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Onboard Energy Storage: The experience of a Tramway Manufacturer

Jean-Paul Moskowitz
13/04/2010

TRANSPORT

Agenda

Market requirements Energy needs

Page 2

Energy Storage technologies : Flywheel

Page 14

Energy Storage technologies : NiMH Batteries

Page 23

Energy Storage technologies : Supercapacitors: STEEM project

Page 28

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 2

The need for clean public urban transport keeps growing


with new market expectations
Visual impact: no overhead contact line autonomy Energy optimisation
From a crossroad ...
(e.g. Nizza, ~500m)

to the preservation of a whole historical city center


(e.g. Bordeaux, ~30% line)

consumption reduction reduction in peak power required from power supply network

and usual constraints


Acquisition Cost, Life Cycle Cost Availability, Safety (fire/smoke ) Weight, volume, axle load Noise, shock, vibration Remain a zero-emission vehicle Keep passenger capacity unchanged
Dublin (IRL)

Bordeaux(F)

Barcelona (S)
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 3

Lyon (F)

Erasing the OverHead Contact Line: makes tramway integration into the city easier

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 4

Erasing the OverHead Contact Line: makes tramway integration into the city easier

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 5

Erasing the OverHead Contact Line: makes tramway integration into the city easier

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 6

Copyright: CANCA/Eric Boizet

Typical tramway operators requirements over a catenaryless section


Nominal trip:
Speed >= 30 km/h with no unscheduled stop

Heavy traffic:
Reduced speed, twice the nominal time

Tramway stopped:
Possibility to have one, two or three non scheduled stops between regular passenger exchange stations

Failed train:
Allow push-pull operation by another train

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 7

Braking energy recovery


Braking energy recovery WITHOUT Onboard Energy Storage System (ESS)

Sub-station

Traction

Braking
Rheostatic losses Grid restitution

Electric Sub-station Recovery

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 8

Braking energy recovery


Braking energy recovery WITH Onboard Energy Storage System (ESS)

TractionTraction Sub-station
Electric Sub-station ESS discharge Recovery

Braking
Rheostatic losses ESS recharge Grid restitution

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 9

Erasing the OverHead Contact Line


Partial Autonomy (~400m) with Onboard Energy Storage System (ESS)

ESS discharge

Traction Energy

Refill

ESS Recharge from Substation while Stopped in passenger station

ESS Recharge Rheostatic losses

Braking Energy

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 10

Typical tramway figures


Some vehicle orders of magnitude
Vehicle length 30 m 40 m

weight: Mean consumption: Peak power: Mean power: inc. auxiliaries: Life time:

40 t (empty) to 60 t (6 passagers/m) 4-5 kWh/km 650 to 900 kW 80 to 150 kW 15 to 60 kW 30 years

50 t (empty) to 80 t (6 passagers/m) 6-7 kWh/km 1000 to 1300 kW 100 to 180 kW 15 to 80 kW 30 years

Some tramway line characteristics


Average distance between stations: 400 m Yearly tram mileage: 60 000 km Mean stop time in station: 20 s
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 11

Energy consumption (40m tram)


Influence of auxiliaries
AW0 / Paux=18kW Energie CdT + Aux (kWh) = f(Vmax, pente)

7 6 5 E (kWh) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200

AW0 / Paux=45kW Energie CdT + Aux (kWh) = f(Vmax, pente)

0% - 30km/h 0% - 20 km/h 2% - 30 km/h 2% - 20km/h 4% - 30km/h


E (kWh)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
300 d (m) 400 500 600 700

0% - 30km/h 0% - 20 km/h 2% - 30 km/h 2% - 20km/h 4% - 30km/h

100

200

300 d (m) 400

500

600

700

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 12

Energy consumption (40m tram)


Influence of passenger load
AW0 / Paux=45kW Energie CdT + Aux (kWh) = f(Vmax, pente)

AW0 : Empty

7 6 5 E (kWh) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100

0% - 30km/h 0% - 20 km/h 2% - 30 km/h 2% - 20km/h 4% - 30km/h

AW3 / Paux=45kW Energie CdT + Aux (kWh) = f(Vmax, pente)


200 300 d (m) 400 500 600 700

AW3 : 6 pax. / m

10 9

9 8 7 6 E (kWh) 5 4 3 2 1

AW2 / Paux=45kW Energie CdT + Aux (kWh) = f(Vmax, pente)

