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1. Defi e !"e #!$%&e #!f'()%e. O"e #!$%&e #!f'()%e is software, which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. The open source software is a flexible one. Example: GNU !inux operating systems, GNU "ompiler "ollection, open

2. W*)' i# GNU+ GNU # $ free software movement whose acronym stands recursively for ,GNU-# N!' U i.., GNU was started in %&'( as a means to create an entire system of software, including operating systems, programming languages, and applications that are all free. )n this context free means free of cost, free to distribute, free to modify, and free to distribute modified versions. 3. W*)' )%e '*e )/0) ')1e# !f !"e #!$%&e+ The availability of the source code and the right to modify The right to redistribute modifications and improvements to the code The right to use the software in any way.

2. W*)' )%e '*e /i#)/0) ')1e# !f O"e #!$%&e+ There is no one with the power to restrict in a unilateral way how the software is used, even in a retroactive way There is no single entity on which the future of the software depends No **blac+ boxes,, are possible There is always the possibility of **for+ing,,, or creating an alternative code base if the current one is in some way perceived as wrongly managed No per#copy fees can be as+ed for modified versions, and anyone can use the current code base to start new pro-ects. There are fewer conflicting priorities due to mar+eting pressures.

3. W*)' )%e '*e )/0) ')1e# ) / Di#)/0) ')1e# !f Li $.+

A/0) ')1e#4 !inux is free .ortable to any hardware platform /ecure and versatile /calable Easy to install )nteroperability 0ultiuser capability

Di#)/0) ')1e#4 / 1 /election 0igrating to existing system Training needs to new user.

5. W*)' )%e '*e B)#i& $#e# !f GNU6Li $.+ The GNU !inux speciali2ed for different purposes including: "omputer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, locali2ation to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real#time applications, or commitment to a given des+top environment. The +ernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer#created operating system, such as M)&i '!#* &!7"$'e%#8 PDA#8 0i/e! 1)7e &! #!9e#8 "!%'):9e 7$#i& "9);e%#8 ) / 7!:i9e "*! e#. <. W*)' )%e '*e &!7"! e '# !f Li $. #;#'e7+ The !inux system has three main bodies of code, in se3uence with, most conventional UN)4 implementations. The +ernel The system libraries The system utilities

=. Gi0e Li $. Fi9e #;#'e7 Hie%)%&*;

>. W*)' /! ;!$ 7e) :; *)%/()%e+ 5ardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of the technology )t may also mean the physical components of computer system in the form of computer hardware. Example: ." hardware6s li+e motherboard, display adapter, etc,

1?. Di#&$## ):!$' /i#@ ")%'i'i! . Di#@ ")%'i'i! i 1 is the act of dividing the storage space of a hard dis+ drive into separate data areas +nown as partitions. $ partition editor program can be used to create, delete or modify these partitions. The types of partitions are primary and extended partitions. 11. W*)' )%e '*e ';"e# !f ")%'i'i! #+ E."9)i . "ommonly there are two types of partitions. .rimary: $ primary partition contains one file system. Extended: $n extended partition is a primary partition which contains secondary partition(s). $ hard dis+ may contain only one extended partition7 which can then be sub#divided into logical drives. 12. Di#&$## ):!$' Li $. ")%'i'i! #. !inux des+top systems often use the following partitions: a single ,6, 8root directory9 containing the entire file system, a smaller A#()"B partition and a A6:!!'B partition. 13. Defi e :!!'#'%)" 9!)/e%. 1hen a computer is first turned on or restarted, a special type of absolute loader, called boot strap loader is executed. This bootstrap loads the first program to be run by the computer.

12. Defi e Ce% e9. The @e% e9 is the central component of most computer operating systems. )ts responsibilities include managing the system,s resources 8the communication between hardware and software components9.

13. W*)' i# fi9e #;#'e7+ $ fi9e #;#'e7 is a method for storing and organi2ing computer files and the data they contain to ma+e it easy to find and access them. :ile systems may use a data storage device such as a hard dis+. Example: :$T, NT:/, etc, 15. W*)' )%e '*e ';"e# !f Fi9e #;#'e7+ ;is+ file system :lash file system ;atabase file system Transactional file system Networ+ file system

1<. W*)' i# /i#'%i:$'i! !f ) !"e%)'i 1 #;#'e7+ W%i'e ):!$' Li $. /i#'%i:$'i! #. The operating system distributions are developed based on the operating system +ernel, adding enhancements, pac+aged with software and tools for installation and configuration. These are compiled by individuals. Example: !inux distributions li+e <ed 5at, fedora, /u/E, 0andra+e, ;ebian and gentoo, etc, 1=. W*)' i# 9!1 fi9e+ Log files are files that contain messages about the system, including the +ernel, services, and applications running on it. There are different log files for different information. :or example, there is a default system log file, a log file -ust for security messages. !og files can be very useful if you are trying to troubleshoot a problem with the system. 1>. Defi e e'(!%@+ $ computer networ+ is a system which is an interconnected collection of autonomous computer,s to exchange information. )t is mainly used to share files, programs and other resources.

2?. T;"e# !f Ne'(!%@# .ersonal area networ+ 8.$N9 !ocal area networ+ 8!$N9 "ampus area networ+ 8"$N9 0etropolitan area networ+ 80$N9 1ide area networ+ 81$N9 Global area networ+s 8G$N9

21. Defi e P%!'!&!9. $ protocol is a set of rules. )t defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as the action ta+en on the transmission and receipt of a message or other event. 22. Defi e TCP. 23. Defi e IP. ). means )nternet protocol )t is an addressing protocol, it specifies the format of the information that is sent and received among routers and the end system. 22. A/0) ')1e# !f TCP. <eliable "onnection =riented Guarantied data delivery T". means Transmission "ontrol .rotocol. )t is a "onnection#oriented transport protocol of the )nternet architecture. T". provides a reliable, byte#stream delivery service.

23. Defi e %!$'e%. R!$'e%# are networ+ing devices that forward data pac+ets between networ+s using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path to forward the pac+ets. <outers wor+ at the networ+ layer. 25. Defi e R!$'i 1. R!$'i 1 is the process of selecting paths in a networ+. )t is performed by router. <outing is performed for many +inds of networ+s, including the telephone networ+, electronic data networ+s 8such as the )nternet9, and transportation networ+s.

