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iz Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS Highway Safety Design Standards Part 1: Road Safety Design Manual May 2012 Republic of the Philippines DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY Manila ¥4 MESSAGE The delivery of quality and safer roads is a formidable challenge to the Department of Public Works and Highways. It takes a whole community to accomplish this goal. Over the years, statistics on road crashes and accidents have increased tremendously involving not only the motorists but also the pedestrians as victims. Time has come that we have to take a closer look into the factors causing these road-related deaths and injuries, We have taken the first step — the assessmentof 3,130.00 kilometers of national roads. We have thousands of kilometers ofnational roads more to assess and correspondingly, we shall implement their systematic safety upgrading. And for local roads, we enjoin ‘our partners in the Local Government to do their part so that the country's total road network shall comply with safety standards. To address the engineering aspect, the DPWH has prepared the DPWH Highway Safety Design Standards Manual aimed at esiablishing and maintaining standardized ‘safe road design principles and standards for roads in the Philippines. |, therefore, enjoin every road builder, both in the public and private sectors, to comply with the safety design principles laid out in this Manual — in terms of road pianning, roadworks project management and traffic management. Also, in partnership with other stakeholders and in addition to engineering, we shall endeavor to execute the education and enforcement aspects of road safety. Let us then work together for quality and safer roads — dedicated to saving lives. ROGELIO L’. SINGSON Secretary FOREWORD ‘This Road Safety Design Manual is issued by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) to establish and maintain standardized safe road design principles and standards for roads in the Philippines. The manual is part of the DPWH Highway Safety Design Standards Manual as follows: Part 1: Road Safety Design Manual Part 2: Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual ‘This Road Safety Design Manual has been developed as part of the Road Infrastructure Safety Project with the assistance of DPWH staff from the Bureau of Design and the Road Safety Section, Project Evaluation Division of the Planning Service. ‘This manual is to be used in conjunction with the DPWH Highway Design Guidelines. ‘The manual includes standards and guidance for safety planning, safety design and for road safety risk assessment. The manual is to be used as a primary reference for the planning, design and management of National Highways and local roads. To maximize safety, it is essential to maintain a consistent standard for road and intersection design. In the interests of uniformity, Local Government Units, project managers and consultants are requested to apply the principles in this manual to provide appropriate standards for intersections and lengths of roadway in the Philippines. The principles contained in this manual should also be used in the training of DPWH steff involved in road planning, design, road works project management and traffic menagement. ‘The manual includes safety design principles based on best international practice applicable to the Philippines settings. Specific areas of design where changes in past practice are expected to lead to significant safety improvements include: * Choice of intersection type and layout This is particularly related to the design and use of roundabouts and the type of channelization to reduce potential conflicts and the severity of traffic accidents (includes evoiding se of ‘Y junctions and ‘T junctions with triangular islands); = Safety of the roadside. This includes the definition of a ‘clear zone’ for a forgiving roadside and the use of certified median and roadside barriers as well as the use of frangible lighting poles; and * Safety of unprotected road users such as pedestrians and cyclists, When the design principles in this manual are used in conjunction with the DPWH Highway Design Guidelines, roads and intersections wil be to 2 design that maximizes road safety. References: AASHTO - A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001. AASHTO - Roadside Design Guide, 2002. U.S. Highway Capacity Manual VicRoads — Road Design Guidelines AUSTROADS — Rural Road Design: A Guide to the Geometric Design of Rural Roads, 2003. AUSTROADS - Urban Road Design: A Guide to the Geometric Design of Major Urban Roads, 2002 AUSTROADS —Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice, Part 5: Intersections at Grade. AUSTROADS —Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice, Part 6: Roundabouts. Table of Contents MESSAGE OF THE SECRETARY... FOREWORD ‘SAFETY PLANNING. "1 1 INTRODUCTION oe 22 1.1. Background. 2 2” Lano Use ND ZONING 3 21 Principles in Land Use Planning and Zoning. 4 2.2. Traffic Planning for Different Land Uses. 5 221 Residental Areas. 5 222 Industial Aroas 8 223 Commercial / Retail Arcee, 8 22.4 _ Recroational/Tourism Areas. 7 3 ROAD HIERARCHY occ nn i) 3.1 Primary Arterials (Expressways, National Roads). 10 3.2 Secondary Arterlals (Provincial Roacs).... 1 3.3 Collector Roads (Municipal/ City Roads). 2 3.4 Access Roads (Local Roads). a 3 3.5 Pedestrianized Areas/Routes... 15 4. ROUTE PLANINING THROUGH EXISTING COMMUNITIES, 7 5 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL / ENCROACHMENT 19 8 Access Cowra. 20 7 TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESGMENT (TIA) . 21 8 ROAD DESIGN PARAMETERS. 23 8.1 Speed Management....ccucscsnsnnnasininnsnennmnininnnrinicnessnin 28 8.1.1 Design Speed. 23 81.2 Speed impications 23 8.1.3 Current Speed Limits. “3 8.1.4 Speed Restricion Signs 28 ais Poor Road Standards 28 82 ROAM Capacity nn 83 Traffic Forecasts 9 PUBLIC TRANSPORT. 9.1. Public Transport Operations. 9.2 Lay-bys, Bus Stops and Service Roads 10 VULNERABLE ROAD Users 11.1 Parking Near intersections 11.2 Angle Parking... 11.3 Parking Adjacent To ‘Barrer Lines. 12 LIGHTING... : SAFETY DESIGN. 13 INTRODUCTION... 18.1 Background... 13.2 Safe Design Principles. 14 ROAD SURFACE... 15 _ ROAD ALIGNMENT CONSDERATIONS. 181 Introduction . 152 Some Physical Problems. 16 ROAD ALIGNMENT GEOMETRY, 164 Cone Mal ernrsvennnnen 16.2 Design Standards 16.3 _ Sight Distance... 163.1 Introduction 1692 Sight Distance Elements 16.33 Driver Eye Height / Object Height. 1634 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD). 164 Horizontal Geometty.... 1641 Circular Curve Alignmert. 1642 —— Spialand Circular Curve Alignment 1643 —_ Superelevetion Development 165 Vertical Geometry... 1651 Grades. 1652 Vertical Curves 17__CROSSSECTION 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Traffic Lanes. 17.3 Shoulders. BeSSSSsssIss 17.4 Curb and Gutter 76 17.5 — Drainage... 77 12.6 Pedestrian Facilites on Rural Roads... 78 17.7 _ Overtaking Provision (Auxifary Lanes) ...-.e00enrnneonensnn roves 7B 1771 Overtaking Lenes: 20 17.72 Climbing Lanes. 82 1773 Merging and Diverging for Auxiliary Lanes: 83 1773 Slow Vehice Tunouts: et 1774 Descending Lanes, enna 8S 177.5 Emergency Escape Ramps 85 18 DELINEATION.. “ 19_INTERSECTIONS..... 19.1 Intersection Types........ 18.2. Traffic Control DeVICES....enrnsnnnnsnennnininiennnnninennnnnannnnnnns 1921 Priority intersections ot 1922 __ Signal Coniroled Intersections 1 19.3 Control of Conficts. att 19.4 Control of Speed. 1941 Relative Speed 19.42 Attaining low relative speeds 19.5 Channeizetion 19.6 Lane widths. 19.7 Awiliary Lanes at intersectons. 18.8 Right and Left Turing Lanes... 19.9 _ Right Turn Sip Lenes 18.9.1 High Entry Angle Sip Lene. 1892 Free Flow Slip Lane. "101 19.10 Left TUM TReatMeNts ...oecnesnviensnnnineinnnnninsinetnnnnnen 101 19.11 Intersection Capacity. 7 a sctacthatns ‘ 103 19.12 Sight Distance at intersections... 3 ste ‘ 103 18.13 Horizontal and Vertical Intersection Geometry... esncnnesesee 104 1914 Roundabouts 105 1914.1 Introduction 105 1914.2 Safety Benefits 105 1914.3 Appropriate Locations ‘or Roundabouts 105 1914.4 Balancad Flows 108 19.14.5 Roundabout Design Practice 108 1814.6 Things to Avoid 110 19.147 Design Steps 110 1914.8 Traffic Control and Pririty 114 19.15 Examples of Poor Intersection Layouts. 115 19.151 Y-Intersection, 15 19.15.2'Y Intersection with Triangular Island 117 20 SAFETY OF THE ROADSIDE 118 20.1 Introduction. emt sire 7 sana 4A 202 ClearZone ta ene oe 118 203 New Roads... 122 204 Existing Roads... 122 205 Treatment of Hazards.......... 123 20.6 Roadside and Median Safety Barriers. 127 2061 Road Sefety Barrier Systems: : “128 2062 Design Of Barrier System Insiallations 134 20.7 Further Examples of Barrier Installations... sv vo 144 207.1 Bridge Railing 141 207.2 Connecton to Bridge Railira so onmannnnnennes 94 2073 Railing End Treatment. 143 207.4 — Unconnected Concrete Barriers 144 2075 Gore Area. 148 2078 Trees. 148 207.7 — Street Lighting Poles... ornwwnsnennn 148 2078 Other Examples of Roadside Hazards. 151 2079 Curbs in Front of Barriers 183, RISK ASSESSMENT 155 21 _ Risk Assessment 158 214 158 212 158 213 156 214 157 215 157 APPENDIX 1 - ROADSIDE BARRIERS STANDARD DRAWINGS. 159 APPENDIX 2 - CONCRETE BARRIERS. APPENDIX 3 - FRANGIBLE POLES - SPECIFICATION AND DRAWINGS... APPENDIX 4 - SPEED TEMPLATES FOR ROUNDABOUT DESIGN.........203 APPENDIX 5 - TURNING TEMPLATES FOR LARGE VEHICLES. 2 APPENDIX 6 - CONCRETE CURB AND GUTTER DETAILS..................218 Table of Figures Figure 2.1 : Poor Zoning and Road Planning Interface... Figure 2.2 : Good Zoning and Road Planning Interface... Figure 2.3 : Ideal Road Network Planning for Tourism Areas... Figure 3.1 : Schematic Hierarchy of Roads Figure 3.2 : Externally and Internally-fed Networks ...... Figure 3.3 : Road Network that Attracts Through Traffic Onto Local Roads. Figure 3.4 : Road Network that Deters Through Traffic from Using Local Roa‘ Figure 3.5 : Road Layouts that Deters Through Traffic from Using Local Roads... Figure 4.1 : Road Layout that Results in Confict Between Local and Through Traffic... Figure 4.2 : By Pess Road Deters Through Traffic from the Communi... Figure 5.1 : Encroachment that Reduces Effective Sidewalk Width... Figure 8.1 : Risk of Pedestrian Fatality Figure 8.2 : High Speed Road with Separate Lane for Non-Motorized Vehicles.....25 Figure 8.3 : High Speed Road with Wide Median...» Figure 9.1 : Bus Stop Concept, EDSA......... Figure 9.2 : Lay-By Concept, EDSA....... Figure 10.1 : Poor facilities for pedestrians Figure 10.2 : Good Pedestrian Facilities ..... Figure 10.3 : Obstructions that Reduce Etfective Travel Width for Pedestrians Figure 10.4 : Segregated Pedestrian and Bikeway from Main Thoroughfare. Figure 10.5 : Road without bike lanes....... Figure 11.1 : Angle Parking with Maneuvering Area Clear of # Through Trafic Lanes 39 Figure 12.1 : Types of Lighting and Illumination 42 Figure 12.2:: Lighting installations at Intersections. i 43 Figure 14.1 : Poor road surface with depressed manhole lid 47 Figure 14.2: Poor Road Edge 48 Figure 16.1 : Poor Design and Delineation of Curve. 9 Figure 15.2 : Lost Control on Curve. _ 50 Figure 15.3 : Extreme topography results in small radius curves | 50 Figure 15.4 : Trees Obstructing Sight Distance..... is : Figure 16.5 : Poor Vertical Alignment Approaching a T-Intersection 51 Figure 18.6 : Poor Intersection due to Lack of Channelization .. Figure 15.7 : Small (5m radius) Roundabout in Balayan Town. Figure 15.8 : Horizontal Curve at the End of a Steep Downgrade Figure 15.9: Poor Vertical Sag Figure 15.10 : Reverse Curves... - : Figure 15.11 : Poor Combination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment... 54 Figure 18 12; Detnestion of Curve ~ Poor nightume vsty.. 55 Figure 16.1: Sight Distance Types... 182 Figure 16.2 : Circular Curve Geometry 64 Figure 16.3: Length of Citra (Spr) 8 Supereiovaion evelopment... 8B Figure 16.4 : Superelevation Development. . 68 Figure 16. : Truck Speeds on Grades... 69 Figure 16.7 : Crest Vertical Curves... 72 Figure 17.1 : Good Cross-Secton providing lane for vulnerable road users. 75 Figure 18.1: Good Read Delineation...» vn . 