapons technology. (passive 02) Access to files describing weapons technology was denied to foreign researchers. Din t tng ng: Foreign researchers from other countries were not allowed to get into files that described ways of making weapons.

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Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng dng b ng v c th c 02 tn ng lm ch ng ca 02 cu b ng. * Trong cu ch ng thng thng (ng cnh 01) ch ng thng l ngi (people) hoc t chc (organizations) c quyn lc. Tn ng lun l mt t ch yu cu (requests, petitions, applications, appeals, ) * ng t ny cn c mt ngha khc l PH NHN. *************************************************** Nhm 04: prevent, forestall 1. prevent: ngn chn, phng Ng cnh 01: Wise decisions by the director of the Central Bank prevented the economy from collapsing. Din t tng ng: Good decisions by the person in charge the Central Bank stopped the economy from falling apart. Ng cnh 02: A vaccine prevents disease, whereas a therapy treats disease that has already gotten under way. Din t tng ng: A vaccine makes it difficult for a disease to infect a person, but a therapy deals with a disease that has already started. (A vaccine is a weak form of a disease or of some related disease that is given to a person to build up immunity to serious infection). Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng dng th b ng trong cu trc: to be prevented from (smth/v-ing) (V d: We were prevented from entering the building). * ng t ny cng c th dng trong cu trc ch ng: to prevent someone/something from smth/v-ing. * Tn ng thng dng: t ch qu trnh (process), s kin (events) hoc iu kin (conditions). (V d: crime, disease, outbreak, loss, recurrence). * Danh t prevention thng dng trong cc t ghp: disease prevention, crime prevention, suicide prevention, decay prevention, fire prevention.

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2. forestall: chn trc Ng cnh 01: The sales of our shares in Condorco was forestalled by legal action against the company. Din t tng ng: We had hoped to sell our shares in Condorco, but we could not because the company was being taken to court. Ng cnh 02: Swift action by the prime minister forestalled the failure of the nations fuel-distribution system. Din t tng ng: Because the prime minister acted quickly, the nations system for getting fuel to many different places did not fall apart. Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng dng: cc t ch ngi, hnh ng, cc iu kin. * Tn ng thng dng: cc t ch vic tn cng, chin tranh, thm ha (Ng cnh 02), sswj kin, qu trnh, hnh ng (Ng cnh 01) v cc iu kin. * Thng dng trong cu b ng. Nhm 05: hinder, block, deter 1. hinder: cn tr, gy tr ngi Ng cnh 01: Opposion from religious groups hinder the passage of laws allowing the sale of alcohol in grocery stores. Din t tng ng: Because religious groups did not like laws that would permit the sale of alcoholic drinks in most food stores, passing such laws became more difficult. Ng cnh 02: Repeated equipment failures and power outages hindered Gordon in his research. Din t tng ng: Gordons research was slower and more difficult because his machines kept breaking down and he often had no electrical power.

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Ghi nh: * Ch ng thng dng: cc iu kin, cc s kin, nhng nhn t khng mong mun, con ngi, quy tc, ni quy. * Tn ng cng c th l ngi hoc nhm ngi (Ng cnh 02) nhng tn ng cng c th l vt hay s vt v d: progress, pursuit, effort, development, growth hoc mt s t ch qu trnh hoc hot ng (Ng cnh 01). * Khi tn ng l ngi thng c gii t in i sau ch qu trnh b cn tr. (Ng cnh 02). i khi c th dng from. V d: The weather hindered him from completing his around the world balloon trip. 2. block : gy tr ngi, cn tr, phong ta Ng cnh 01: After blocking Princess Marias rise to the throne, Queen Filomina had her imprisoned on the island of Servona. Din t tng ng: After making sure that Princess Maria did not become queen, Filomina (who did become queen) put Maria in a jail on the island of Servona. Ng cnh 02: Aspirin helps relieve pain because it blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins, which the body would otherwwise produce in great amounts after an injury. Din t tng ng: Aspirin (A drug that contains salicylic acid; C7H6C3) helps reduce pain levels because it stops the bodys normal production of a hormonelike chemical called prostaglandin. Without aspirin, the body would normally make a lot of prostaglandin after a person got hurt. Ghi nh: * ng t ny thng dng trong y hc, ha hc hoc chnh tr. * Tn ng thng dng: path, attempt, process, progress, pain, v cc t ch qu trnh khc, hnh ng ang xy ra, hoc tuyn ng i. * Tn ng cng c th l mt ngi hoc nhm ngi trong cu trc: block somebody from /in something / v-ing. V d: Johnson was blocked from reforming the department hoc Johnson was blocked in his efforts to reform the department.

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3. deter: ngn cn s c gng Ng cnh 01: An outcry from environmentalists deterred TreeHarvester, Inc., from cutting down 200-year-old cedars. Din t tng ng: A strong, loud protest from environmentalists made TreeHarvester, Inc., decide not to cut down some very old cedar trees. Ng cnh 02: An increase in the number of shore patrols deterred drug traficking along the Louisiana coast. Din t tng ng: Because more police were travellig along the Louisiana coast, looking for illegal activity, there was less smuggling of illegal drugs into the country in that area. Ghi nh: * Tn ng c th l mt ngi hoc nhm ngi (ng cnh 01) hoc mt hot ng (Ng cnh 02). * Cu trc cu thng dng: - to deter somebody from something/ v-ing (Ng cnh 01). - to deter somebody in something. V d: deterred TreeHarvester Inc., in their plan to cut down 200-year-old cedars). * Cc danh t deterrence: s rn e, s ngn chn v deterrent: vt rn e, vt ngn chn thng dng trong qun s v lin quan n v kh ht nhn. V d: A nuclear deterrent is a supply of nuclear weapons that will discourage other countries from attacking. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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