2<. Di#&$## ):!$' P)##(!%/ A$'*e 'i&)'i! P%!'!&!9 DPAPE. .assword $uthentication .rotocol 8.$.9 is a simple authentication protocol in which the user name and password is sent to the remote access server in a plaintext 8unencrypted9 form. Using .$. is strongly discouraged because your passwords are easily readable from the .oint#to#.oint .rotocol 8...9 pac+ets exchanged during the authentication process. 2=. Defi e i 'e% e'. W*)' )%e '*e ';"e# !f i 'e% e' &! )t is a networ+ of networ+. )t consists of huge connection of computer networ+s spread around the entire planet. The uses of internet are E#mail, Newsgroup, /earching and etc, e&'i! +

12 M)%@ F$e#'i! ) / A #(e%# 1. I #')99 ) GNU6Li $. /i#'%i:$'i! (i'* ) #$i'):9e e.)7"9e. The installation procedure for the <ed 5at !inux ;istribution: /tart installation "hoose )nstallation method > > > > > "; ? <=0 N:/ :T. 5TT. 5ard derive

"hoose boot loader > > G<U@ 8Grand Unified @oot !oader9 !)!= 8!inux !oader9

0edia chec+ "hoose !anguage "hoose +eyboard, mouse "hoose install type > > > > .ersonal des+top 1or+station /erver "ustom install

"hoose partition strategy > $utomatic .artition > <emove all !inux .artitions of the system <emove all partitions of the system Aeep all partitions and use exiting free space

0anually .artition with ;is+ ;ruid Using ;is+ ;ruid ma+e the following partitions /wap partition boot partition <oot8B C9 partition


0anually partition with fdis+

"onfiguring and installing boot loader > > The master boot record The first sector of the boot partition

Networ+ configuration > $utomatically via ;5".


0anually configure

:irewall configuration > "hoose the level of security 5igh 0edium No firewall

$dditional language selection Time Done selection <oot password and user account .ac+age selection @oot dis+ creation "onfiguring graphical des+top "omplete the installation

2. Di#&$## ):!$' :)#i& #*e99 &!77) /# i Li $..

L!11i 1 I 9!1i Ename | optionF !og in to the system. 9!1i as+s for a username 8name can be supplied on the command line9 and password 8if appropriate9. )f successful, 9!1i updates accounting files, sets various environment variables, notifies users if they have mail, and executes startup shell files.
E.)7"9e4 9!1i 4 arun P)##(!%/4 M)@e /i%e&'!%; D7@/i%E This command is used to create a new directory. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gm+dir dirname # The name of the directory that you wish to create. G m+dir example # This would create a new directory called example. C*) 1e /i%e&'!%; D&/E "hanges the directory. S; ').4 Gcd EdirectoryF directory Gcd.. Gcd # E.)7"9e4 #Name of the directory user wishes to enter. Used to go bac+ one directory on the ma-ority of all Unix shells. )t is important that 1hen in a Aorn shell to get bac+ one directory used to go bac+ one directory.

the space be between the cd and the..

Gcd mydir# The above example would go into the mydir directory if it exists. Gcd .. home users computerhope

The above example would go bac+ one directory and then go into the home users computerhope directory. cd .. .. #Next, the above example would go bac+ two directories. "d # :inally, typing -ust cd alone will move you into the home directory. O$'"$'4 G cd example EstudentHserver exampleFG Vie( /i%e&'!%; D9#E !ist the content of a current directory. S; ').4 G9# H-!"'i! #I )7e =ptions, a d l t E.)7"9e4 G9# 9 # # # # to list all directory entries to list name of directories to list files in long form to list files sorted by name

list each of the files in the current directory and the files permissions,

the si2e of the file, date of the last modification, and the file name or directory. O$'"$'4 EstudentHserver exampleFG9# 9

C!"; /i%e&'!%; &! 'e '# D&"E "opying a file from one directory to another directory. S;# ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gcp source directory destination directory EstudentHserver IFG cp home student example <a- home student exampleJ The above command copy the contents from the directory <a- to exampleJ M!0e /i%e&'!%; D70E This is used to rename a directory. S;# ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gmv oldname newname G mv exampleJ exapmleK

Re7!0e /i%e&'!%; D%7/i%E ;eletes a directory.

S;# ').4 E.)7"9e4

Grmdir EoptionF... directory... Grmdir exampleK 8:or Empty ;irectory9 Grm #r exampleK 8:or non#empty ;irectory9

C$%%e ' /i%e&'!%; D"(/E This command displays full path of the current wor+ing directory. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gpwd Gpwd home student example

C%e)'e ) / 0ie( fi9e D&)'E $llows loo+, modifying or combining a file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 cat L filename M create file M cat filename G&)' J fi9e1 5ai 5oe are youN E%FO /topped G&)' fi9e1 5ai 5ow are youN C!"; fi9e D&"E Used to create duplicate copies of ordinary file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 M!0e ) fi9e D70E Used to rename a file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 De9e'e ) fi9e D%7E Used to delete a file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 He)/ This command displays the initial part of the file. @y default it displays first %P lines of the file. Grm filename Grm file%8file% has been removed9 Gmv oldname newnmae Gmv file% fileJ 8file% has been renamed as fileJ9 Gcp source destination Gcp file% fileJ 8file% contents were copied into fileJ9 cat Lfile% M view file M

S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 T)i9

Ghead filename Ghead file% 8)t will show the top %P lines of file%9

This command displays the later part of the file. @y default it displays first %P lines of the file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gtail filename Gtail #( file% 8)t will show the last ( lines of the file%9

Li e8 W!%/8 &*)%)&'e% &!$ 'i 1 D(&E This command is used to count the number of lines, words and characters of information contained in a file. S; ').4 =ptions, Gwc EoptionF filename l ? to count the number of lines c ? to count the number of characters w ? to count the number of words E.)7"9e4 Gwc file%

