Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 0

Knowledge Is Power

SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Power Factor Testing - Transformers
Gary Heuston
Doble Engineering Company
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
Doble Engineering Company ("Doble"), has full title, right and interest to all subject
matter contained in these materials ("proprietary Information") regardless of the medium.
You have been provided these materials for private reference purposes only. Doble's
delivery to you of Doble Proprietary Information does not constitute in any way
whatsoever a license of any kind or vests any interest in Doble's Proprietary Information
(other than private reference use), including, without limitation, the rights to copy,
disseminate, distribute, transmit, display or perform in public (or to third parties),
reproduce, edit, translate or reformat. You, as recipient, acknowledge and agree to these
terms by your first viewing of this Proprietary Information, you further acknowledge and
agree that Doble shall not have an adequate remedy at law in the event of your breach
hereunder, that Doble will suffer irreparable damage and injury if you breach any of the
terms stated above, and that if you breach any of the terms stated above, Doble, in
addition to any other rights and remedies available herein or otherwise, shall be entitled
to seek an injunction to be issued by a tribunal of competent jurisdiction restricting the
recipient from committing or continuing any breach of these terms.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformers
Agenda
Introduction
The power factor test
Test policies
Testing the apparatus and case studies
- transformers
- bushings
- surge arresters
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Introduction
Primary interest
- testing electrical insulation
Developed capabilities
- expertise in testing electrical insulation
- accumulation of test data
- library of information
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The Power Factor Test
Terminology
- power factor versus dissipation factor
The Doble power factor test
Significance of measured parameters
- dielectric loss
- capacitance
- power factor
- power factor tip-up
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Power Factor versus Dissipation Factor
Power factor (PF) = Cos = I
R
/ I
T
Dissipation factor (DF) = Tan = I
R
/ I
C
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Power Factor versus Dissipation Factor
PF, cos Phase Angle,
Complement
Loss Angle,
DF, tan
Difference
0.000000 90.000000 0.000000 0.000000 none
0.005000 89.713520 0.286480 0.005000 < 1 ppm
0.010000 89.427033 0.572967 0.010000 < 1 ppm
0.020000 88.854008 1.145992 0.020004 4 ppm
0.050000 87.134016 2.865984 0.050063 63 ppm
0.100000 84.260830 5.739170 0.100504 504 ppm
1.000000 0.0000000 90.00000 infinity incomparable
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Comparison of the power factor and dissipation factor for a few
phase angles and complementary loss angles are given below.
The two measurements are very nearly the same for a specimen
with a power factor or dissipation factor of 0.1000 or less.
Power Factor versus Dissipation Factor
PF, cos Phase Angle,
Complement
Loss Angle,
DF, tan
Difference
0.000000 90.000000 0.000000 0.000000 none
0.005000 89.713520 0.286480 0.005000 < 1 ppm
0.010000 89.427033 0.572967 0.010000 < 1 ppm
0.020000 88.854008 1.145992 0.020004 4 ppm
0.050000 87.134016 2.865984 0.050063 63 ppm
0.100000 84.260830 5.739170 0.100504 504 ppm
1.000000 0.0000000 90.00000 infinity incomparable
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Comparison of the power factor and dissipation factor for a few
phase angles and complementary loss angles are given below.
The two measurements are very nearly the same for a specimen
with a power factor or dissipation factor of 0.1000 or less.
The Doble Power Factor Test
An insulation can be defined by its chemical, electrical, mechanical,
physical and thermal characteristics.
Contamination and deterioration can have various affects on any or
all of these characteristics.
The Doble Power Factor Test is a measurement of some of the
fundamental AC electrical characteristics of a insulation, to include:
Dielectric loss
Capacitance
Power factor
Power factor tip-up (power factor-voltage characteristic)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The Doble Power Factor Test
The Doble M-instruments can also measure these additional
transformer parameters:
Excitation current
High-voltage transformer turns ratio
Leakage reactance (requires M4000 instrument & M4110
interface)
Sweep frequency response analysis (requires M5100
instrument)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Parameters
Parallel equivalent circuit and its vector diagram
The capacitor represents the fundamental capacitance of an
insulation and its ability to store electricity when a potential
difference exists across it.
The resistor represents the dissipated loss and dielectric heating
that occurs in the insulation because of the presence of impurities
when voltage is applied across the insulation.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Capacitance
Capacitance =
0
A / d