87 Figure 18.2 : Poor Curve Delineation... : . 88 Figure 18.3 : Poor Delineation of the Center and Edge of Roadway... 88 Figure 18.4 : Examples of Chevron Signs providing Delineation of Curves............88 Figure 18.5 : Road Delineation affected by shadows... iia cai coe esse cic Figure 19.1 Figure 19.2: Figure 19.3 : Figure 19.4: Figure 19.5: Figure 19.6 Figure 19.7 : Figure 19.8 Figure 19.9: Figure 19.10 Figure 19.11 Figure 19.12 Figure 19.13 Figure 19.14 Figure 19.15 Figure 19.16 Figure 19.17 Figure 19.18 Figure 19.19 Figure 19.20 Figure 19.21 Figure 19.22 Figure 19.23 Figure 19.24 Figure 19.25 Figure 19.26 Figure 19.27 Figure 19.28 Figure 19.29 Figure 19.30 Figure 19.31 Figure 20.1 : Figure 20.2 Figure 20.3 Figure 20.4: Figure 20.5: Figure 20.6 : Figure 20.7 Figure 20.8 : Figure 20.9 Figure 20.10 Figure 20.11 Figure 20.12 Figure 20.13 Figure 20.14 Figure 20.15 Figure 20.16 Figure 20.17 Figure 20.18 Figure 20.19 Figure 20.20 Figure 20.21 Figure 20.22 Figure 20.23 Figure 20.24 Large Intersection Confiict Area Three-Legged Intersection........ Four-Legged Intersection... Roundabout at Four-Legged Intersection... Cross Road... a neeneene Y Intersection Layout Roundabout...» Conflicts at ¥ and T Intersections. Guideline for Left and Right Turn Lanes. High Entry Angle Slip Lane................. Free Flow Slip Lane Type A Left Tum Treatment, Type B Left Tun Treatment... Type C Left Turn Treatment... Geometric Elements of a Roundabout. Inner Urban Roundabout ..... Outer Urban Roundabout... Rural Roundabout... Urban Spitter Island Details : Low Speed Approach. Urban Spiitter Island Splitter Island for High Speed Approach. Movement Volumes and Circulating Flows. Number of Lanes... : Tuming Radius for Determining Circulating Caiageway Width. Deflection Requirement - Single lane. Deflection Criteria — Multi Lane... ‘Typical Pavement Markings at a Mul Give Way Sign (R1-2) Poor Intersection Layout Poor delineation Poor Intersection Layout... Recovery Area (100 kph operating speec, fat cross, = pe). Road with Good Clear Zone. Clear Zone Calculation Relocsted Pole...... Drivable Culvert End... Steel Sign Posts. Frangible Wooder Pole Hazard Impact Absorbing Pole... Unprotected Roadside Hazard. Use of Barrier... Median Barriers. Roadside Barriers... Roadwork Barriers... Effective Clear Zone (ECZ) Fill Siope Safety Barrier Warrant Median Safety Barrier Warrant Approach Barrier Design Elements.....c...coneseuen sents nnn Departure/Opposing Barrier Desion Elements Poor Bridge Railing. areaeavaney Very Good Bridge Railing Poor Bridge Railing - No Connection Good Connection to Bridge Rating Poor End Treatment. Figure 20.25 Figure 20.26 Figure 20.27 Figure 20.28 Figure 20.29 Figure 20.30 Figure 20.31 Figure 20.32 Figure 20.33 Figure 20.34 Figure 20.35 Figure 20.36 Figure 20.37 Figure 20.38 Figure 20.39 Figure 20.40 Figure 20.41 Figure 20.42 Car Speared by Guardrail... Very Good End Treatment Unconnected Concrete Barriers. Good Connected Barriers... Very Good Connected Barrier. Poor Uncannected Barrier Poor Gore Treatment: Poor Gore Treatment........... . Very Good Gore End Treatment usi ng pact ienuator.. Tree Hazard... ceria tas giana Frangible Poles... Impact-Absorbing Pole... . Impact Behavior - Slip Base and Impact ‘Assorbing Poles. Hazardous Roadwork Site... -_ Hazardous Pipe Installation Hazardous Protruding Pole Outside Line of Barrier. Hazardous Barrier System....... Curb in front of Barrier. List of Tables Table 16.1 Table 16.2 Table 16.3 Table 16.4 Table 17.1 Table 17.2 Table 17.3 Table 19.1 Table 19.2 Table 20.1 Table 20.2 Table 20.3 Table 20.4 Table 20.5 Table 20.6 Table 21.1 Table 21.2 Table 21.3 Table 21.4 Design Standards for Philippine National Highways......... Driver Eye and Object Heights Stopping Sight Distance (SSD). K Values for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves... ‘Traffic Volume Guidelines for Provision of > Overtaking | Lanes. Overtaking Lane Lengths... a Diverge and Merge Lengths. Intersection Sight Distance (ISD)... Circulating Carriageway Widths Curve Correction Factor... Test Levels for Roadside Barriers Offset from edge of traffic lane to face of barrier... Clearance from face of barrier to face of hazard... Runout Lengths for Barrier Design....... Maximum Flare Rates for Barrier Design.. Likelincod Definition. Consequence Definition Risk Category... ‘Treatment Priorty. SAFETY PLANNING 4A INTRODUCTION Background This section of the manual describes features relating to the safety of a length of road or the road network through the awareness of safety principles during the planning stages of a new area or of a road project. Planning of new areas or road projects can be considered in four stages: = Laying out the land-use of the area. This is where for example, industrial areas can be separated from residential areas or where consideration should be given to the movement of people, particularly pedestrians and cyclists. The location of shopping centers and schools should be considered carefully to facilitate the safe movement of pedestrians and motor vehicles and in order to avoid the potential impact of adjacent heavy through-traffic; = Once the land-use is determined, an arterial road network should be defined to cater for through traffic. This is then supported by a network of local roads that provide access to the properties within the area. ‘The separation of through traffic from local traffic is an important principle in road safety; * On the arterial roads, careful control and management of access can facilitate safety and the smooth flow of traffic; and, * Careful planning and provision of public transport facilities can ensure that the conflict areas between pedestrians and vehicles are minimized, LAND USE AND ZONING Zoning in the Philippines has been under total control of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB), until the early 1990's when this function was gradually decentralized to the Local Government Units by virtue of the Local Govemment Cade. Since then, each unit of the Local Goverment became responsible for zoning of their respective jurisdictions and final land use and zoning plans were submitted to HLURB for approval. Thus, the municipal, oity, and provincial planning and development offices (MPDO, CPDO, and PPDO) have developed comprehensive land use and development plans to control within sustainable limits urbanism and rapid growth. It is the intent of this manual that road safety concerns should be given emphasis in the conduct of tratfic impact assessment for new developments or any project that would significantly affect local zoning ordinances. As experienced in Metro Manila, the emergence of large traffic generators such as malls and similar commercial establishments has created fragmented land use interactions that have deteriorated traffic operation of the road network. While traffic impact assessments may have been prepared for these developments, safety may not have been given adequate emphasis. Therefore, in the course of planning for large traffic generators, itis imperative to consider the following: + That big land developments must carefully follow project size threshold as identified by the zoning administrator of the locality. The threshold may be gauged based on the total land area of the project site, the footprint area of the building, percantage land occupancy, floor area ratio (FAR); = Large lend developments usually are big traffic generators and should not have direct access to a high speed road facility. This is to provide a buffer between pedestrians and entering traffic from high volume and high speed traffic; * The minimum local standards pertaining to access and parking requirements should be carefully followed. It may be essential that access, parking, and lay-by facilities must be treated separately corresponding to private cars, public utlity vehicles, and cargo trucks/delivery vans; = Pedestrians should be given utmost consideration by providing fecilities that would segregate them from through and local traffic. A network of at-grade and elevated walkways should be properly planned considering travel patterns and volume of pedestrians; = Nighttime operation is deemed more critical than daytime as this would require further analysis on lighting requirements and added security; 2.4 Principles in Land Use Planning and Zoning The key principles to be adopted in land use planning and zoning are the following: * Development and implementation of 2 zoning plan to separate incompatible and conflicting land uses and the traffic they generate; + Strong pianning regulations to influence the location of new development and to control access arrangements and parking = Land uses should be planned with the aim of minimizing travel and ‘maximizing accessibility to public transport, * Residential development should be separated from heavy industry and major commercial uses; = Activities which generate substantial traffic should be located adjacent to roads most suited to the type of traffic expected (e.g, if a primary school generates many cycle or pedestrian trips, then it should be capable of being reached directly via a network of bikeways or footpaths); and, = Light industry and service establishments can be located adjacent to residential areas but vehicular access should not be via the residential streets. Figure 2.1 ; Poor Zoning and Road Planning Interface Figure 2.1 illustrates a residential area separated from school zone and work places by a primary road. Pedestrians crossing the road pose safety concerns. A more adequate traffic and land-zoning interface is shown in Figure 2.2 where all develooments are located on the same side of the primary road. This setup then would eliminate safety concerns as pedestrians will not regularly cross the road. 2.2 224 Figure 2.2 : Good Zoning and Road Planning Interface Traffic Planning for Different Land Uses Residential Areas Residential roads are the prime locations where vehicles and pedestrians interact and where the movement function fulfills an increasingly minor role amongst the most important service and domestic activities. In order to provide a safe environment for vehicles and pedestrians: Residential roads longer than 100 to 200 meters should be meandering and should have fight horizontal curves or roundabouts at local road intersections to encourage low speeds; Non-access traffic needs to find it impossible, or highly inconvenient, to use residential roads as a short cut; Pedestrians must be given priority, especially close to buildings and in play areas; Direct access to dwellings should be provided from access ways rather than distributor roads; Where dwellings have vehicular access onto distributor roads, altemative pedestrian access should be provided via segregated footpaths onto access ways, Pedestrians should be segregated wherever possible and crossings of traffic routes should be convenient and sate; Parking should be ample and convenient but located away from areas where children play; 2.22 223 Drivers need to be made aware of the priority for pedestrians on entry and throughout the area by the overall geometry, surface texture and threshold treatment as they enter the area; Large developments should be sub-divided to minimize traffic on internal roads; Existing grid networks with cross roads should be modified by closures or restrictions to create internally or externally-fed systems; Inter-visibility between drivers and pedestrians should be sufficient to. minimize the risk of accidents; and, Overnight parking of lorries, especially those with hazardous loads, should be actively discouraged. Industrial Areas Industrial areas are very important to the economy of most countries and it is necessary for them to be provided with safe, efficient links to national and intemational merkets for both raw materials and finished goods, The important factors to consider for the layout and design of industrial estates are: Land zoned for industrial purposes should have direct access from the district cistributor network whenever possible; Each site should have sufficient off-road parking and loading areas to accommodate alll its operational, staff and visitor requirements within the site boundary; Roads and footpaths should provide a safe and efficient means of access for workers, visitors and the range of vehicles which can be anticipated when a number of different industries are grouped together; The internal circulatory system (to at least local distributor standard) should ensure that no traffic queues on the network in normal circumstances; and, Networks of safe cycle/footpaths should be created between the industrial area and the main areas where employees live. Commercial / Retail Areas ‘Commercial and retail areas may vary from isolated stalls or street sellers to major shopping centers and office developments covering large areas of land. Consequently their transport needs may be very mixed. The main points to consider in the pianning of such areas are: ‘All commercial and trading areas should be away from the through traffic network. If alongside, then service roads should be provided to service the development; Rear servicing, seperate from pedestrian access should be provided whenever possible; Adequate parking and Icading facilities for operational use should be provided within the site of individual premises if possible; Visitor and customer parking should be provided off the road, possibly ‘on a communal basis; On-street parking should be discouraged and only permitted where it does not obstruct general traffic movements or conflict with pedestrians; ‘Good pubiic transport provision to and within such areas can effectively reduce overall parking demand; and, When rural main roads in developing countries pass through ‘trading centers” it may be necessary to reduce speeds by physical measures such as road humps and raised pedestrian cossings to protect pedestrians and shoppers. 