S!%' ) fi9e !% /i%e&'!%; D#!%'E Used to sort file or directory contents in ascending and descending order. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gsort filename 8ascending9 G#!%' fi9e1 ;ata structures :undamentals .roblem solving G#!%' % fi9e1 .roblem solving :undamentals ;ata structures Fi / fi9e &! 'e '# D1%e"E This command is used to find particular information in a file S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Ggrep EpatternF filename Ggrep hai file% hai Se' fi9e "e%7i##i! # D&*7!/E "hmod command is used to change the permission for the existing file. This command can be used in two ways to change the permission. They are S;7:!9i& M!/e4 S; ').4 1ho u ? User g ? Group o ? =ther Gchmod EwhoFEopcodeFEmodeF filename =pcode QO6 # add .ermission Q#Q # <emove .ermission QR6 ? $ssign $bsolute 0ode r ? read w ? 1rite x # execute Gsort ?r filename 8descending9

a ? $ll E.)7"9e4

Gchmod uOr file% 8read mode enabled to the users of the file%9

A:#!9$'e M!/e4 S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gchmod EoctalnumberF filename Gchmod S(% file%

Fi / fi9e D!%E /i%e&'!%; Dfi /E Used to find a particular file or a directory S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 9 D9i @E Establish lin+ between more than one file. The modification of one file reflects in others also. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 !/D!&')9/$7"E Used to display the ascii octal value of the file contents. S; ').4 O"'i! #8 od EoptionF filename c ? to display content of the file in characters b ? to display octal value of the content of file cd ? to display octal value and its character of the file. E.)7"9e4 od ?c file% Gln filename% filenameJ Gln ra-a surya Gfind filename Gfind file% file%

W*! )t displays user names who are all logging on a system S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gwho student pts % $pr JP %(:(P8%&J.%T.S.J9 studentJ pts J $pr JP %(:%P8%&J.%T.S.K(9 studentU pts U $pr JP %(:%S8%&J.%T.S.U9 W*! )7 i This command tells the login details of a user. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 M) The 7) command displays the online manual pages. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gman command name man ls Gwho am i student pts % $pr JP %(:(P8%&J.%T.S.J9

''; Anowing the name of the terminal. S; ').4 E&*! This command used to display the list after the +eyword echo. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 D)'e This command used to display system date information S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gdate Gdate Gdate OVm ( Gdate OVh $pril Gdate OCVhVmC $pril ( W%i'e This write command used to send message when the user logging in. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 M)i9 )t allows to send message if the user doesn6t logging in. S; ').4 Gmail username /ub-ect: message "": E.)7"9e4 Gmail student /ub-ect: hai MMMMM MMMMM Pi"e #;7:!9 The pipe enables the user to ta+e the output from command% and feed it directly into the input of commandJ.This is done the character AKB, which is placed between the two commands. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 Gcommand%WcommandJWXWcommandn GwhoWwc ?lWtemp Gwrite username message Gwrite userP% hello # To display month in character and number # To display month in character. # To display the system date and time. # To display only the month number. 0on $pr JP %U:(%:UP E;T JPP& Gecho list Gecho unix lab unix lab Gtty O$'"$'4 dev tty PJ

C!7:i i 1 &!77) /# 0ore than one command can be given in the same command line. Each command must be separated by a semicolon 879. There are two types SeL$e 'i)9 &!77) /# Give several commands on the same line by separating them with a semicolon 879 S; ').4 E.)7"9e44 C!77) / 1%!$"i 1 1e can group commands using parentheses. Each command inside the parentheses must be separated by semicolon. The grouped commands output will be sent to another file. 1e can see the output by opening the file. S; ').4 E.)7"9e4 P%!&e## 7) )1e7e '4 )n !inux process management commands are used to the following purpose: )dentifying process 0onitoring and controlling the process 0odifying and obtaining various information from process G8commnad%7commandJ9Lfilename G8date7ls ?l emp9Ltemp Gcommand17 commandJ7 command Gchmod O rwx emp7ls ? l emp

The most familiar process management commands are ps, top, pstree and +ill, etc, P#4 This command is used to display the process status S; ').4 G"# E.)7"9e4 G"# O$'"$'4 PID %P&S %P'% P1%e"4 )t provides an interface, enabling to select processes using simple pattern matching )t lists the process );s 8.);s9 of processes matching the specified pattern. Te%7i )9 pts % pts % Ti7e PP.P%.%& PP.PU.JK C!77) / bash man

S; ').4 Gpgrep EoptionF EpatternF E.)7"9e4 Gpgrep bash

Pi/!f )t enables user to locate the .rocess ); 8.);9 of a process by name S; ').4 Gpidof EoptionF process E.)7"9e4 Gpidof man P#'%ee4 .stree displays all running process as a tree with init as root. )t will display the parent ? child relationship between processes in a clear manner.

S; ').4 Gpstree EoptionsF T!"4 Top command displays real time ".U and memory usage and current system uptime information. )t is tool in every system administrator toolbox.

S; ').4 Gtop EoptionsF T9!)/4 The tload command display a real#time text mode graph of the system6s load average. S; ').4 GtloadEoptionsF Te%7i )'i 1 '*e "%!&e##4 These terminating commands are used to stop the individual or all process. Ci994 This is used to terminating the process. This is the 6:i 6@i99 command. S; ').4 G+ill EoptionF IDs E.)7"9e4 G+ill %PJ& Ci99 )994 Aill processes by command name. )f more than one process is running the specified command, +ill all of them. Treat command names that contain a 6 as files7 +ill all processes that are executing that file. S; ').4 G@i99)99 EoptionsF names M!/if;i 1 "%!&e## "%i!%i'ie#4 These commands are used to modify the running process. Ni&e4 This command enables the user to start a program with a higher or lower nice number. The priority values are B#JP to O%&C. The smaller values represent a higher priority relative to other programs S; ').4 G i&e EoptionF Ecommand EargumentsFF

Re i&e4 )t alters the scheduling priority of one or more processes. )t may be applied to a process, process group, or user 8 target9.

S; ').4 G%e i&e EpriorityF EoptionsF EtargetF

U#e% ) / 1%!$" 7) )1e7e ' These commands are used to add, remove and modify the users and groups These are the system administration commands. The root user can use these commands

U#e%)//4 This command is used to add users to the !inux system. The administrator can change the default settings for creating user. The information6s are stored in the B etc default useraddC file. S; ').4 G$#e%)// H!"'i! I )7e U#e%7!/4 The usermod command is used to modify a user account. )t ma+es the changes in the system files relating to the user accounts, such as the etc paswd, etc shadow and user group files. S; ').4 G$#e%7!/ EoptionsF user U#e%/e94 This command used to remove the user account. The userdel command does not allow the user to remove a if the user is currently logged in. $t that time the administrator may need to +ill all the process of the user in order to remove the user immediately. S; ').4 G$#e%/e9 EoptionF user G%!$")//4 This command is used to create new groups on the !inux system $ group contains more number of users The group creation is ma+es a new entry in the etc group file.