= relative dielectric constant (intrinsic property of material)

0
= permittivity of free space (8.85 x 10
-3
picofarad/mm)
A = effective area of parallel plates (mm
2
)
d = separation distance (mm)
Capacitance is primarily a function of specimens physical
geometry.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Capacitance
Capacitance detects movement and deformation of transformer
windings.
Interwinding (C
HT
) capacitance of an
autotransformer.
Test Date
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1965 0.20 2,650
1968 0.29 2,756
1974 0.29 3,710
1982 0.32 5,100
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Capacitance
Capacitance detects movement and deformation of transformer
windings.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Power Factor
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
P = EI
T
Cos and PF = Cos PF = Cos = P / (EI
T
)
Power factor is the ratio of the dielectric loss to the applied volt-
amperes.
Power factor is very low for most modern insulation.
Power factor is sensitive to soluble polar, ionic and colloidal
materials, to include:
- moisture
- products of oxidation of the mineral oil
- conducting materials, e.g. carbon
Power factor is a function of the inherent characteristic of
the insulation and the presence of any contamination and
deterioration.
Significance of Measured Power Factor
Power factor detects moisture in transformer.
April 10, 1979 test
Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
C
H
0.49 9,805
C
L
0.45 31,800
C
HL
0.39 23,585
May 7, 1981 test
Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
C
H
1.0 9,938
C
L
0.65 32,065
C
HL
1.16 23,983
Westinghouse 138 / 21 kV, 265 MVA transformer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Power Factor
Power factor detects moisture in transformer.
February 21, 1985 test
Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
C
H
2.5 10,468
C
L
1.1 32,330
C
HL
3.3 25,573
April 25, 1986 test, after drying
Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
C
H
0.74 9,805
C
L
0.64 32,330
C
HL
0.56 23,850
Westinghouse 138 / 21 kV, 265 MVA transformer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Significance of Measured Power Factor
0
1
2
3
4
1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
Test Date
2
0

C

%

P
F
CH CL CHL
Power factor detects moisture in transformer.
Westinghouse 138 / 21 kV, 265 MVA transformer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Test Policies
It was necessary to address, in addition to test procedures,
analysis of results, and investigation of questionable results,
various aspects of this testing, to include:
Averaging effect
Temperature correction
Very low capacitance specimens
High levels of electrostatic interference
Power factor-voltage characteristic
Peculiarities
- winding inductance
- high external surface losses
- negative power factor
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Averaging Effect
Doble Method 1 without guard circuit
Test Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1 C
H
+ C
HL
0.48 8,215
2 C
L
+ C
HL
0.25 15,105
3 C
H
+ C
L
0.42 12,190
Doble Method 2 with guard circuit
Test Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1 C
H
1.0 2,650
2 C
L
0.25 9,540
3 C
HL
0.24 5,565
Method 1 gives power factors that are a weighted average of the two insulation
components. Method 2, the current procedure gives a power factor for each
insulation component and increases the sensitivity of the test to localized conditions.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Two-winding transformer test methods
Averaging Effect
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Perform separate test on bushings.
Averaging Effect
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Importance of separate bushing test.
Acceptance Test
Insulation I (mA) Watts
20C % PF
C
H
12.4 0.25 0.20
H1 - C
1
1.52 0.036 0.24
H2 - C
1
1.48 0.031 0.21
H3 - C
1
1.50 0.036 0.24
Later Test
Insulation I (mA) Watts
20C % PF
C
H
12.5 0.43 0.34
H1 - C
1
1.6 0.22 1.4
Averaging Effect
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Importance of separate bushing test.
Acceptance Test
Insulation I (mA) Watts
20C % PF
C
H
12.4 0.25 0.20
H1 - C
1
1.52 0.036 0.24
H2 - C
1
1.48 0.031 0.21
H3 - C
1
1.50 0.036 0.24
Later Test
Insulation I (mA) Watts
20C % PF
C
H
12.5 0.43 0.34
H1 - C
1
1.6 0.22 1.4
Temperature Correction
0.1
1
10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Temperature, C
%

