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GATE VALVE

A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve. Gate valves are valves that operate by lifting
of a round or rectangular gate out of the path of the fluid. This valve facilitates only
unidirectional flow, but unlike globe valves they give a full bore flow to the fluid. The
round or wedge shaped ring is known a gate as it moves in a perpendicular direction to
the flow of the fluid. Typical gate valves should never be used for regulating flow, unless
they are specifically designed for that purpose. On opening the gate valve, the flow path
is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percent of opening. This means
that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially open gate disk
tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff with a
relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to
regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed to be fully opened or closed. When fully
open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low
friction loss.

Gate valves are characterized as having either a rising or a nonrising stem. Rising stems
provide a visual indication of valve position. Nonrising stems are used where vertical
space is limited or underground.

Construction
The bonnets of gate valves are made of cast iron and thus require extra care during
overhauling. The valves or the gates are circular or wedge shaped discs and are attached
to a threaded spindle working in a nut. The salient feature of gate valves is that the
sealing surfaces between the seat and the valve are planar. The valves and seats might be
tapered or parallel at the sides.

The bonnets might be a screw-in, bolted or a union.type depending on the requirement


and the space where the valve has to be fitted. It is of utmost importance that the bonnets
are absolutely leak proof. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest, offering a durable, pressure-
tight seal. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection and
cleaning. It also gives the body added strength. Bolted bonnet is used for larger valves
and higher pressure applications.

Another type of bonnet construction in a gate valve is pressure seal bonnet. This
construction is adopted for valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of 15 Mpa
(2250 psi). The unique feature about the pressure seal bonnet is that the body - bonnet
joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the valve increases, compared to other
constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leaks in the body-
bonnet joint.

Gate valves normally have flanged ends which are drilled according to pipeline
compatible flange dimensional standards. Gate valves are typically constructed from cast
iron, ductile iron, cast carbon steel, gun metal, stainless steel, alloy steels, and forged
steels.
Usage of Gate Valves
Gate valves are used in applications where a full unrestricted flow of the fluid is desired.
As the gate can be opened to the full bore it provides very less frictional loss.

Gate valves are not suited for regulating flow as the gate arrangement allows the valve to
remain in either fully closed or open position. In order to increase tightness of the seal
some gate valves are provided with twin discs which can be pressed against the seat with
the help of a spring when closed. In case the valve requires a change in direction, a full
bore angle valve can be used.

Steam circuits on ships are best suited for the use of gate valves due to the characteristics
described above. Since steam causes heating and deformation of the material that it
passes through; normally such valves do not have a solid gate, rather they have a flexible
gate made out of two circular plates with a hub in-between to account for any change of
dimensions in the valve body.