S; ').4 G1%!$")// EoptionsF group G%!$"7!/4 The groupmod command is used to modify the attributes of a group and write the changes to the system files. S; ').4 G1%!$"7!/ EoptionsF group

G%!$"/e94 This command used to remove the group account from the system. )t ma+es the necessary changes in the system files, such as the etc group file, but it does not change the group ); of the files owned by that group. The administrator needs to manually change the group ); for the files whose group owner the user have deleted. S; ').4 G1%!$"/e9 group 3. PAM - P9$11):9e A$'*e 'i&)'i! M!/$9e# Li $.-PAM )s a system of libraries that handle the authentication tas+s of applications 8services9 on the system. The library provides a stable general interface 8$pplication .rogramming )nterface # $.)9 to perform standard authentication tas+s. The principal feature of the .$0 approach is that the nature of the authentication is dynamically configurable 8the system administrator is free to choose how individual service#providing applications will authenticate users9. PAM fi9e This dynamic configuration is set by the contents of the single Li $.-PAM configuration file 6e'&6")7.&! f. $lternatively, the configuration can be set by individual configuration files located in the 6e'&6")7./6 directory. Li $.-PAM separates the tas+s of authentication into four independent management groups: )&&!$ ' management )$'*entication management ")##(!%/ management Se##i! management.

A&&!$ ' # provide account verification types of service: has the user,s password expiredN )s this user permitted access to the re3uested serviceN A$'*e 'i&)'i! # establish the user is who they claim to be. )f you are who you claim to be please enter your password. Not all authentications are of this type, there exist hardware based authentication schemes, with suitable modules.

P)##(!%/ # this group,s responsibility is the tas+ of updating authentication mechanisms. Typically, such services are strongly coupled to those of the )$'* group. /tandard UN)4 password#based access is the obvious example: please enter a replacement password.

Se##i! ?)t cover tas+s including the maintenance of audit trails and the mounting of the user,s home directory. The #e##i! management group is important as it provides both an opening and closing hoo+ for modules to affect the services available to a user.

T*e &! fi1$%)'i! fi9eD#E

These files list the PAMs that will do the authentication tas+s re3uired by this service and the appropriate behavior of the .$0#$.) in the event that individual PAMs fail. The syntax of the 6e'&6")7.&! f configuration file is as follows. The file is made up of a list of rules, each rule is typically placed on a single line, but may be extended with an escaped end of line: *YZ!:L,. "omments are preceded with *[, mar+s and extend to the next end of line.

The format of each rule is a space separated collection of to+ens, the first three being case#insensitive:

T*e fi9e fie9/# )%e8 Se%0i&e is typically the familiar name of the corresponding application: 9!1i examples. The #e%0i&e#name, !'*e%, is reserved for giving default rules. T;"e is the management group that the rule corresponds to. )t is used to specify which of the management groups the subse3uent module is to be associated with. \alid entries are: )&&!$ '7 )$'*7 ")##(!%/7 and #e##i! . C! '%!9 indicates the behavior of the .$0#$.). There are two types of syntax for this control field: the simple one has a single simple +eyword7 the more complicated one involves a s3uare#brac+eted selection of 0)9$eM)&'i! pairs. :or the simple 8historical9 syntax valid &! '%!9 values are: %eL$i#i'e %eL$i%e/ #$ffi&ie ' !"'i! )9 and #$ are good

:or the more complicated syntax valid &! '%!9 values have the following form: Evalue%Raction%0)9$e2M)&'i! 2...F

M!/$9e-")'* # this is either the full filename of the .$0 to be used by the application 8it begins with a , ,9, or a relative pathname from the default module location: 69i:6#e&$%i';6. M!/$9e-)%1$7e '# # these are a space separated list of to+ens that can be used to modify the specific behavior of the given .$0. /uch arguments will be documented for each individual module.

2. L!1 fi9e# Log files are files that contain messages about the system, including the +ernel, services, and applications running on it. There are different log files for different information. :or example, there is a default system log file, a log file -ust for security messages, and a log file for cron tas+s. !og files can be very useful when trying to troubleshoot a problem with the system such as trying to load a +ernel driver or when loo+ing for unauthori2ed log in attempts to the system. /ome log files are controlled by a daemon called syslogd. $ list of log messages maintained by syslogd can be found in the etc syslog.conf configuration file. L!&)'i 1 L!1 Fi9e# 0ost log files are located in the var log directory. /ome applications such as httpd and samba have a directory within var log for their log files. Notice the multiple files in the log file directory with numbers after them. These are created when the log files are rotated. !og files are rotated so their file si2es do not become too large. The logrotate pac+age contains a cron tas+ that automatically rotates log files according to the etc logrotate.conf configuration file and the configuration files in the etc logrotate.d directory. Vie(i 1 L!1 Fi9e# 0ost log files are in plain text format. ]ou can view them with any text editor such as Vi or E7)&#. /ome log files are readable by all users on the system7 however, root priviledges are re3uired to read most log files. To view system log files in an interactive, real#time application, use the L!1 Vie(e%. To start the application, go to the M)i Me $ B$''! 8on the .anel9 RL S;#'e7 T!!9# RL S;#'e7 L!1#, or type the command redhat#logviewer at a shell prompt.

The application only displays log files that exist7 thus, the list might differ from the one shown in :igure. To view the complete list of log files that it can view, refer to the configuration file, etc sysconfig redhat# logviewer.

@y default, the currently viewable log file is refreshed every KP seconds. To change the refresh rate, select E/i' RL P%efe%e &e# from the pulldown menu. The window shown in :igure will appear. )n the L!1 Fi9e# tab, clic+ the up and down arrows beside the refresh rate to change it. "lic+ C9!#e to return to the main window. The refresh rate is changed immediately. To refresh the currently viewable file manually, select Fi9e RL Ref%e#* N!( or press E"trlF#E<F.