P
F
Doble
AIEE
Oil
Power factor-temperature characteristics of power transformer insulation
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Temperature Correction
0.1
1
10
100
25 35 45 55 65 75 85
Temperature, C
%

P
F
,

6
0

H
z
4.0%
2.7%
2.0%
0.90%
0.40%
0.20%
0.15%
0.10%
Power factor characteristic of oil-impregnated cellulose
(by percent moisture content)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Testing the Apparatus and Case Studies
Transformer test
Transformer power factor test
Analysis of results
Case studies
- case 1 - ungrounded core
- case 2 - moisture
- case 3 - defective pumps
- case 4 - carbonized path
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Test
Normally includes these measurements:
Power factor
- transformer insulation
- bushing insulation
- surge arresters (dielectric loss)
- insulating fluid
Excitation current
High-voltage transformer turns ratio
Leakage reactance
Sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Test
It may also include these measurements:
Insulation resistance
- sensitive to contamination and deterioration
- sensitive to very low capacitive parallel paths with low
resistance
Winding resistance
- sensitive to continuity of conductors and quality of
connections
Insulating fluid
- physical, chemical and electrical properties
- dissolved gases and metals
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Test
Infra-red
- sensitive to hot-spots
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
Transformers may be either single-phase or three-phase with
liquid-immersed or dry windings. The power factor test procedure
is determined by the number of separate and accessible windings:
Two-winding
Three-winding
Autotransformer with a tertiary winding
Autotransformer without a tertiary winding (single-winding)
Four-winding
Five-winding
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
C
H
- Insulation between high-voltage conductors and grounded core and tank
(bushings, winding insulation, structural insulating members and oil).
C
L
- Insulation between low-voltage conductors and grounded core and tank
(bushings, winding insulation, structural insulating members and oil).
C
HL
- Insulation between high- and low-voltage conductors (winding insulation,
barriers and oil).
Two-winding transformer dielectric circuit
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
Doble test procedure for two-winding transformer
Test Energize LV Lead Test Mode Measure
1 High Low GST - Ground C
H
+ C
HL
2 High Low GST - Guard C
H
3 High Low UST C
HL
Calculated Results for C
HL
(Test 1 minus Test 2)
4 Low High GST - Ground C
L
+ C
LH
5 Low High GST - Guard C
L
6 Low High UST C
LH
Calculated Results for C
LH
(Test 4 minus Test 5)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
DTA two-winding transformer electronic form: Overall test screen
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
Three-winding transformer dielectric circuit
C
H
, C
L
, C
T
- Insulation between conductors and grounded core and tank (bushings,
winding insulation, structural insulating members and oil).
C
HL
, C
LT
, C
HT
- Insulation between conductors (winding insulation, barriers and oil).
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
Doble test procedure for three-winding transformer
Test Energize LV Lead Test Circuit Measure
Red Blue
1 H L T GST Guard Blue Ground Red C
H
+ C
HL
2 H L T GST Guard Red and Blue C
H
3 H L T UST Red Ground Blue C
HL
Calculated Results for C
HL
(Test 1 minus Test 2)
4 L T H GST Guard Blue Ground Red C
L
+ C
LT
5 L T H GST Guard Red and Blue C
L
6 L T H UST Red Ground Blue C
LT
Calculated Results for C
HL
(Test 4 minus Test 5)
7 T H L GST Guard Blue Ground Red C
T
+ C
TH
8 T H L GST Guard Red and Blue C
T
9 T H L UST Red Ground Blue C
TH
Calculated Results for C
HL
(Test 7 minus Test 8)
10 H, L, T GST Ground Red and Blue C
H
+ C
L
+ C
T
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformer Power Factor Test
DTA three-winding transformer electronic form: Overall test screen
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Analysis of Results