2.2.4 Recreational/Tourism Areas As countries develop, people increasingly find time for leisure and recreational activities. This leads to demands for sport and recreation centers and leisure parks in addition to major fecilities for spectators’ sports. Where tounst or leisure related activities are encouraged and have become a necessary part of the economy, safe access to them and appropriate parking facilities for them may form an important part of their success. The main considerations to bear in mind are: All recreational generators should be given access from local or district distributor reads, depending on their scale; Recreational land uses should be separated from residential areas, but they may be on the fringes provided recreational traffic is directed away from dwellings; Certain recreational uses may be acceptable within commercial or industrial areas, although this should be done with care, ‘Adequate provision of public transport is essential; Al participant and spectator parking (refer to Figure 23) should be provided separately within or near each facility and be sufficient to accommodate peak demands; Pedestrian routes between entrances/parking areas and venues should be free of vehicular traffic and clearly signposted; Where events necessitate the use of public highways, they should be clearly segregated from general traffic (periodic closures may be justified); Service areas and facilities should be segregated from general traffic and if possible should operate at different times to public use; and, Certain facilities such as car parks could be shared with other uses. Parking area B Parking area C Sports stadium Parking area A Parking area D Figure 2.3 : Ideal Road Network Planning for Tourism Areas ROAD HIERARCHY Road network is defined as a hierarchy in terms of road types and according to the major functions the roads will serve. The main classification is whether the road is to be used primarily for movement or for access. The key points to consider in network planning are the following: Within the hierarchy, networks should be planned such that areas are separated into self-contained zones (often referred to as neighborhoods). The size and scale of these zones will depend upon the Importance of the road bounding them. Within these areas all non- essential traffic should be excluded. It should be possible to carry out most daily trips to shops and schools wholly within the area; The natural barrier of main routes can be used to segregate and contain incompatible uses and to reinforce local identities. The network can be such that traffic can enter zones from an external or internal system (refer to Figure 3.1). The extemal system reinforces these natural barriers and offers the safest network when well planned 19 grid-iron networks should be closed off or restricted to create internally or externally-fed system; u" Primary distributor Industry, Offices] Pedestrian & cycle District distributor Figure 3.1 : Schematic Hierarchy of Roads 34 = Each class of road should clearly convey to the road user its role in the hierarchy with respect to both traffic volume and design speed. This can be achieved by appearance and related design standards; and, + Each road should intersect only with roads in the same dass or one immediately above or below it in the hierarchy. In that way, anyone using the network has a clear impression of the graduated change in conditions between the low speed access roads and the segregated, higher speed “through routes" at the top of the hierarchy. (refer to Figure 3.2) Figure 3.2 : Externally and Internally-fed Networks Expressways / National Roads 3.1.1 Expressways ‘An expressway is proposed for a road corridor under the following situations; * A road corridor connecting several highly urbanized centers with ribbon-type of development of commercial, business and industrial establishment. * A rroad corridor with high trattic demand. These roads are the longer distance transport routes for motorized traffic. They provide the transportation link between regions and provinces. Their primary function is movement and not access. The elements to consider when planning Expressways are: = No frontage access; 10 3.2 = Development set well back from the highway; * Grade separated intersections for extremely high flows and other intersecting expressways; = Number of intersections to be minimized and = Where necessary or for emergency purposes, parking/stopping to be provided clear of the main carriageway. 3.1.2 National Roads National Roads are roads continuous in extent that form part of the main trunk line system; all roads leading to national ports, national seaports, parks or coast-to-coast reads. National arterial roads are classified into three groups from the viewpoint of function, i.e. North-south backbone, East-West Laterals and Other Strategic Roads. ‘The elements to consider when planning National Roads are: = Limited frontage access * Development set well back from the highway; "All access to premises provided via provincial roads; = Number of intersections to be minimized; = Suitable et-grade channelized intersections for minor flows and other elements = No roadside vendors. Provincial Roads Provincial Roads are roads connecting one municipality with another; all roads extending from a municipality or from a provincial or national roads to a public wharf or railway station; and any other road to be designated as such by the Sangguniang Panlalalwigan The main elements to consider when planning Provincial Roads include: = Limited frontage access. In exceptional circumstances, large individual developments may have direct access when a high level intersection is provided; * Development set back from the highway; = Most development to be given access via intersections with local distributor roads; * All intersections wil normally be at-grade; = Turning traffic should be separated out from the through traffic; * Soparated pedestrians/bikeways remote from the carriageway; = Pedestrian crossing points should be clearly defined and controlled; " 3.3 = Parking on the road should not be permitted; * Bus stops and other loading areas (only permitted in exceptional circumstances) should be in separate well designed lay bys; = Regular stopping places for paratransit vehicles (i.e., private, non- corporately run public transport operating vehicles smaller than buses or AUV’s) should be identified and safe stopping places established; and, = No roadside vendors. City / Muni | Roads 3.3.1 City Roads — these roads / streets within the urban area of the city to be designated as such by the Sangguniang Panglungsod. 3.3.2 Municipal Roads — these roads / streets within the poblacion area of a ‘municipality to be designated as such by the Sangguniang Bayan. City / Municipal Roads serve to feed traffic onto and off the main road network at the beginning and end of trips. These roads serve local traffic only. Main points to consider in planning City/Municipal roads are as follows: = The road is only for local traffic; through traffic is adequately accommodated on an alternative more cirect main road, = Where possible, an industrial traffic route should not pass through a residential area; * Vehicle speeds should be kept low so long straight roads should be avoided, = Parking is allowed, but alternative off-road provision should be made if possible; = Non-motorized traffic is of equal importance to motor traffic and separate route should be provided if possible; = Where non — motorized traffic needs to use a local distributor it should be separated from motorized traffic; = The road width can be varied to provide for parking or to give emphasis to crossing points depending upon traffic flows; * Bus stops and other loading areas (only permitted in exceptional circumstances) should be in separate well designed lay bys; + Through-movements should be made awkward and inconvenient to discourage them, and, = No roadside vendors, 2 34 Barangay Roads Barangay Roads are rural roads located either outside the urban area of city or outside industrial, commercial or residential subdivisions which act as feeder farm-to-market roads, and which are not otherwise classified as national, provincial, city or municipal roads. Roads located outside the Poblacion area of municipality and those roads located outside the urban area of a city to be designated as such by the Barangay Council concemed. As the name implies, these roads are for access only and are primarily for residential uses (industrial access should normally occur from a road of at least local distributor standard), These are ultimately the streets on which people live. Design standards may vary but the important elements to consider for barangay roads ere: = Vehicle flows to be kept to a minimum; = All through traffic eliminated; = Vehicle speeds to be kept low by careful and deliberate inclusion of obstructions to create meandering alignments, = Access roads kept short where possible; = Cul-de-sac and loop roads to be used wherever possible to deter through traffic: = Intersections to be three rather than four leg and kept compact to aid pedestrian movement; = Pedestrian and vehicles can ‘share’ space; = Carriageway width can be reduced to emphasize pedestrian priority; = Entrance/exit points of access streets should be clearly identified by threshold treatments, e.g. changes in geometric layout, landscaping, building development or even gateways and signing; = Parking and stopping within the streets is permitted although adequate provision should be provided within individual properties or separate garage areas; + Use of fully mountable curbs for vehicles may enable reduced road width and reduced standard alignments to be used by emergency and service vehicles, or for occasional parking; and, = Firepaths (emergency accesses for the engines) can be kept clear by using diagonal closures to eliminate parking spaces or by ensuring other nearby owners gain access by the same route so that they keep them clear. 