To filter the contents of the log file for +eywords, type the +eyword or +eywords in the Fi9'e% f!% text field, and clic+ Fi9'e%. "lic+ Re#e' to reset the contents. ]ou can also change where the application loo+s for the log files from the L!1 Fi9e# tab. /elect the log file from the list, and clic+ the C*) 1e L!&)'i! button. Type the new location of the log file or clic+ the B%!(#e button to locate the file location using a file selection dialog. "lic+ OC to return to the preferences, and clic+ C9!#e to return to the main window.

3. Di#&$## ):!$' Li $. e'(!%@ C! fi1$%)'i! . To communicate with other computers, computers need a networ+ connection. This is accomplished by having the operating system recogni2e an interface card 8such as Ethernet, )/;N modem, or to+en ring9 and configuring the interface to connect to the networ+. The Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9 can be used to configure the following types of networ+ interfaces: Ethernet )/;N modem x;/! To use the Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9, you must have root privileges. To start the application, go to the M)i Me $ B$''! 8on the .anel9 RL S;#'e7 Se''i 1# RL Ne'(!%@, or type the command Bredhat#config#networ+C at a shell prompt 8for example, in an NTe%7 or a GNOME 'e%7i )99. )f you type the command, the graphical version is displayed if 4 is running7 otherwise, the text#based version is displayed. To force the text#based version to run, use the Bredhat#config#networ+#tuiC command.

Fi1$%e4 Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9 O0e%0ie( To configure a networ+ connection with the Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9, perform the following steps: $dd the physical hardware device to the hardware list. $dd a networ+ device associated with the physical hardware device. "onfigure the hostname and ;N/ settings. "onfigure any hosts that cannot be loo+ed up through ;N/.

E#'):9i#*i 1 ) E'*e% e' C!


To establish an Ethernet connection, you need a networ+ interface card 8N)"9, a networ+ cable 8usually a "$TU cable9, and a networ+ to connect to. ;ifferent networ+s are configured to use different networ+ speeds7 ma+e sure your N)" is compatible with the networ+ to which you want to connect. To add an Ethernet connection, follow these steps: "lic+ the De0i&e# tab. "lic+ the Ne( button on the toolbar. /elect E'*e% e' &! e&'i! from the De0i&e T;"e list, and clic+ f!%()%/.

)f you have already added the networ+ interface card to the hardware list, select it from the E'*e% e' &)%/ list. =therwise, select O'*e% E'*e% e' C)%/ to add the hardware device. )f you selected O'*e% E'*e% e' C)%/, the Se9e&' E'*e% e' A/)"'e% window appears. /elect the manufacturer and model of the Ethernet card. /elect the device name. )f this is the system,s fist Ethernet card, select e'*? as the device name7 if this is the second Ethernet card, select e'*1 8and so on9. The Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9 also allows you to configure the resources for the N)". "lic+ f!%()%/ to continue.

Fi1$%e4 E'*e% e' Se''i 1# )n the C! fi1$%e Ne'(!%@ Se''i 1# window as shown in :igure, choose between ;5". and a static ). address. )f the device receives a different ). address each time the networ+ is started, do not specify a hostname. "lic+ f!%()%/ to continue. "lic+ A""9; on the C%e)'e E'*e% e' De0i&e page.

$fter configuring the Ethernet device, it appears in the device list as shown in next :igure

Fi1$%e4 E'*e% e' De0i&e

@e sure to select Fi9e RL S)0e to save the changes. $fter adding the Ethernet device, you can edit its configuration by selecting the device from the device list and clic+ing E/i'. :or example, when the device is added, it is configured to start at boot time by default. To change this setting, select to edit the device, modify the A&'i0)'e /e0i&e (*e &!7"$'e% #')%'# value, and save the changes. 1hen the device is added, it is not activated immediately, as seen by its I )&'i0e status. To activate the device, select it from the device list, and clic+ the A&'i0)'e button. )f the system is configured to activate the device when the computer starts 8the default9, this step does not have to be performed again. )f you associate more than one device with an Ethernet card, the subse3uent devices are device aliases. $ device alias allows you to setup multiple virtual devices for one physical device, thus giving the one physical device more than one ). address. :or example, you can configure an eth% device and an eth%:% device. E#'):9i#*i 1 ) ISDN C! e&'i!

$n )/;N connection is an )nternet connection established with an )/;N modem card through a special phone line installed by the phone company. )/;N connections are popular in Europe. To add an )/;N connection, follow these steps: "lic+ the De0i&e# tab. "lic+ the Ne( button on the toolbar. /elect ISDN &! e&'i! from the De0i&e T;"e list, and clic+ f!%()%/.

/elect the )/;N adapter from the pull down menu. Then configure the resources and ; channel protocol for the adapter. "lic+ f!%()%/ to continue.

Fi1$%e4 ISDN Se''i 1# )f your )nternet /ervice .rovider 8)/.9 is in the pre#configured list, select it. =therwise, enter the re3uired information about your )/. account. )f you do not +now the values, contact your )/.. "lic+ F!%()%/. :igure. @e sure to select Fi9e RL S)0e to save the changes. $fter adding the )/;N device, you can edit its configuration by selecting the device from the device list and clic+ing E/i'. :or example, when the device is added, it is configured not to start at boot time by default. Edit its configuration to modify this setting. "ompression, ... options, login name, password, and more can be changed. 1hen the device is added, it is not activated immediately, as seen by its I )&'i0e status. To activate the device, select it from the device list, and clic+ the A&'i0)'e button. )f the system is configured to activate the device when the computer starts 8the default9, this step does not have to be performed again. )n the IP Se''i 1# window, select the E &)"#$9)'i! M!/e and whether to obtain an ). address via ;5". or whether to set one statically. "lic+ f!%()%/ when finished. =n the C%e)'e Di)9$" C! e&'i! page, clic+ A""9;.

$fter configuring the )/;N device, it appears in the device list as a device with type ISDN as shown in next

Fi1$%e4 ISDN De0i&e

E#'):9i#*i 1 ) M!/e7 C!


$ modem can be used to configure an )nternet connection over an active phone line. $n )nternet /ervice .rovider 8)/.9 account 8also called a dial#up account9 is re3uired. To add a modem connection, follow these steps: "lic+ the De0i&e# tab. "lic+ the Ne( button on the toolbar. /elect M!/e7 &! e&'i! from the De0i&e T;"e list, and clic+ f!%()%/.