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The measured power factor and capacitance should be compared:
with factory data (acceptance test)
with earlier tests (especially the first acceptable test)
with similar transformers
with Dobles database and typical results
Analysis of Results
Number of transformers - 660 total
20
120
240
180
80
60
25
20
15
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
20C % PF
C
H
power factors for power transformers
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Analysis of Results
General guidelines for modern oil-filled power transformers
20C Power Factor
0.5 % and less Good
Higher than 0.5 % to 0.7 % Deteriorated
Higher than 0.7 % to 1.0 % Investigate
Higher than 0.5 % to 1.0 % and increasing Investigate
Capacitance (compared to acceptance test)
Less than 10 % Good
10 % and higher Investigate
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 1 - Ungrounded Core
Core connected to ground
Test Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1 C
H
+ C
HL
- 9,977
2 C
H
1.5 3,439
3 C
HL
0.3 6,538
4 C
L
+ C
LH
- 15,641
5 C
L
0.5 9,095
6 C
LH
0.3 6,534
Core not connected to ground
Test Insulation
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1 C
H
+ C
HL
- 9,975
2 C
H
1.6 3,335
3 C
HL
0.3 6,640
4 C
L
+ C
LH
- 12,040
5 C
L
0.7 5,394
6 C
LH
0.3 6,636
ABB, 13.8 / 0.480 kV, 5 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 2 - Moisture
Test Insulation kV I (mA) Watts
20C %PF
1 C
H
+ C
HL
10 28.5 1.45
2 C
H
10 7.05 0.38 0.39
3 C
HL
10 21.5 0.95 0.32
4 C
L
+ C
LH
2 39.5 5.5
5 C
L
2 17.65 2.85 1.18
6 C
LH
2 21.5 3.55 1.2
FPE, 13.8 / 4.3 kV, 7 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer
High C
L
power factor and disagreement between C
HL
and C
LH
power factors.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 3 - Defective Pumps
Test Date
20C % PF
C
H
C
L
C
HL
1972 0.50 0.59 0.47
1975 1.60 0.57 1.44
Westinghouse, 3-Phase, 345 / 19 kV, 343 MVA Shell-Form Transformer
A similar unit was tested and did not display a similar increase.
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 3 - Defective Pumps
Results of internal inspection:
A gray film was deposited over the lower section of the high-voltage bushings,
DETC contacts and neutral bus.
A combination of this film and small, rough-edged shavings was deposited on
the paper insulation and insulating boards, with the heaviest deposits in C-phase
area.
This film and shavings was partially magnetic. Oil pumps (total of 9) were
believed to be the source of contamination.
Oil pump No. 8 (located in the area of the C-phase high-voltage bushing) was
severely deteriorated. The outer bearing sleeve, the pump housing, and 1/2 the
width of the impeller blade were destroyed.
One other pump was found to have appreciable bearing wear and the remaining
7 pumps had varying, lesser degrees of bearing-wear.
After clean-up and repair, the unit was returned to service. It failed 4 months
later. It is believed the failure resulted from the magnetic contamination
introduced earlier.
Westinghouse, 3-Phase, 345 / 19 kV, 343 MVA Shell-Form Transformer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 4 - Carbonized Path
Test Date
20C % PF at 10 kV
C
H
C
L
C
HL
May 12 1969 0.26 0.34 0.26
Apr 11 1977 0.12 0.28 0.23
Nov 15 1979 0.42 0.69 0.46
Aug 30 1984 0.23 0.28 1.64
Nov 20, 1984 C
HL
Insulation
Test kV
20C % PF
% PF Tip-Up
2 -
4 2.64
6 2.96
8 3.32
10 3.60 0.96
Allis-Chalmers 115 / 13.2 kV, 12/16/20 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer (1969 - vintage)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 4 - Carbonized Path
Test Date
20C % PF at 10 kV
C
H
C
L
C
HL
May 12 1969 0.26 0.34 0.26
Apr 11 1977 0.12 0.28 0.23
Nov 15 1979 0.42 0.69 0.46
Aug 30 1984 0.23 0.28 1.64
Allis-Chalmers 115 / 13.2 kV, 12/16/20 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer (1969 - vintage)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Nov 20, 1984 C
HL
Insulation
Test kV
20C % PF
% PF Tip-Up
2 -
4 2.64
6 2.96
8 3.32
10 3.60 0.96
Case 4 - Carbonized Path
Transformer history:
The May 12, 1969 test is the acceptance test.
The X
1
bushing (Lapp Type POC-A) failed violently. A replacement bushing was
installed. The transformer was tested on April 11 and returned to service on
April 16, 1977.
On November 14, 1979 the X
3
bushing failed violently. A replacement bushing
was installed. The transformer was tested and returned to service on November
15, 1979. The C
L
power factor increased.
The transformer was returned to service due to high load conditions in the area.
Frequent sampling of the nitrogen blanket and oil for combustible gases was
performed. No detectable problems were revealed by these tests.
The transformer was tested on August 30, 1984 during a tap-changer
inspection.
On November 20, 1984 the transformer was removed from service for testing.
Power factor tip-up tests were performed and the C
HL
power factor had
increased to 3.6 % at 10 kV.
Allis-Chalmers 115 / 13.2 kV, 12/16/20 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer (1969 - vintage)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 4 - Carbonized Path
Results of inspection during disassembly:
After removal from tank, the high-voltage coil assembly looked good except for
misalignment of the coil spacers in the tap winding.
After the high-voltage coils were removed, large deposits of carbon were found
adhering to the vertical spacers and low-voltage coils on all phases.
This transformer was rewound and returned to service in 1985.
Allis-Chalmers 115 / 13.2 kV, 12/16/20 MVA, oil-filled, two-winding transformer (1969 - vintage)
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The Bushings and Surge Arresters
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Testing the Apparatus and Case Studies
Bushing test
Bushing power factor test
Analysis of results
Case studies
- case 1 - simulated failure modes
- case 2 - resistive path to ground
- case 3 - ungrounded conductive layer
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Bushing Test
Normally includes these measurements:
Power factor
- C
1
insulation
- C
2
insulation
- Hot-Collar
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Bushing Test
It may also include these measurements:
Insulation resistance
- sensitive to contamination and deterioration
Infra-red
- sensitive to hot-spots
Insulating fluid
- physical, chemical and electrical properties
- dissolved gases
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Bushing Power Factor Test
The power factor test procedure is determined by whether it is
equipped with a tap:
no tap
- Hot-Collar
equipped with tap
- C
1
insulation
- C
2
insulation
- Hot-Collar
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Bushing Power Factor Test
Center conductor
C1 insulation
Tap receptacle
C2 insulation
Flange
Tap electrode
Ground Sleeve
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Analysis of Results
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The measured power factor and capacitance should be compared:
with nameplate data (acceptance test)
with earlier tests (especially the first acceptable test)
with similar bushings
with Dobles database and typical results
Analysis of Results
General guidelines for modern oil-impregnated paper-insulated capacitive-graded
bushings (with original power factor of 0.5 % or less)
20C Power Factor (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
< (NP - 0.10) Investigate
(NP - 0.10) and (NP + 0.20)
Good
> (NP + 0.20) and (NP + 0.50)
Deteriorated
> (NP + 0.50) and 3 % PF
Investigate
> 3 % PF Bad
Capacitance (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
(NP x 0.90)
Investigate
> (NP x 0.90) and (NP x 0.95)
Deteriorated
> (NP x 0.95) and < (NP x 1.05) Good
(NP x 1.05) and < (NP x 1.10)
Deteriorated
(NP x 1.10)
Investigate
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Analysis of Results
20C Power Factor (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
< (NP - 0.10) Investigate
(NP - 0.10) and (NP + 0.20)
Good
> (NP + 0.20) and (NP + 0.50)
Deteriorated
> (NP + 0.50) and 3 % PF
Investigate
> 3 % PF Bad