19 aS } Figure 3.4 : Road Network that Deters Through Traffic from Using Local Road Figure 3.5 : Road Layouts that Deters Through Traffic from Using Local Roads 3.5 Pedestrianized Areas/Routes These ere areas from which all motorized vehicles are excluded to improve safety. In their broadest sense they would include all routes where non- motorized traffic has sole priority. This would include purpose-built footpaths and bikeways that often form a totally separate network to that for motorized traffic in residential areas. In planning new pedestrian networks and areas the key points to consider are: = Residential, industrial and commercial areas should be linked by footpaths providing the mest direct and pleasant route between destinations. = Any deviation from a direct route should be more attractive than a less ‘safe option; * All crossings with main routes should be grade separated wherever possible and if not possible additional at-grade facilities (e.g. refuges or pedestrian crossings) should be provided to minimize crossing problems; "Vertical rerouting (via over bridge or underpass) is much less attractive to pedestrians than at grade facilities; = The vertical and horizontal alignments of pedestrian routes can include much steeper gradients and sharper bends than for 2 roadway for motor traffic; "Open aspects need to be maintained, particularly at intersections and underpasses; = In shopping and commercial areas priority needs to be given to pedestrians; 16 Where motor vehicles are displaced, adequate capacity (for loading, parking and movement) needs to be available elsewhere on the surrounding roads but such facilities should always be within easy walking distance; If no alternative provision can be made for motor traffic, consideration may be given to pedestrianization by time of day i.e., vehicie access allowed only when pedestrian flows are light (e.g. very early in the ‘moming or late at night); Connections to bus stops, parking ereas and stations are vital and should be convenient; and, All pedestianized areas must have provision for access of emergency vehicles and refuse collecting vehicles. 6 ROUTE PLANNING THROUGH EXISTING COMMUNITIES Bypasses around communities are countermeasures aimed at improving safety and reducing the volume of through traffic inside the community. In the Philippines, this is a common practice particularly around the countryside, However, ‘building bypasses is just an alternative countermeasure of discouraging traffic to pass within the community. Other countermeasures can be devised depending on economic and budgetary constraints. Where a bypass can be justified, the most important considerations are: = The opportunity should be taken to reinforce the road hierarchy by down-grading the old road to discourage through traffic; = Access to the bypass should be restricted to only a few points where safe intersections and spur roads can be provided to link to the existing network. Direct access from frontage land should not be permitted; and, * Provisions should be left for future expansion or development of the ‘community but such developments should be served by service roads and spur roads. ‘Where a bypass cannot be justified, countermeasures should be implemented to slow down the speeds of through traffic as it passes through the community or trading centers as follows: = Warning signs and rumble strips can be used to alert drivers about speed-reducing devices ahead; * A series of road humps increasing in height from 40mm to around 80mm can be used gradually to slow down traffic in pedestrian predominated areas; = Road narrowing (with due regard for capacity needs) can be used to induce lower speeds as traffic passes through the community; and, = In order to alert drivers that they are entering a community, it is generally regarded that some form of gateway treatment on the approaches is beneficial (e.g., substandard curve, tree lining, or even non-rigid gate structure). 7 Figure 4.1 : Road Layout that Results in Conflict Between Local and Through Traffic Figure 4.2 : By Pass Road Deters Through Traffic from the Community 8 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL / ENCROACHMENT Planning is a constantly changing process. The difficulty is to control the degree of change so that the various inter-related elements can still operate efficiently. In land use terms this is usually achieved (with varying degrees of success) through the control of existing or new development and prevention of uncontrolled parking, illegal accesses and spread of unauthorized commercial activity. The main points to consider are that = Strict control of roadside hoardings and advertisement boards is required; = Land-use and highway requirements change over time so some spare capacity should be designed into road networks to enable such changes to be accommodated without detrimental effects upon road safety, = Building regulations should include ‘building line’ specifications to control roadside development, = If development control standards permit the growth of activities to encroach onto the transport corridor, additional countermeasures may be required to maintain a safe level of service to the community as whole; + Strong development control can only prevent encroachment onto roads if there are altemative locations for commercial aciivities to be undertaken; and, = Unauthorized development such as roadside advertising boards, illegal accesses and market stalls which create unsafe traffic conditions should be removed as soon as possible end the sites monitored to prevent their reappearance, source: US Highway Capacity Manual Figure 5.1 : Encroachment thet Reduces Effective Sidewalk Width 19 ACCESS CONTROL Access control applies to both vehicular and pedestrian tratfic. Local practices have shown different practices in treating access to developments ‘such as: Provision of elevated pedestrian walkways or underpasses to separate people from road traffic. Oftentimes, these facilifies have direct access to respective developments such as shown in Figures 6.1 and 6.2. This strategy does not only improve safety but also enhance commercial attractiveness of an establishment to its target market Driveways should not lead directly to a high speed road facility as this, may create conflict and compromise safety. Good management of access to roadside properties on arterial roads can reduce conflict between through traffic and local traffic, for example by the provision of service roads, Large parking facilities should locate entrance/exits away from high- speed roads, but with good access circulation leading to high speed roads; Expressway ramps should be carefully planned to reduce confiict with local vehicle and pedestrian traffic; On new roads of district distributor level or higher, direct frontage access should only be permitted in exceptional circumstances, ‘The number of direct accesses onto main roads should be minimized and service roads or collector roads used to bring traffic to a single T- junction at the main road; No access should be permitted at potentially dangerous locations (e.g, at road intersections, or on bends with poor visibility); and, In all cases, each class of road should intersect only with roads in the same Class or one immediately above or below it in the hierarchy. Figure 6.1 : Walkways and Overpass to Control Pedestrian Access source: DPWH / MMURTRIP Figure 6.2 : Service Road and Segregated Walkway to Control Local Traffic Access source: DPWH/ MMURTRIP- a1 TRAFFIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT (TIA) Recent developments in transportation research in the Philippines have resulted in the formulation of a TIA Handbook. This handbook was prepared by the National Center for Transportation Studies (NCTS) in order to standardize the conduct of TIA. In addition, it is worth giving more emphasis ‘on road safety as well as the traditional subjects such as volume control, traffic forecasts, demand management, and congestion mitigation. ‘Some interesting subjects for consideration in the TIA is the interface between land use development and traffic, and this should be reviewed against the guidelines of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB). Parking demand and restrictions should also be strictly followed as mandated by the National Building Code. Preferably, parking demand should be based on local parking indices and not on intemational practices since local traffic conditions very much differ from other countries’ experiences. Pedestrian considerations should also be given more weight in the planning stage. Road safety is given importance in the proposed TIA guidelines. The general ‘scope of works on the proposed guidelines cover the following: = Transportation Improvement = Road Geometry = Traffic Safety * Site Circulation and Parking = Transportation fai pedestrian travel S elated to public transport, bicycle, and = Transportation demand management = Neighborhood traffic and parking management = Funding for countermeasures Likewise, the NCTS TIA guidelines have listed the standards of significance for traffic impacts of a project: = If the projected traffic will cause the existing intersection or highway roadway levels of service to drop below an acceptable level of service; = If the projected traffic will contribute to the increase in traffic along arterials or at intersections currently operating at unacceptable levels. = If the project design does not have adequate parking or circulation capacity to accommodate an increase in traffic. = If the traffic increase or roadway design will result in safety concems; or, + If the project does not include adequate provision for bicycle, pedestrian, or public transport access. 84 8.1.4 8.1.2 8.1.3 ROAD DESIGN PARAMETERS Speed Management Design Speed The choice of an appropriate design speed for a red project is important to ensure a safe design. ‘When choosing a design speed, the following factors need to be considered: = Function of the road. An arterial road such as a national highway would generally have a higher design speed than a local road * Anticipated operating speed. For example, 2 national highway in an area with steep terrain would generally have a lower design speed (i.e. smaller radius curves) than a national highway in flat terrain where higher speeds would generally be anticipated and hence large radius curves adopted. In these examples the anticipated operating speed of the new facility (that mey include improved elignment and road surface), should form the basis for determining an appropriate design speed, rather than the operating speed of the existing road. * Anticipated speed limit. When considering the design speed along a route, it may also be necessary to adopt a different design speed for different sections of the road 2s circumstances change. For example within a town or on the road section between towns, + Eonomics. The implications relating to cost of construction ‘Speed Implications Research shows that lower speeds lead to fewer and less serious crashes. ‘There are two reasons for this: = At higher speeds a rider or driver has less time to react to a situation and therefore there is a greater likelihood that an error will result in a crash; and, + The momentum and kinetic energy of a vehicle increases rapidly with speed. The sudden dissipation of this energy in a crash means that the injury to occupants is more severe. Therefore, 2 carefully planned speed limit regime can make a significant contribution to road safety. Current Speed Limits ‘The current speed restrictions are set out in Chapter IV - Traffic Rules, in Republic Act No. 4136 ‘Land Transportation and Traffic Code.’ The rules indicate that a motorist shall drive at a safe speed determined by the driver based on the road environment and conditions. There are however maximum allowable speeds for different road environments. 23 On open country roads with no ‘blind corners" not closely bordered by habitation, the maximum speed for passenger cars and motorcycles is 80kph and for motor trucks and buses, 50kph. On “through streets” or boulevards clear of traffic, with no “blind corners’, when so designated, the maximum speed for passenger cars and motorcycles is 40kph and for motor trucks and buses, 30kph. On city and municipal streets, with light traffic, when not designated “through streets’, the maximum speed for passenger cars, motorcycles, motor trucks and buses is 30kph. Through crowded streets, approaching intersections at ‘blind comers’, passing school zones, passing other vehicles which are stationary, or for similar dangerous circumstances, the maximum speed for passenger cars, motorcycles, motor trucks and buses is 20kph. Where it is determined that a road should have a different speed restriction to that indicated above, then specific speed restriction signs should be installed to inform motorists. The following sections describe where certain speed restrictions could be appropriate. High Risk Pedestrian Areas — 40 kph Vulnerable road users, especially pedestrians, are particularly vulnerable at higher speeds. The graph below basad on intemational research shows the risk of a pedestrian fatality if hit by a vehicle at different speeds. 