)f there is a modem already configured in the hardware list 8on the H)%/()%e tab9, the Ne'(!%@ A/7i i#'%)'i! T!!9 assumes you want to use it to establish a modem connection. )f there are no modems already configured, it tries to detect any modems in the system. This probe might ta+e a while. )f a modem is not found, a message is displayed to warn you that the settings shown are not values found from the probe.

$fter probing, the following window will appears.

Fi1$%e4 M!/e7 Se''i 1# "onfigure the modem device, baud rate, flow control, and modem volume. )f you do not +now these values, accept the defaults if the modem was probed successfully. )f you do not have touch tone dialing, unchec+ the corresponding chec+box. "lic+ F!%()%/. )f your )/. is in the pre#configured list, select it. =therwise, enter the re3uired information about your )/. account. )f you do not +now these values, contact your )/.. "lic+ F!%()%/. =n the IP Se''i 1# page, select whether to obtain an ). address via ;5". or whether to set on statically. "lic+ f!%()%/ when finished. =n the C%e)'e Di)9$" C! e&'i! page, clic+ A""9;.

$fter configuring the modem device, it appears in the device list with the type 0odem as shown in :igure

Fi1$%e4 M!/e7 De0i&e @e sure to select Fi9e RL S)0e to save the changes. 1hen the device is added, it is not activated immediately, as seen by its I )&'i0e status. To activate the device, select it from the device list, and clic+ the A&'i0)'e button. )f the system is configured to activate the device when the computer starts 8the default9, this step does not have to be performed again.

5. W*)' )%e '*e ';"e# !f i 'e% e' &! ;ial#up $ccess ;/! $ccess

e&'i! + E."9)i e)&* i /e')i9.

The various types of internet connections are

Di)9-U" A&&e## Uses plain old telephone system 8.=T/9 Need to configure the modem <e3uire Telephone number to dial )nternet account username and password Use )nternet "onfiguration 1i2ard tool from the 0ain 0enu, need to supply root password to continue :ollow instructions on screen

I 'e% e' Se'-$" WiO)%/ /elect modem connection

I 'e% e' Se'-$" WiO)%/ ^ )f the system cannot detect the modem you will be prompted to enter the modem device name and related communication information. The parameters below may possibly be used. 0odem device: dev modem @aud rate: %%UJPP :low control: 5ardware 8"<T/"T/9 0odem volume: 0edium

ISP I f!%7)'i! The )/. dial#up telephone number .rovider name 8nic+name9 )nternet account login name and password

IP Se''i 1# Use automatic 8default9 if )/. assigns ). addresses automatically Use static if )/. assigns a fixed 8specific9 ). address to you

A&'i0)'e M!/e7 $pply and accept the configuration set#up $ctivate modem using Networ+ ;evice "ontrol tool: 0ain 0enu ##L /ystem Tools ##L Networ+ ;evice "ontrol

The modem will dial and connect to the )/. "hec+ on connection e.g. access websites to disconnect use the Networ+ ;evice "ontrol tool again and select deactivate DSL A&&e##

Use )nternet "onfiguration 1i2ard tool from the 0ain 0enu /elect ;/! :ollow instructions on screen

N!'e# ! DSL A&&e## /everal possible ways to configure ;/!, depending on the way the )/.,s networ+ is set up /ome ;/! providers re3uire you to obtain an ). address through ;5". using the Ethernet card. :or this, select Ethernet "onnection from the main ;evice Type screen, select ;5". from the subse3uent "onfigure Networ+ /ettings screen. /ome providers re3uire you to configure a ...oE connection with an Ethernet card. :or this, select ;/! "onnection from the main ;evice Type screen. )f you need a username and password chances are that you are using ...oE to connect.

DSL Se'-$" Enter )/. name /upply login name and password

A&'i0)'e DSL Li @ $pply and accept the configuration set#up $ctivate ;/! connection using Networ+ ;evice "ontrol tool: 0ain 0enu ##L /ystem Tools ##L Networ+ ;evice "ontrol The connection will be established immediately "hec+ on connection e.g. access websites

To disconnect use the Networ+ ;evice "ontrol tool again and select deactivate.

<. TCP6IP NETWORCING AND ROUTING T". ). is an acronym for Transmission "ontrol .rotocol )nternet .rotocol, and refers to a family of protocols used for computer communications. )n addition to Transmission "ontrol .rotocol and )nternet .rotocol, this family also includes $ddress <esolution .rotocol 8$<.9, ;omain Name /ystem 8;N/9, )nternet "ontrol 0essage .rotocol 8)"0.9, User ;atagram .rotocol 8U;.9, <outing )nformation .rotocol 8<).9, /imple 0ail Transfer .rotocol 8/0T.9, Telnet and many others. These protocols provide the necessary services for basic networ+ functionality, and you will ta+e a closer loo+ at them for a better understanding of how the networ+ wor+s. To be able to send and receive information on the networ+, each device connected to it must have an address. The address of any device on the networ+ must be uni3ue and have a standard, defined format by which it is +nown to any other device on the networ+. This device address consists of two parts: the address of the networ+ to which the device is connected the address of the device itself _ its node or host address

The two uni3ue addresses are typically called the network layer addresses and the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Networ+ !ayer addresses are ). addresses that have been assigned to the device. The 0$" address is built into the card by the manufacturer and refers to only the lowest level address by which all data is transferred between devices. ;evices that are physically connected to each other 8not separated by routers9 would have the same networ+ number but different node, or host numbers. This would be typical of an internal networ+ at a company or university. These types of networ+s are now often referred to as intranets. )n networ+ transfer is accomplished by brea+ing the information into small pieces of data called pac+ets or datagram6s. The necessary to use pac+ets instead of -ust sending the entire message, because of the two reasons_ A#*)%i 1 %e#!$%&e# ) / e%%!% &!%%e&'i! B. The ")&@e'# have uni3ue addressing and reassembly instructions. @ecause pac+ets also contain data, each is made up of two parts, the header, which contains the address and reassembly instructions, and the body, which contains the data. Aeeping all this information in order is the protocol. The protocol is a set of rules that specifies the format of the package and how it is used ! IP ADDRESS AND NETWORC CLASSES $ KJ#bit address used to identify a node on an ). internetwor+. Each node on the ). internetwor+ must be assigned a uni3ue ). address, which is made up of the networ+ );, plus a uni3ue host );.