AW2 : 4 pax / m

8 7 E (kWh) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

0% - 30km/h 0% - 20 km/h 2% - 30 km/h 2% - 20km/h 4% - 30km/h

0% - 30km/h 0% - 20 km/h 2% - 30 km/h 2% - 20km/h 4% - 30km/h

100

200

300 d (m) 400

500

600

700

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 13


0 0 100 200 300 d (m) 400 500 600 700

Key parameters
Autonomy: erasing the OverHead Contact Line
Energy consumption depends on: gradient, load, speed, auxiliaries ... Operational conditions: number of unscheduled stops, comfort level (HVAC)... Availability is of paramount importance Degraded modes are key factors High amount of energy is required

Economy: for an even better braking energy recovery


60 000 km/year 400m/interstation 150 000 cycles/year in nominal mode

Lifetime and cyclability are essential

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 14

Technologies to meet market requirements Erasing catenary


APS NiMH batteries

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Technologies to meet market requirements Erasing catenary


APS NiMH batteries

Reversible Sub-station

Economy
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 16

Technologies to meet market requirements Erasing catenary


APS NiMH batteries

supercapacitors

Reversible Sub-station

Economy
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 17

Technologies to meet market requirements Erasing catenary


APS Flywheel supercapacitors Li-Ion batteries NiMH batteries

Reversible Sub-station

Economy
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 18

Agenda

Market requirements Energy needs

Page 2

Energy Storage technologies : Flywheel

Page 14

Energy Storage technologies : NiMH Batteries

Page 23

Energy Storage technologies : Supercapacitors: STEEM project

Page 28

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 19

Energy Storage technologies : Flywheel Rotterdam experience

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 20

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel


Schematic view of Flywheel Motor/Generator Unit

Magnetic unit rotor Bearing unit Stator Cooling unit Containment unit

Function of the electronic power converter

Storage of electric power : conversion to kinetic energy

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 21

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel Rotterdam Experience

Dimensions (mm): 2300x1400x514 Weight (all inc.): 1200 kg Power max.: 325 kW Power continous: 213 kW Usable energy: 4 kWh
SOC -0.33 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 rotation speed (rpm) 0 11 000 13 914 16 316 18 407 20 283 22 000 stored energy (kWh) 0 1.33 2.13 2.93 3.73 4.53 5.33 usable energy (kWh) 0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 22

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel Rotterdam Experience


Performances for autonomy
AW0 max: 2 km - 50 km/h AW3 max: 1.5 km - 45 km/h
(without heating)

Mean interstation in AW3: 500 m 45 km/h - 0,45 m/s (see figures)

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 23

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel Rotterdam Experience


Performances under catenary (1/3) : peak shaving

Without Flywheel : I panto max = 1000A


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 24

With Flywheel : I panto max = 700A Idc FW (A) Ipanto (A)

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel Rotterdam Experience


Performances under catenary (2/3) : smoothing catenary voltage

Without Flywheel

With Flywheel

Rotterdam nominal voltage is 600V (not 750 V)


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 25

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel Rotterdam Experience


Performances under catenary (3/3): braking energy recovery

Without Flywheel: Prheo = 300 kW


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 26

Pdc FW (kW) Ppanto (kW) Prheo (kW)

With Flywheel: Prheo = 0 kW

Energy Storage technologies: Flywheel


Good balance Energy/Power

Actual equipments are prototypes which have not yet reached industrial maturity: Weight/volume optimisation Industrialisation process Improved reliability and safety

Ongoing R&D project, with the support of ANR, aims at developing the product suiting railways constraints.

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 27

Agenda

Market requirements Energy needs

Page 2

Energy Storage technologies : Flywheel

Page 14

Energy Storage technologies : NiMH Batteries

Page 23

Energy Storage technologies : Supercapacitors: STEEM project

Page 28

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 28

Energy Storage technologies: NiMH batteries Partial Autonomy in Nice (F)


Switchgear box BTMS (Battery Thermal
Management System)

Charger

Battery box

Batteries NiMH SAFT: NHP 10-340 68 modules - 12V each Operating temperature : 25 C - cooling: glycoled water Max power (end of life): 200 kW Useful capacity: 34 Ah
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 29

Energy Storage technologies: NiMH batteries Partial Autonomy in Nice (F)

Switchgear box

Charger box Battery box


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 30

Energy Storage technologies: NiMH batteries Partial Autonomy in Nice (F)


Battery box
Batteries Modules Pantograph support Fans

Voltage temperature measure board

Fuses Accessories compartment


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 31

Energy Storage technologies: NiMH batteries Partial Autonomy in Nice (F)