338 isk of Fatalty (4) susses sea Impact Speed (tm Figure 8.1 : Risk of Pedestrian Fatality For instance 25% of people struck by a vehicle traveling at 40 koh would suffer fatal injuries. At 50 kph this risk increases to 85%. Therefore a speed limit of 40 kph or lower would be appropriate in areas where there is high pedestrian activity such as in city center areas. A.40 kph speed limit would also be appropriate on roads where there are no footpaths and pedestrians are required to walk on the road. Low risk pedestrian areas - 60 kph On roads through built-up areas where there are not so many pedestrians, it is appropriate to allow motorized traffic to travel more quickly The following picture shows the type of environment where 60 kph may be appropriate. Although this road is carrying vulnerable road users, they have a ‘separate lane to travel in. Figure 8.2 : High Speed Road with Separate Lane for Non-Motorized Vehicles 80 kph ‘An 80kph speed limit would be appropriate on a high standard duplicated carriageway road where there is only occasional access from adjoining properties. 100 kph ‘A 100 kph speed limit would only be appropriate on very high standard expressways, which have a low crash rate. These expressways should have a high standard geometry and should be free of roadside hazards. If hazards exist and they cannot be removed or modified, they should be shielded with a safety barrier. 26 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 Speed Restriction Signs Good speed management practice depends on speed limtt signs being placed in visible locations and repeated frequently enough for motorists to be certain of which speed zone they are in. At the start of a new speed zone, a speed limit sign should be erected on the left and right sides of the road. Then within the first kilometer, there should be two (2) farther pairs of repeater speed limit signs. After that, repeater signs should be placed at one kilometer spacing Repeater signs should also be placed before and after all major intersections to confirm the speed limit to all traffic turning into the road being considered Poor Road Standards If the standard of the road geometry or its surface is poor, then it may be appropriate to adopt a lower speed limit than would normally apply until such time that the road improvements can be made. The lower speeds compensate for the hazardous conditions of the road. ‘An 80kph or SOkph speed limit may also be appropriate on lower standard expressways. For instance, the concrete plant cylinders on the side of the expressway as shown in Figure 83 are a serious road hazard within the cleer Zone which could cause injury to the occupants of an out of control vehicle. If this roadside hazard cannot be removed or protection for vehicles provided, the speed limit should be restricted to reduce the risk to motorists and riders. Figure 8.3 : High Speed Road with Wide Median Road Capacity Road Capacity, as defined in the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), is the maximum number of vehicles, which have a reasonable expectation of passing over a given section of a lane or a roadway in one direction or in both directions during one hour under prevailing road and traffic conditions. 8.3 Generally, road capacity with respect to road sections is measured in terms of level-of-service. This is designated with letters ‘A’ to 'F’ with ‘A’ the most ideal condition and 'F' the saturated condition where volume is equal to the road capacity, In regard to intersections, capacity is generally measured in terms of ‘degree of saturation.’ The capacity of 2 route can be affected by the following factors: = Number of Lanes; = Lane and shoulder width; = Terrain and road gradient, * Traffic composition; = Side friction such as the presence of road furniture and pedestrians; and * Intersection capacity (priority of movements, traffic signal phasing, number of lanes etc.) Ideal capacity of a road is 2,000 vehicles/hour (vph). However, based on several surveys conducted in Metro Manila for various infrastructure projects, it was found that the maximum volume is achieved only at a level of 1,400vph_ ‘on expressways and 1,100 for urban arterials. In the design stage of @ road project, appropriate capacity should be established to ensure satisfactory operation. In establishing the capacity of the road, actual traffic surveys as well as investigation of future use is required to ensure that safety is not compromised once the facility is in operation. Traffic Forecasts Experiences in the Philippines indicated that traffic forecasts for expressways (tolled facilities) are usually optimistic. This may be seen as a factor to boost revenue forecasts to make the road appear more interesting to investors. The opposite can be true in planning urban arterials as forecasts are often below actual traffic counts once the facility is in operation. The latter has more impact on traffic safety since it could mean more traffic is using the road than the volume for which it was originally designed. Further, road maintenance is often compromised when traffic exceeds the forecasts (e.9. thickness of pavement, lane width, maintenance budgel, etc.). O41 9.2 PUBLIC TRANSPORT Public transport refers to public utlity jeepneys, buses and taxis. Public Transport Operations The rule of thumb to enhance safety in the operations of public transport as in the case of Metro Manila is to segregate them from private cars. The provision of “yellow lanes" on some mejor thoroughfares of Metro Manila is seen as good practice. However, proper planning should be conducted on locating loading and unloading areas for passengers. These loading/unioading areas should be located in vicinities that offer protection to commuters and pedestrians. Lay-bys, Bus Stops and Service Roads Lay-bys and bus stops allow public transport vehicles to stop safely and with the minimum of adverse effects on other traffic. This is best cone with a segregated area joined to the main road pavement only at an entry point and exit point. Vehicles can then stop off the main carriageway without interfering with other traffic and with less risk to passengers getting on or off. Where primary roads are bordered by commercial or residential development, service roads are the safest way of allowing access to property with the minimum effect on other traffic. Also, where a large commercial development is fronted by an informal parking area with controlled access to the carriageway, a significant risk of accidents will often exist The general guidelines in planning for public transport facilities are as follows: = Lay-bys should be positioned on straight, level sections of road and should be visible from a good distance in both directions. = Onrrural roads, it is cheaper to provide lay-bys at transitions from cut to fill. = Access to lay-bys should be convenient and safe for vehicles and also for pedestrians in the case of bus stops. = Advance warming signs could be erected to alert drivers of the approach to lay-bys, and to the possible presence of pedestrians ahead. * Adequate queuing and waiting areas should be available so that waiting passengers do not use the road or a dedicated bus lay-by. = Where space is limited, it may be possible to link premises using a service road, which runs behind the premises and tums to rejoin the ‘main road only when a convenient and safe location is reached. At this point, parking and other potential visual obstructions should be carefully controlled. 28 Where problems of merging from a lay-by occurs, it may be possible to postpone the merge by providing a short additional lane, which is the continuation of the lay-by. Where spillage of diesel fuel is likely to occur, e.g. at bus stop, concrete construction is more suitable than a bituminous surfacing. (Buses will not use the stops if the road surface has deteriorated.) Bus stops should be located beyond pedestrian crossings and after intersections to avoid stopped vehicles masking pedestrian and other crossing activities. Figure 9.1 : Bus Stop Concept, EDSA ‘Source: DPWH / MMURTRIP- Figure 9.2: Lay-By Concept, EDSA ‘Source: DPWHt / MMURTRIP 29 On highly trafficked or arterial roads, it is desirable for public transport vehicles to stop off the main carriageway. In urban areas, it can be advantageous to locate indented bus or jeepney stops on the downstream side of major signalized intersections. This can improve the ability and safety of the vehicle to re-enter the traffic stream. The guidelines in the design and location of turn-outs along national road shall conform to D.O. No. 58 series of 2010, ee SSD tas ato poe ' ' t | cross-storih_ A= 4 roe FIGURE + - TURNOUT ( LOADING / UNLOADING BAY ) aeacmerto Beno. 885.2000». 22 PLAN FIGURE2 : TURNOUT LOCATION TE = TYPICAL ROMDVAY SECTION ASPHALT PAVEMENT : BOND W8s2000 20 nore ‘GROSS LORE OF TH TURLT HAL BE OSL STOOER Te CSS SLOPE OF He ADA « Sa ee {TYPE 2- TYPICAL ROADWAY (CONERETE PAVCHENT FIGURE 3: TURNOUT TYPICAL SECTIONS. 31 |RERUDLEC OF THE PHEILEPPENES DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS OFFUCE OF THE SECRETARY Asis OCT29 2m DEPARTMENT ORDER } SUBJECT : REVISED GUIDELINES IN THE 5 8 ) DESIGN AND LOCATION OF ‘No. , TURNOUTS (LOADING AND ey UNLOADING BAYS) ALONG NATIONAL ROADS In tine with the Repartment’s continuing penress af upgrading owe rat safety standards, the guidelines in the design and locaton of tumouts {loading untoacing bays) 48 set Torin in Department Order No, 44, Series ot 2019, aru hereby amendod., ax follows: 1, Tumouts shail be placed outside the carriageway of cur national reads and should be sufficiently long to accommodate the maximum number ‘of vehicles expected to occupy the space at one time, The desivable minimum length including transition taper iz €9.0 meters but not longer ‘than 185.0 meters to avoid ls use as a passing lane, (Figure 1); 2. The required length of the turnout shall be determined considering = length of 15.0 meters for each bus; 3. Turnouts shall have # minimum width of 3.60 meters to sccommodate all types of vehicle, (Figure 18); 4. Tumouts shall not be placed on or adjacent to horizontal and vertical ‘curves that limit the sight distance in either direction: 5. The specific location of tumout shall be determined taking into consideration the following concitions: 5.1 Tumouts shall be placed at locationsipoblacions where pedestrians: are normally concentrated; 2 A wmout may be placed at least $0.0 meters after 2 road Intersection, (Figure 2) 53 Minimum Gistance DeweEn TWO consecUtIVe tumoUES In one direction shall not be less than $00.0 meters in citvesiurban centers. In other areas, the minimum distance shall not be less than 1.0 alometer; 0. NO, 88.2010 P27 5.4 Turnouts shall not be placed opposite each other but shall be placed not bess than 30.0 meters apart. (Figure 21: 6. The pavement type of turnout shail be the same as the existing pavoment ‘of the earriagaway, (Figure 7. The pavement thickness of turnout shall in no case be less than 100mm for asphalt and 220mm for concrete with supporting base layers, (Fipure a 8. Pedestrian sidewalk oc platform {minimum width of 2.0 meters) shall be provided alongside the turnout and in ao case shall be lower than the existing sidewalk: 3% Im areas involving high embankment or excavation, coco fiber or geotextile net shall be used for the slope protection: 10. For adequate drainage of surface run-off, drainage facilities such a= curbs and gutter, indete and storm sewer shall be provided within the tumat. ‘The follawing shall be abservad: . The cross slope of the tamout shall be 0.40% steeper than the crass Slope of the adjacent lane of the existing carriageway; b. The gutter alongside the turnout shall have the same slope as the existing carriageway; ¢. On camiagewsy with existing storm sewer, the tumout shall be Provided with inlets (spacing of 20.0 meters) and connecting pipes to the existing sewers & On level carriagaways with no existing stow sowor, the gutter alongside the tumout shall be sloped to 0.30%. 