The addresses must have two parts, the networ+ part and the node, or host, part. $ddresses used in T". ). networ+s are four bytes long, called ). addresses, and are written in standard dot notation, which means a decimal number separated by dots. :or example,%&J.%S'.%.J. ). addresses are divided into classes with the most significant being classes $, @, ",; and E depending on the value of the first byte of the address.

The reason for the class division is to enable efficient use of the address numbers. )f the division were the first two bytes to the networ+ part and the last two bytes to the host part, then no networ+ could have more than J%S hosts. )f the networ+ is internal, an intranet, not connected to an outside networ+, any class $, @, or " networ+ number can be used. The only re3uirement is choosing a class that allows for the number of hosts to be connected. $lthough this is possible, in the real world this approach would not allow for connecting to the )nternet. The MAC )//%e## was defined as the lowest level at which communication occurs. =n an Ethernet networ+, this address is also called the Ethernet $ddress. This is the address that is ultimately necessary for transmission of data. :or transfer to happen, the ). address must be mapped to the Ethernet address of the device. The mechanism that ma+es this possible is $ddress <esolution .rotocol or $<.. To determine the Ethernet address of a node on the same networ+, the sending device sends an $<. re3uest to the Ethernet broadcast address. The Ethernet broadcast address is a special address to which all Ethernet cards are configured to Blisten.C R!$'e%# enable networ+s not physically connected to each other to communicate. $ router must be connected physically to each networ+ that wants to communicate. The sending node must be able to send its re3uest to a router on its own networ+, and the receiving node must also be on a networ+ connected to a router. The sending node sends its re3uest to the router on its networ+. This router is typically called the default gateway, and its address must be manually configured in the sending node6s configuration files. The router receives the re3uest from the sending node and determines the best route for it to use to transmit the data. The router has an internal program, called a routing table, which it uses to send the data. <outing tables can be manually configured or ac3uired dynamically.

CONFIGURING NETWORC CARD To configuring networ+ card the user uses the command, BipconfigC and the name QethP6 for a device. The user also needs to +now the ). address, the Bnet mas+C, and the Bbroadcast addressesC. These numbers vary depending on the outside world, any ). numbers can be used, and however there are ). numbers typically used with these networ+s. )f the user connecting to an existing networ+, the user must have the above details and also needs to have the router and domain name server address. )n this example, user configures an Ethernet interface for an internal networ+ through this command. "pcnfig eth# $%&!$'(!$!$ netmask &))!&))!&))!# broadcast $%&!$'(!$!&)) SUB NETTING S$: e''i 1 is used to brea+ the networ+ into smaller more efficient subnets to prevent excessive rates of Ethernet pac+et collision in a large networ+. To divide the networ+ To divide single broad cast domain into multiple broadcast domain. Each and every small networ+ is +nown as subnet or sub networ+. Each subnet is treated as separate networ+. Each subnet has its own networ+ address and broadcast address. @efore dividing a networ+ we should +now how many subnets we need and number of host under each subnet. IP )//%e## De')i9#4 =ur ). address is a KJ bit decimal value. )t has totally ( octets. Each octet contains ' bits. )t is represented via dotted decimal format. )t has two parts mainly > > Networ+ 5ost

There are totally 5 Classes.


R$9e# f!% S$: e' 1e are borrowing some of the host bits to networ+ portion. <ule%: > <ule J: > 0inimum number of bits left towards host R J 0inimum number of bits borrowed R J

;epending on the class of networ+ address the bits will be borrow from the host part. "lass ": ' host bits "lass @: %S host bits "lass $: J( host bits )f J bits borrowed, it allows JJ # J R J subnets F!%7$9) 5ost @its 85@9 R @its @orrowed 8@@9 O @its !eft 8@!9 Number of /ubnetsR Number of 5osts R E.)7"9e "lass " Example: J%P.&K.(U.P 8need Usubnets in that networ+9 :or the "lass " address, the possible bits are '. $t least K bits we have to borrow to get U subnets. JK # J R S subnets 5ow many bits are left for hostsN 5@ R @@ O @! ' R K O @! @! R U /o how many hosts can we assign to each subnetN JU # J R KP hosts S$: e' 7)#@ 1e determine the subnet mas+ by adding up the decimal value of the bits we borrowed.

)n the previous "lass " example, we borrowed K bits. @elow is the host octet showing the bits we borrowed and their decimal values.

1e add up the decimal value of these bits and get JJ(. That6s the last non#2ero octet of our subnet mas+. /o our subnet mas+ is JUU.JUU.JUU.JJ(

Be efi'# !f #$: e''i 1 <educed networ+ traffic /implified management /maller broadcast domains

Ne'(!%@ :ef!%e S$: e''i 1

Ne'(!%@ )f'e% S$: e''i 1

GATEWAYS AND ROUTERS $ router is necessary for separate networ+s to communicate with each other. Each networ+ must be connected to a router in order for this communication to ta+e place. This router that is connected to each networ+ is called its gateway.

)n !inux, you can use a computer with two networ+ interfaces to route between two or more subnets. To be able to do this you need to ma+e sure that you enable ). :orwarding. To chec+ the ). :orwarding module status user has to enter the following 3uery at a command prompt: cat *proc*sys*net!ipv+*ip,forward! )f forwarding is enabled the number % is returned, and if not enabled the number P is returned. To enable ). forwarding if it is not already enabled, type the following command: echo # - *proc*sys*net*ipv+*ip,forward $ssume that a computer running !inux is acting as a router for your networ+. )t has two networ+ interfaces to the local !$Ns using the lowest available ). address in each sub networ+ on its interface to that networ+. The networ+ interfaces would be configured as shown in Table Ne'(!%@ I 'e%f)&e C! fi1$%)'i! T):9e I 'e%f)&e ethP eth% IP A//%e## %&J.%S'.%.% %&J.%S'.%.%J& Ne' 7)#@ JUU.JUU.JUU.%J' JUU.JUU.JUU.%J'