CENTRE DE MAINTENANCE Comte de Falicon Pont Michel

4100 m 3200 m Garribaldi 485 m 332 m Jean Mdecin Jean Jaurs Massna 435 m

Nice Line 1

Revenue service in november 2007 8,7 km, 21 stations, 20 Citadis 302 trams No overhead wires on places Massna (435 m) and Garibaldi (485 m) Battery contractual lifetime: 5 years, i.e. 35 000 cycles

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 32

Agenda

Market requirements Energy needs

Page 2

Energy Storage technologies : Flywheel

Page 14

Energy Storage technologies : NiMH Batteries

Page 23

Energy Storage technologies : Supercapacitors: STEEM project

Page 28

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 33

Energy Storage technologies: Supercapacitors STEEM project (ALSTOM RATP supported by ADEME)
R&D project between Alstom Transport, RATP and INRETS, with the support of ADEME under PREDIT national funding program
Experience objectives : Operate between 2 stations with pantograph lowered Evaluate energy savings Test quick recharge in depot Acquire REX on supercapacitors, their behaviour Acquire REX on the operation of a tram with supercapacitors

RATP T3: 7.9 km 17 stations 21 Citadis 402


(18 during peak hours)

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STEEM : Energy consumption simulations for T3 line

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STEEM : energy needed for catenaryless runs

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Bd Victor
Balard Desnouettes Pte Versailles G. Brassens Brancion Pte de Vanves Didot Jean Moulin Pte dOrlans Montsouris Cit Universitaire Stade Charlty Peupliers Pte dItalie Pte de Choisy

Pte dIvry Pte dIvry

Autonomy zone
AW3 : 6 pax / m

Pte de Choisy Pte dItalie Peupliers Stade Charlty Cit Universitaire Montsouris Pte dOrlans Jean Moulin Didot Pte de Vanves Brancion G. Brassens Pte Versailles Desnouettes Balard

Bd Victor
1,6kWh

STEEM : Use of Batscap modules

U = 50 V U = 2,5 V

Cell: 2600F

1 module = 20 cells connected in series

STEEM supercaps box: 48 modules, 6 branches in parallel, each with 8 modules in series
U = 400 V
W utile = 1,62 KWh P soc 0 = 350 KW P soc 1 = 500 KW
Msc=720 kg Recharge time < 20 s
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 37

STEEM : supercaps modules and chopper


Supercaps

Power Electronics V= 2300 x 1600 x 590 mm Weight : 1350kg


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 38

STEEM: Installation of supercapacitors on roof of RATP Citadis

ESS box: supercaps and chopper


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 39

STEEM: Modifications in drivers cab


FREINS
M1 NM NP M2

MODE
M1 NM M2

30
Km/h
Dfauts
32 31 25 23 26 24 21 22

S S S S

N N N

12 11

14 16 13 15

Disjoncteur principal 750 V Disjoncteur SATEE


5%

Prsence tensions

24 V
Exploitation Divers

400 V

750 V
Tests

Et du Etat du tram

Retour cran ICS


Maintenance

Drivers screen

buttons

commutators

3 driving modes : By catenary with ESS support : ECO mode (onboard braking energy recovery) Without catenary, only ESS :AUTONOMY mode (between Porte dItalie and Porte de Choisy) Only by catenary (T3 actual tram)
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 40

STEEM: Operation in revenue service end of March

15 761 km with 998 round trips


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 41

STEEM performances in autonomy

Porte dItalie-Porte de Choisy (300m) night in AW3 (6 passengers/m) With passengers in revenue service

: tested at

In manual mode or automatic mode (detection by GPS)

IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 42

STEEM performances in Ecomode : up to 30%


Braking energy stored in supercaps is reused for acceleration and auxiliaries during next traction phase Comparison with another tram in operation at the same time These preliminaries result must be watched over a long period of time to avoid bias

Comparison of energy consumption


300 250 Energy (kWh) 200 150 100 50 0 14:55:00

16:07:00

17:19:00 Tim e STEEM tram

18:31:00

19:43:00

Classic tram

Influencing parameters peak/off-peak hours auxiliaries consumption (HVAC, depending on temperature)


IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 43

driving

Advantages of onboard energy storage

Supercapacitors allow both autonomy and economy modes OverHead Contact Line removal on some parts of the line, for aesthetic reasons, construction requests, depending on operational conditions Energy savings up to 30% CO2 reduction Reduction of peak power demand Smoothing of supply voltage Safe operation (STEEM certification by Certifer)
IET RTS 2010 ; 13 - 15 April 2010, Birmingham, UK - P 44

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