14, Adequate signages and pavement markings shall be installedita maximize usage and safe operation, (Figure 2): This Order supersedes Department Order No, 44, caries of 2010 andi shaill take effect immediately. SON ROG Secretary Mn a3 10 10.1 VULNERABLE ROAD USERS Vulnerable road users include: = Pedestrians = People with disabilities = Non-motorized vehicles = Motorcycles Pedestrians Motorized vehicles are not the only means of transport using the road system. Other road users such as pedestrians and cydists need to be catered for adequately so that they can use the road space safely. The safest way to cater for these groups is to provide separate areas for them touse. ‘igure 10.1 : Poor facilities for pedestrians Figure 10.1 shows a location where pedestrians need to share road space with vehicles as there is no shoulder or sidewalk. In some situations, consultation may be required with the Local Govemment Units (LGUs) to control the use of roadside areas. Pedestrians are separated from fast-moving traffic The open drain has been covered to provide a sidewalk. Figure 10.2 : Good Pedestrian Facilities a5 Figura 10.3 : Obstructions that Reduce Effective Travel Width for Pedestrians At intersections, it is important that pedestrians have somewhere safe to wait, which Is separate from the roadway. At unsignalized intersections, pedestrians can be catered for by use of a pedestrian crossing marked on the roadway. It is important that this is situated as close to the intersection as possible so the pedestrian is visible to the motorist. 10.2. Cyclists It is desirable that separate lanes be provided for cyclists, especially on heavily trafficked routes. Cyclists are unprotected and when mixed with faster moving vehicles can produce a hazardous situation. Figure 10.4 : Segregated Pedestrian and Bikeway from Main Thoroughfare ‘source: DPWH / MMURTRIP Figure 10.5 : Road without bike lanes 37 11 44.4 11.2 PARKING The effective control of parking and appropriate provision of parking facilities is required to maximize safety and to limit impacts on traffic flow. Expressways. Generally, parking is not appropriate along expressways and these roads need to have signs that inform drivers of the parking restriction. National Roads. Parking should not be permitted along national roads. Local Roads. Parking bans are generally not appropriate, however, the times and duration of parking may need to be indicated on signs. ‘Subject to the consideration of safety and traffic flow needs, where parking is to be permitted within certain arees along roadways, consultation and co- operation between agences is desirable to ensure that proposals are appropriate. Parking Near Intersections Vehicles parked near intersections can obstruct the flow of tuming traffic. Thus, parking should be prohibited within the following minimum distances from the boundaries of intersecting roads: = Parallel parking — 6m on both approach and exit sides = Angle parking ~ 12m on approach side, 9m on exit side It is desirable that on the approach side of a signalized intersection, parking be prohibited for a distance large enough to store as many vehicles as can coross the stop line in one phase from the curb lane. Angle Parking All forms of angle parking present 2 greater hazard than paralle! parking. Therefore the functon of the road needs to be considered relating to proposals for angle parking on or adjacent to roads. Generally, the use of angle parking shall be: = Expressways - No provision except for off-road roadside stopping areas, + National Road- Parking and meneuvering associated with angle parking to be executed completely clear of through traffic lanes. A physical separation in the form of an outer separator should be made between the parking-maneuvering area and the through traffic lanes. = Provincial Roads - Angle parking on these roads may be appropriate. However, it is preferable that the merked parking bays and maneuvering area are physically protected with 2 curb extension. Figure 11.1 : Angle Parking with Maneuvering Area Clear of Through Traffic Lanes - The maneuvering of vehicles for parking may encroach into the through traffic lanes on that side of the center line. It is also desirable that the marked bays should be physically protected as discussed for secondary arterial roads. Local Roads - The maneuvering of vehicles for parking may encroach onto both traffic lanes where traffic volumes are low and the level of delay or congestion can be accommodated The following guidelines should be observed for angle parking The words “Angie Parking" shall be indicated on the parking signs as well as the angle of parking to the curb; Pavement marking of parking bays is desirable, particularly where the required angle is not 45 or 90 degrees, and ‘Angle parking shall not be installed where visibility restrictions would create a hazerdous operating environment, such as the inside of a bend or on a crest. 11.3. Parking Adjacent To Barrier Lines When considering parking adjacent to barrier lines the following factors should be considered: If parking maneuvers can be made clear of through lanes. Generally, at least 3 meters needs to be available for moving traffic between the parked vehicle and the barrier line for a single lane of traffic. The loss of capacity during parking maneuvers if the maneuvers are not completely clear of through lanes. 39 = The safety and potential of vehicles crossing the barrier line to pass vehicle in a parking or unparking maneuver even though this is an unlawful maneuver. 12 LIGHTING The introduction of adequate street lighting can help reduce nighttime accidents and is an established accident prevention measure in urban ereas. It is particularly important where there are high proportions of pedestrians, cyclists or other pooriy lit road users, including animals. Lighting has benefits other than accident prevention and can often be justified as a general amenity with an associated reduction in nighttime crime and an improvement in personal security. Generally, there is a need to improve street lighting especially where there are high pedestrian flows. The most important aspects to consider are: = Evenness and type of illumination is important (refer Figure 12.1). This requires gocd design and regular maintenance. A routine maintenance program should be initiated and all installations inspected on a reguler basis; = Light poles should be sited in positions where they will not be a danger to a vehicle leaving the road or designed as frangible poles (slip-base poles or impact absorbent poles) that slip away or collapse on impact In other situations, a safety barrier may need to be provided to protect ‘occupants of an errant vehicle. * Signs and road markings should be visible at night. Where lighting is, not feasible, use of reflective material is a useful, cheaper alternative; = Lighting is most important at key locations such as at sub-standard design sections, at sites where the layout may be unclear, at intersections, and where pedestrians cross; and, = Consideration should be given to the use of high pressure sodium or metal halide lighting, particularly at key points, as it is much more efficient than mercury or tungsten lighting. Itis important that intersections are adequately lit as it is in this area where vehicles of different speeds can interact. Vehicles are slowing down in this area fo make a turn or enter an intersecting road. At intersections it is important to ensure that elements such as raised islands are adequately lit as these provide the motorist with early indication of the intersection. Figure 12.2 shows typical locations for street lighting at intersections. For route lighting on duplicated roads, frangible lighting poles should generally be located centrally in the median with lights on cantilevered brackets over the roadways. On undivided roads lighting poles would be located alternately each side of the roadway. The spacing of lighting poles along the route is subject to the wattage and mounting height of the lights chosen. A uniformly lit surface should be provided and therefore maintenance is important. Inconsistent lighting can itself De a hazard. Lighting Is especially important where large numbers of pedestrians or cyclists are expected. Further information regarding frangible poles is in Section 20.6.7 and Appendix 3. n jerent Types of Lighting Before (streetight using ordinary mercury and ‘halogen lamps) Alter (streetlight using meta halide lamps) Effect of Over Illumination on Streets Before (Over illumination causes glare) Proper luminance and lighting Before (Dimly it using mercury lamps) Aiter (Adequate lighting using metal halide) Figure 12.1 : Types of Lighting and Illumination 42 g= ue Dxeuxwt where SS = spacing of lamp post ‘we width of the road E= Iilunination f Lux 2 = lamp lumen Cus coefficient of uslization rit= maintenance factor Sis the design spacing of lamp posts for mejor roads T-Intersection Hot grester tage 2/35 Roundabout Intersaction Figure 12.2 : Lighting Installations at Intersections 43 SAFETY DESIGN 13 13.41 13.2 INTRODUCTION Background This section of the manual describes how the road network can be made to be safer through the awareness of safety principles during the design stages. Safe Design Principles The first aim of safe road design is to ensure that road users remain safely on the road. This depends on the following factors: a sound road surface; an adequate width or cross-section; horizontal and vertical alignment; good visibility/sight distance; delineation and signing; provision for pedestrians, pedal cyclists and people with disabilities; management of traffic conficcts at intersections; and, speed management. However, drivers and riders will sometimes make mistakes and lose control and leave the road. At that stage it is important to provide a forgiving roadside, 14 ROAD SURFACE An even, well drained and good textured road surface can maximize safety on the road and prevent traffic accidents occurring. For example, pot holes can make drivers swerve or lose control. In addition, poor skid resistance can cause drivers to lose control or increase the distance that a vehicle will require to stop in an emergency. The level of manhole lids for drainage pits or utlities can also be important for maintaining vehicle a ‘These factors are particularly Important in relation to motorcycle saf Figure 14.1 : Poor road surface with depressed manhole lid The areas where the state of the road surface condition and good texture of the road surface is particularly important are where vehicles are required to brake or maneuver suddenly such as: = On the approach to traffic signals = Atroundabouts = Around tight curves = On downhill slopes. The shape of the road surface and good skid resistance are also important in ensuring that water drains from the road surface. Areas with depressions or where the pavement is very fiat can result in ponding or surface flow of water that can cause a vehicle to skid or aquaplane. Surface shape end levels need to be checked during design and construction. In rural areas, loose gravel on a paved major road can result from traffic ‘movement at gravel intersecting roads. This can be minimized by paving the adjacent area of the side road (6 to 10 meters from edge of through lane). Vehicies then have a firm surface from which to accelerate when turning. 47 ‘The road edge can also cause problems for vehicle safety. Figure 14.2 : Poor Road Edge Figure 14.2 shows the edge of a road with a level difference on the adjacent shoulder. Ifa driver lost partial control of a vehicle on this curve and a wheel went over the edge of the road, it could be dificult for the driver to regain control due to the large drop off at the road edge. The driver could then lose total control and run into a roadside hazard such as the pole in the photograph. The objective of providing an even, well drained and good textured road surface is aimed at keeping traffic safely on the road Maintenance of the road surface is also essential to maximize safety and prevent traffic accidents occurring. 