Capacitance (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
(NP x 0.90)
Investigate
> (NP x 0.90) and (NP x 0.95)
Deteriorated
> (NP x 0.95) and < (NP x 1.05) Good
(NP x 1.05) and < (NP x 1.10)
Deteriorated
(NP x 1.10)
Investigate
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
General guidelines for modern oil-impregnated paper-insulated
capacitive-graded bushings (with original power factor of 0.5 % or
less)
Analysis of Results
20C Power Factor (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
< 0.14 % Investigate
0.14 % and 0.44 %
Good
> 0.44 % and 0.74 %
Deteriorated
> 0.74 % and 3 %
Investigate
> 3 % Bad
Capacitance (acceptance test compared to nameplate)
371 pF
Investigate
> 371 pF and 391 pF
Deteriorated
> 391 pF and < 433 pF Good
433 pF and < 453 pF
Deteriorated
453 pF
Investigate
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Example, a bushing with a nameplate power factor of 0.24 % and a
nameplate capacitance of 412 pF.
Case 1 - Simulated Failure Modes
Comparison of typical and questionable 10-kV test results for
the C
1
insulation of similar bushings
Description
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
Typical good bushing 0.36 292
Same bushing deteriorated 0.94 297
Same bushing with shorted layers of
insulation
0.40 345
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 2 - Resistive Path to Ground
Test kV I (mA) Watts
20C % PF
10 1.313 - 0.007 - 0.053
ABB Type O+C 230 kV bushing
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Case 3 - Ungrounded Conductive Layer
Test Insulation Nameplate Measured
% PF Cap (pF)
20C % PF
Cap (pF)
1 C
1
0.40 347 0.35 337.70
2 C
2
4,329 0.59 939.60
This ungrounded outer conductive layer creates an operating
hazard. This increases the tap voltage, with the cover removed,
from 9,609 volts to 35,108 volts. This surely renders this bushing
unsuitable for use with a bushing potential device. It also places
greater importance on the quality of the connections of the cover to
the receptacle and to the flange.
Ohio Brass Type GK-45 230 kV bushing
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Surge Arresters
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Surge Arresters
Above design rating - it
dissipates the impulse
Drops voltage to zero
Generates its own impulse
Above design rating - it
dissipates the impulse
Clamps the voltage
Doesnt drops voltage to zero
Doesnt generate its own
impulse
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Operating characteristics of two type of surge arresters
Testing the Apparatus and Case Studies
Surge arrester test
Surge arrester dielectric loss test
Analysis of results
Case studies
- case 1 - simulated failure modes
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Surge Arrester Test
Normally includes dielectric loss measurement.
It may also include these measurements:
Insulation resistance
- sensitive to contamination and deterioration
Infra-red
- sensitive to hot-spots
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Surge Arrester Dielectric Loss Test
The dielectric loss test procedure is determined by the number of
units comprising the stack:
single unit
multiple units
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Analysis of Results
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
The measured dielectric loss should be compared:
with factory data (acceptance test)
with earlier tests (especially the first acceptable test)
with similar surge arresters
with Dobles database and typical results
Case 1 - Simulated Failure Modes
Comparison of typical and questionable 10-kV test results for
similar arresters
Description
I (A)
Watts
Typical good arrester 230 0.050
Same arrester contaminated with arcing
byproducts
370 17.5
Same arrester contaminated with moisture 260 0.200
Same arrester, new, contaminated with
factory dirt and metallic particles
250 0.240
Same arrester, with broken internal parts
and open circuited
120 0.006
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformers
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar
Transformers
2002 Doble PowerTest Seminar