The networ+ routing it would use is shown in Table Ne'(!%@ R!$'i 1 C! fi1$%)'i! T):9e De#'i )'i! %&J.%S'.%.P %&J.%S'.%.%J' G)'e(); %&J.%S'.%.% %&J.%S'.%.%J& M)#@ JUU.JUU.JUU.%J' JUU.JUU.JUU.%J' I 'e%f)&e ethP Eth%

]ou can add this information using the route command as follows: route add .net $%&!$'(!$!# and then route add default gw $%&!$'(!$!$&% This command sets up the route for local 8internal9 routing as well as sets up the external route for our first subnet. CONFIGURING DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL DDHCPE Using ;5"., you can have an ). address and the other information automatically assigned to the hosts connected to your networ+. This method is 3uite efficient and convenient for large networ+s with many hosts, because the process of manually configuring each host is 3uite time consuming. @y using ;5"., you can ensure that every host on your networ+ has a valid ). address, subnet mas+, broadcast address, and gateway, with minimum effort Necessary "onfigurations, ;5". server has to configure for each of your subnets. Each host on the subnet needs to be configured as a ;5". client.

$lso need to configure the server that connects to your )/. as a ;5". client if your )/. dynamically assigns your ). address.

Se''i 1 $" '*e #e%0e% )n#tall the ;5". server pac+age from !inux cd by using rpm command. The pac+age file name is, dhcp.&!#pl).$!i/('!rpm! $fter that ;5". server is controlled by the text file *etc*dhcpd!conf!

A sample file is /'###0 (The amount of time in seconds that the host can keep the IP address.) $#####0 (The ma imum time the host can keep the IP address.) 2domain name option tactechnology!com 0 (The domain of the D!"P server.) 2nameserver option $%&!$'(!$!$0 (The IP address of the D#$ servers.) 2gateway*routers3 can pass more than one4 option routers $!&!/!+3$!&!/!)0 option routers $%&!$'(!$!$0 (IP address of routers.) 2netmask option subnet.mask &))!&))!&))!#0 (The subnet mask of the net%ork.) 2broadcast address option broadcast.address $%&!$'(!$!&))0 (The broadcast address of the net%ork.) 2specify the subnet number gets assigned in subnet $%&!$'(!$!# netmask &))!&))!&))!# (The subnet that uses the dhcp server.) 2define which addresses can be used*assigned range $%&!$'(!$!$ $%&!$'(!$!$&'0 (The range of IP addresses that can be used.) )f this file does not exist on your server, you can create it using a text editor. @e sure to use the proper addresses for your networ+. To start the server, run the command dhcpd. To ensure that the dhcpd program runs whenever the system is booted, you should put the command in one of your init scripts. C! fi1$%i 1 '*e &9ie ' @efore configuration client dhcp user need to chec+ if the dhcp client is installed on your system. The following command is used to chec+ the dhcp status. which dhcpcd )f the client is on the system, user will see the location of the file. )f the file is not installed, user has to install the client using the rpm command. $fter you install the client software, start it by running the command dhcpcd . Each of your clients will now receive its ). address, subnet mas+, gateway, and broadcast address from your dhcp server. /ince you want this program to run every time the computer boots, you need to place it in theC *etc*rc!localBfile. Now whenever the system starts, this daemon will be loaded.

CONFIGURING A POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL DPPPE CONNECTION ... can be used in con-unction with a modem and telephone line to provide a connection to the )nternet as well as a direct serial connection to another .". Di%e&' C! e&'i! DO e #e%0e% P O e C9ie 'E4 "onfiguring the direct connection for the server re3uires -ust one line of code, as follows: pppd *dev*tty5$ $$)6## crtscts This command starts the ... daemon, tells it to use the serial port tty/%, sets the port speed, and starts the hardware flow control re3uest to send 8rts9 and clear to send 8cts9. The user should place this line in your *etc*rc!d*rc!local script so it loads whenever the system boots. M$9'i"9e &! e&'i! #

"onfiguring a server for multiple connections using a modem and dialup connection is more complex To configure the server to receive incoming calls, two files need to be modified. .assword file !ogin file :or the password file, user needs the following entry 8example9: terry414 6&&4&##4Terry Collings4*tmp4*etc*ppp*ppplogin The sample login script is7 27*bin*sh mesg 8n stty 8echo e1ec *sbin*pppd crtscts modem passive auth The first line, 27*bin*sh, specifies the shell to use to interpret the script. The next line, mesg 8n, disallows users sending data to the terminal. The third line, stty 8echo, suppresses the characters typed by the user being returned and displayed on the user6s terminal. The last line starts the ... daemon and sets some parameters for the program.

Se&$%i'; i PPP4 ... uses two +inds of security: .assword $uthentication .rotocol 8.$.9 "hallenge 5andsha+e $uthentication .rotocol 8"5$.9.

.$. security is very wea+. The "hallenge 5andsha+e $uthentication .rotocol is implemented by default when using .... $ll configurations for "hap is done using the etc ppp chap#secrets file. The chap#secrets file is made up of four fields. C9ie '4 The name of the system that initiates the call and must respond to the challenge sent by the server. Se%0e%4 The name of the system that sends the challenge.

Se&%e'4 $ +ey that is used to encrypt and decrypt the challenge. The server sends a challenge to the client who then encrypts it using the secret +ey and sends it bac+ to the server. The server uses the +ey to decrypt the client6s response. )f the challenge and reply are the same, the client is authenticated.

A//%e##4 The ). address or name of the host.

The following is an example file: Q &9ie ' Terry main C! fi1$%i 1 ) PPP &9ie ' To configure a ... client for a /i%e&' &! *etc*rc!d*rc!local file of the client computer: pppd *dev*tty5$ $$)6## crtscts defaultroute This command is basically the same as the one you used to configure the direct connect server, with the only difference being the default route. The default route sets the server as the router for this client for any connections to the outside. $ ... connection is a /i)9-$" &! e&'i! that re3uires a modem and an analog phone line, and it is e&'i! , you need to place the following line of code in the #e%0e% main terry #e&%e' hellobo2o youclown IP )//%e##

by far the most common way to connect to the )nternet. ]ou can easily set up a ... client on a <ed 5at !inux system, especially using a graphical method 8Gnome ... dialer or )nternet ;ialer9.