15 15.1 16.2 ROAD ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS Introduction In many design situations, designers will be faced with competing demands from different sections of the community as they endeavor to design safe, operationelly efficient roads. The horizontal and vertical alignment and the cross section of a foad should be designed so that a driver or rider can travel safely at an appropriate operating speed and have adequate sight distance of the road ahead. If constraints require a tighter alignment, then it is imperative that the driver or rider be provided with the necessary visual and physical features to enable the driver to perceive the changed conditions accurately and to select an appropriate lower speed For details relating to road alignment refer to Section 16 of this manual and DPWH Highway Design Guidelines Chapter 3. Some Physical Problems Problems arise if the alignment changes suddenly and unexpectedly. A horizontal curve over a short vertical crest is shown in Figure 15.1 The three photographs show the drivers view as the crest is approached. The sequence of pictures shows that the curve is not visible until the driver can see over the crest. Although this road has a centerline it does not give the motorist sufficient advance warning that the road will change direction. Some chevron hazard signs may improve delineation in this situation. However, in new design situations the curve should be commenced before the crest to ensure the curve is visible to drivers. This would improve safety and may avoid the need to use additional signs. Figure 15.1 : Poor Design and Delineation of Curve 49 Figure 15.2 : Lost Control on Curve A horizontal curve at the end of a steep downgrade can mislead @ driver or rider and they can find themselves approaching the horizontal curve too quickly. ‘This can lead to loss of control of the vehicle and the possibility that the vehicle could run off the road and collide with a roadside hazard. Figure 15.3 : Extreme topography results in small radius curves The road alignment in Figure 15.3 changes quickly due to the extreme topographical terrain resulting in a number of small radius curves. At night, particulerly with the headlight glare of an oncoming vehicle, it would be very difficult to visualize the road alignment. A centerline and edge line pavement ‘markings would assist the motorists considerably. Strategically placed curve markers and guideposts would also help. Figure 15.4 : Trees Obstructing Sight Distance Trees or vegetation as shown in Figure 15.4 can often hide the road alignment. During daytime, dangerous corner cutting will be encouraged because the pavement markings are not adequate. If the vegetation cannot be trimmed, the alignment would be improved by providing stratecically placed chevron signs or guideposts. The centerline markings should be barrier lines where Figure 45.5 : Poor Vertical Alignment Approaching a T-Intersection Poor vertical alignment through an intersection can obscure the layout of an intersection. For example in Figure 15.5, it is not possible to see the intersecting cross road surface. This could cause vehicles to stop in the wrong place, for instance in the path of cross traffic. 51 Figure 15.6 : Poor Intersection due to Lack of Channelization Lack of channelization in Figure 15.6, leads to poor driver behavior such as corner cutting or lane blocking. If vehicle movement is unpredictable a collision is more likely to occur. Installing a centerline, edge-line marking and a stop or holding line would improve the intersection considerably. If an intersection like this one had a poor accident record, then a splitter island could be considered to give a clear indication of alignment and where the driver should stop. This would be an ideal location for a small radius roundabout. This would improve safety as well as improving traffic flow to become orderly and predictable, Figure 1.7 shows 2 small radius (6m radius) roundabout operating very well in Balayan town, Batanges. Figure 15.7 : Small (5m radius) Roundabout in Balayan Town Figure 15.8 : Horizontal Curve at the End of a Steep Downgrade It is difficult to determine the nature of the horizontal curvature at the end of the steep grade due to poor sight distance. The motorist may approach too quickly and lose control. Improved sight distance could be achieved by cutting back vegetation by providing a sight bench. A centerline, guideposts and chevron road signs would also improve awareness. Figure 15.9 : Poor Vertical Sag The short vertical sag curve in Figure 15.9 can hide a vehicle, Motorists may try to overtake thinking the road ahead Is clear without realizing that a vehicle is hidden from view in the sag. A good treatment would be to delineate the road with no overtaking lane markings. Lane widening over the short crest would provide extra width for maneuvering vehicies. 53 Figure 15.10 : Reverse Curves Closely spaced reverse curves as in Figure 15.10 have a short straight between the two curves. Closely spaced reverse curves without a length of straight alignment between the two curves is undesirable as the standard rate of change of cross-fall (super-elevation) is always exceeded. This can lead to loss of vehicle control when the road is wet. It is also very hard for the motorists to determine the road alignment in advance. It is desirable to have the length of the tangent between reverse curves not less than 50m.in no case shall the tangent length be less than 30m, Centerline and lane markings should be provided as well as chevron signs. ‘A poor combination of horizontal and vertical alignment is shown in Figure 15.11. The poor alignment is coupled with a structure at the lowest section of the vertical alignment. Notice the small vertical curves provided at the approaches to the structure to keep the structure on a level position. Traffic coming from both directions cannot pass this section of the road at the same time due to the acceleration needed by the vehicle to negotiate the steep gradient in both directions. Provision of a Give Way sign on one approach and information signs on both approaches of the bridge would help motorists to traverse this section of road. This would provide the traffic management needed to control vehicles in the course of traversing this section of road. It is a situation thet should not be provided in @ new road design. Figure 15.12 : Delineation of Curve — Poor night-time visibility ‘The raised, colored, back to back curb, form of curve delineation in Figure 15.12, is intended to discourage vehicles moving into the opposing lane While this may be effective during daylight hours, this median treatment would not be very visible at night. Also, if a driver inadvertently struck the raised island this could cause the driver to lose control. The best way to treat a ‘substandard’ or unexpected curve is to provide barrier lines with reflectorized pavement studs (RPS), edge lines and chevron hazard signs or guide posts. If a curve is experiencing a number of loss of control crashes, then it may be appropriate to provide these devices. Other aspects that could contribute to loss of control on curves are: = Adverse superelevation; = Poor sight distance; and * Poor surface condition. Other types of improvements that could be considered are: = Curve radius improvement; and = Pavement widening. 55 16 16.1 ROAD ALIGNMENT GEOMETRY General The geometric detail of alignment design is an essential ingredient to achieving a safe road. The alignment parameters are generally based on the chosen design speed for the length of road being designed. Each section of the road making up the length of road is then analyzed against the road safety design criteria appropriate for the section form and geometric deta Safe road design needs to consider the following design features + Design speed (kph); + Sight distance (m), Stopping Sight Distance - SSD (m); + Straight section length - tangent - T (m); + Radius of circle curvature - R (m); * Circular curve section length - Le (m); * Spiral section lenath (Clothoid - Ls (m); + Normal cross slope - Ne (%); * Design superelevation - @ (%); + Superetevation runoff length - Sro (m), from zero cross siope to design ‘superelevation; + Portion of superelevation runoff - Psro (m) prior to the tangent to the circular curve (PC); + Length of spiral equals the length of superelevation runoff Ls = Sro; + Tangent runcut length - Tro (m), zero cross slope to normal cross slope; + Length of superelevation development (Le) Le = S10 + Tro; + Grades of positive or negative longitudinal slope ( + %); + Vertical curves either crest or sag - L (m); + Algebraic grade change - A + (%); Lim) + Rate of vertical curvature - K(m)= Rage + Cross section: © Traveled way, traffic lane width and slope - w (m and %); © Shoulder width and slope (m and %), Fore slope and back slope (m and %); © Median width (m); © Sidewalks; © Curbs: barrier curb or mountable / drop curt; * Drainage channels; * Utility poles; + Frangible lighting poles - impact absorbing poles and slip-base poles; + Road safety barriers: roadside, median and crash cushions, «Frontage roads; * Overtaking lanes, climoing lanes and turnouts - w (rm). 16.2 Design Standards ‘The general design standards for the Philippine National Highways are shown in Table 16.1. The design speed for flat and roling terrain should be high to meet the expectations of drivers. There is a definite safety concem if lower design speeds are used for low volume roads in flat or rolling terrain as drivers will drive at higher speeds. There will then be inadequate sight distance and design appropriate for the travel speeds. There is good logic in using design speeds appropriate to the terrain being traversed rather than traffic volume. This is recognized in the Table 16.1 for mountainous road design speeds. ‘The standards for curve radii and grades are shown as minimum radii and maximum grades. The choice of smaller radii and steeper grades beyond the standards need to be approved by the Bureau of Design Director to maintain control on otherwise sound standards. Geometric standards are important criteria for road safety and the maximum values are shown in table 16.1. 87 (For BOD final review) Table 16.1 : Design Standards for Philippine National Highways ADT (Average Daily Traffic) ‘Under 200 200 - 400 400 - 1000 1000 - 2000 More than 2000 Minimum Minimum ‘Minimum Desirable Minimum Desirable ‘Minimum Desirable DESIGN SPEED (kph) Flat Topography 60, 70 70, 30 80 oS 20, 700 Rolling Topography 40 50 60 80 60 80 70 90 Mountainous Topography 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 70 RADIUS (meter) Flat Topography 130. 175 475 400 260 400 400 400 Rolling Topography 50 80 130 260 130 260 175, 400 Mountainous Topography 30 50 50 80 80 130 130, 475 GRADE (%) Flat Topography 60 6.0 5.0 3.0 40 3.0 40 3.0 Rolling Topography a0 7.0 6.0 5.0 50 5.0 5.0 40 ‘Mountainous Topography 710.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 7.0 6.0 7.0 5.0 CROSS SECTION (meter) Traffic Lane Width (m) 1x4.0/4.0 | 2x 3.05/6.10 2x3.36/ 6.70 2x3.36/6.70 | 2x3.36/6.70 2x 3.65 / 7.30 Shoulder Width (m) 05 1.0 4.5 2.0 25 2.5(1.5Paved) | 2.5(1.5Paved) | 3.0(1.5 Paved) Right Of Way Width (m) 20 30 30 Ey ‘STOPPING (NON - PASSING) SIGHT DISTANCE (meter) Flat Topography cd 105 105 760 130 175 160 185 Rolling Topography ‘50 65 85 130 85 130 105° 160 Mountainous Topography 35 50 50 85 65 85 85 105, ‘SAFE PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE (meter) Flat Topography 410 485 485, 615 540 645 615 670 Rolling Topography 270 345 410 540 410 540, 485 615 Mountainous Topography 200 270 270 345, 345, 410, 410 485 ‘SURFACE TYPE Gravel Crushed Gravel or Sione, | Bituminous Macadam Pavement Bituminous Concrete Surface | Bituminous Concrete Surface Bituminous Preservative Treat. Dense or Open Graded Plant Mix, | Course Course Sing Double Bit. Treatment Bit. Concrete Surface Course, Portland Cement Concrete Portland Cement Concrete Bituminous Macadam Pavement Portiand Cement Concreie_ Pavement Pavement ‘Source: AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001 16.3 Sight Distance 16.3.1 Introduction The drivers ability to see the road ahead is of utmost importance in the safe and efficient operation of a vehicle on a highway. This sight distance needs to allow the driver time to percsive and react to any hazardous situation. It needs to enable the driver to avoid any object or come to a safe stop before colliding with the object or vehicle. Adequate sight distance should be provided in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Clear signing and pavement marking systems should be provided to indicate locations where the sight distance is inadequate for safe overtaking. The provision of safety sight distance depends on the characteristics of the driver, the vehicle and the environment Driver = Alertness of driver = Recognition of the hazard = Actions available to the driver —to stop or to change direction Vehicle = Type of vehicle ~ car or truck + Friction between the tire and the road = Eye height of the driver + Speed of vehicles Road Environment = Road geometry grade and curvature sight limitations = Road surface — sealed or unsealed, smooth or rough + Road illumination at night 16.3.2 Sight Distance Elements Each type of sight distance consists of three elements: «Driver Eye Height is the observed eye height of a driver; " Qbiect Height is a possible object in the path of a vehicle; and * Sight Distance is dependent on design speed and vehicle type. It is a major road safety design control when determining the horizontal and vertical geometric alignment for a new or rehabilitaton design. 16.3.3 Driver Eye Height/ Object Height Drivers eye height standards vary from 1.05m to 1.08m in different countries. The value has certain practical limits due to passenger car heights and the relatively small increases in the lengths of vertical curves that would result. The values for use in the Philippines are in Table 16.2. Table 16.2 : Driver Eye and Object Heights Sight Distance Type Driver Fs Height | object Height (m) Car Stopping Sight oo 1.08 0.60 Truck Stopping Sight nee 2.33 0.60 Maneuver Sight Distance 7.08 = Passing Sight Distance 108 toe Car Headlight to Road Surface Sight Distance 2@ an Truck to Car Tail-light Sight fess 2.33 0.60 16.3.4 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) There are two components in stopping sight distance: Reaction Distance — the distance traveled while the driver perceives a hazard, decides to take action, then acts by starting to apply the brakes to start slowing down; and Braking Distance — the distance required for the vehicle to slow down and stop. Basic stopping sight distance assumes a straight alignment, a flat grade, a wet surface with a reasonable amount of surface polishing, and an average amount of tire wear. Corrections nead to be made for grade and road curvature Reaction Distance Reaction Distanoe depends on reaction time from the instant the hazard comes into view, to the instant that the driver actually applies the brakes. Reaction times vary, depending on driver ability and alertness. International studies of reaction time have been conducted. The studies show that for younger drivers, the reaction is less than for older drivers, This is due to the ageing process that slows the reaction time as people mature in age. It is for this reason that from a safety point of view, the standard adopts the reaction time for older people. design speeds. Reaction Distance = 0.278tV Where: t= Reaotion time in seconds (2.5 seconds) \V = Design Speed (kph) Braking Distance The braking distance of a vehicle on a level roadway traveling at the design speed of the roadway = 0.039 V/a, and on grade = V/ 254[(a/9.81)2G]. Where: = Longitudinal friction factor between fire and roadway (see Table 3.1 Highway Design Guidelines) G = Percent of Grade divided by 100, (Uphill grades (+) and Downhill grades (-). Stopping Sight Distance If reaction distance is d1 and breaking distance is d2 then, SSD = dy + de, Where SSD = Stopping sight distance in meters. ‘SSD = 0.278tV + 0.039 V*/a, On level roadway SSD = 0.278tV + Vi 254[(a/9.81)#G], Roadway on grade. Sight distance and several stopping sight distance types are depicted in Figure 16.1. It can be observed that stopping sight distance for cars and trucks are the same distance when applied to different situations. Stopping Sight Distances for various speeds are in Table 16.3. Table 16.3 : Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Design Speed (kph) Stopping Sight Distance (m) 20 20 20 25. 40 50 50 65 60. £5. 70 105. 20 420 90 160 400 185 410 220 120 250 Source : AASHTO ~ A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001 eo Sight Distance sboee ” Car Heaton Sign Distance on Curves Diver oy eat (1.8m) , % ex 4 , = 3 = Crest ‘Truck Stopping Sight Distances mer eyehoght 2m) bjctneght —Obpethoght Aik (060m) @.60m) So! i | L “Truck to object stopping sight cstance 4 _| Se Truck Stopping Sight Distance (Diver eye height (2.4m) Tail ight height (0.6m) ph #y —_—_ \Verca ciarance (6.0m) L “Truck choot oping eightatanae jure 16.1: ht Distance Types 164 Horizontal Geometry 16.4.1 Circular Curve Alignment The crroular curve adjoins the tangent at the tangent point (PT) and then adjoins the next tangent at the circle tangent point (CP). The description of the circular curve geometry is shown in Figure 18.2. The location of superelevation development onto circular curves has been of continuous concern to designers throughout the world. This concern is due to the fact that design superelevation is not available for the curve radius at the PC. This results in the vehicle experiencing 2 to 3 seconds where lateral acceleration tends to force the driver to adopt a natural spiral curve during entry and exit. This can be a safety issue if the vehicle uses more than the lane width provided. Curve widening is provided to give drivers this extra width as well as to give additional width for the swept path of large vehicles. ‘Superelevation runoff (Sro) is the length of superelevation development from zero cross slope to full design superelevation (e). A proportion of superelevation runoff (PSro) is provided prior to the PT. This proportion tends to minimize the adverse effects of lateral acceleration and improves the safety of the transition from tangent to circuler curve. The PSro prior to the circular curve is shown in Figure 16.2. The proportion varies with operating speed fram 0.70 to 0.90 of Sro. Tangent runout (Tro) is the length of superelevation development from the normal cross slope to the zero cross slope point on the tangent. Error! Fiqure 16.2 : Circular Curve Geometry FORMULA: nctiaente: PORTION OF Sro PRIOR TO CIRCLE woe enim OPERATING cea 3 ‘SPEED Troe (NEN) ph 1 2 3 e 7m | on om | 000 — woo | om | 0m | os U1 - LENGTH OF ROUNDING Ls LENGTH OF SPIRAL Le - LENGTH OF CIRCULAR CURVE Le - SUPERELEVATION DEVELOPMENT Ne -HORMAL CROWN SLOPE DESIGN SUPERELEVATION ‘10 - SUPERELEVATION RUNOFF Tro - TANGENT RUNOUT w= WIOTHOFLANE ‘m1 -NUNBER OF LANES BEING ROTATED bw - FACTOR RELATWETO kph AND |S - RELATIVE SLOPE-EDGE/CENTEALINE 'PSr0 - PORTION OF Sro PRIOR TO TC SHIT I= DYTERSECTION ANGLE Pl. ~POINT OF INTERSECTION PL 1 as “ °o , Bs, ~ Figure 16.3 : Spiral and Circular Curve FORMULA: wiursenens PORTION OF Sro PRIOR TO CIRCLE sox Mee) OPERATING No. OF LANES 3 SPEED Tron Nero) Kon 1 2 | 3 Le 20-70 0.80 0.90 0.80 im ar) om | as WHERE: Lt LENGTH OF ROUNDING La - LENGTH OF SPIRAL “LENGTH OF CIRCULAR CURVE. SUPERELEVATION DEVELOPMENT - NORMAL CROWN SLOPE ~ SUPERELEVATION RUNOFF “TANGENT RUNOUT = WIDTH OF LANE ‘nt -NUNBER OF LANES BEING ROTATED ‘bw. - FACTOR RELATIVETO kph AND A § RELATIVE SLOPE-EDGE/CENTERLINE Sro = PORTION OF Sre PRIOR TO” PC. -sHirr | -INTERSECTION ANGLE, PI —POWT OF INTERSECTION we ry Ne (6¢ - DESIGN SUPERELEVATION. so Te w 16.4.3 Suporolovation Development The length of superelevation development (Le) is detailed in Figure 16.4 for both tangent to circular curve end tangent to spiral to circuler curve. Test, socs Fils FORNULA: LANES ROTATED ros 80M FACTOR PORTION OF Sro PRIOR TO CIRCLE “ sro _ Wed) ni(bn) LANES | bw DESIGN SPEED LANES ROTATED s + | 100 na 1 2 3 un 2 | ov zoo | om | om | om 2 | os wom | a7 | ow | oss lesLie soso WHERE: SUPERELEVATION TABLE UL =LENGTH OF ROUNDING Le -LENGTH OF SUPER ELEVATION DEVELOPMENT hort a = te -LewaTH oF cLoTHOI (PIMA) (PER AASHTO RON") Ww -MoTH oF Lane * a | oss 14 -NUMBER OFLANES ROTATED 7 | one © -SUPERELEVATION RATE 0 a | ooo Ne -NORMAL GROWN SLOPE 70 u | oss $ -RELATIV SLOPE BETWEENEDGE AND é- °° xe | os Tro TANGENT RUNOUT 0 ie _| oar ‘ro - SUPER ELEVATION RUNOFFLENGTH “v0 | oa PSr0-PORTIONOF Sro PRIOR TO CIRCULAR CURVE 110 2 | om bw -LANE ROTATION FACTOR 0 | oss Figure 16.4: Superelevation Development 165 Vertical Geometry 16.5.1 Grades Vertical alignment is the longitudinal profile along the centerline of the road. It is made up of a series of grades and vertical curves. The profile is determined by a consideration of the planning, access, topographic, geological, design controls, earthworks and other economic aspects. The maximum grades to_be used on the national highways of the Philippines are detailed in Table 16.1 Flat Ti hy In flat topography, there are considerable lenaths of national highway of two lane two way roads. The volume of traffic using these roads varies from location to location. However, there are sectons of highway that could benefit from improved overtaking opportunity. The use of overtaking lane geometry would give DPWH Region and District engineers and planners the facility to improve safety and the capacity of lengths of highway along which traffic has had a lack of overtaking opportunities. Details and traffic volume guidelines for providing overtaking lanes are detailed in Section 17.7, including the details of tapers at the diverge and merge locations. A strategy for the implementation of a series of overtaking lanes along lengths of national highway would provide cost efficient road works to improve safety and overtaking opportunities that are currently lacking on lengths of national highway. Rolling Topography: Rolling topography may present additional need for auxiliary lenes for two reasons: = For the adcition of overtaking lanes on flat to rolling grades; and = The provision for climbing lanes on steeper extended grades along which trucks slow down to an extent where vehicles may be impeded from passing due to lack of available overtaking sight distance on the steeper grades. On steeper grades, AASHTO proposes limiting the maximum length to that which will not exceed the critical length of grade generally as follows: The critical length is that which will cause a typical loaded truck (5.5 kWitonne) to ‘operate without an unreasonable reduction in speed. A reduction of 15 kph is recommended, due to the significant increase in eccident involvement rate at high speed reductions. The warrant for the design of climbing lanes is when truck speeds fall to 40 kph or less and traffic volumes equal or exceed those in Table 17.1. or In addition, climbing lanes should be considered where: + Extended grades over 8 % occur; * Accidents attributable to the effects of slow moving tucks are significant; + Heavy trucks from an adjacent industry enter the traffic stream on the upgrade; or + The level of service E or F exist on the grade ‘E.” * Upgrade traffic flow rate in excess of 200 vehicies per hour + Upgrade truck flow rate in excess of 20 vehicles per hour * A 15 km/hr or greater speed reduction is expected for a typical heavy truck. * A reduction of two or more levels of service is experienced ‘when moving from the aporoach segment to the grade The determination of the reduction of truck speeds on up grades (deceleration) and of the increase in speed (acceleration) are shown on Figure 16.5. These charts provide guidance relating to the start and end locations of the climbing lane. Mountainous Topography: Although the speed of cars may be reduced slightly on steep upgrades, large differences in speeds of light and heavy vehicles will occur and speeds of trucks will be quite slow. It is important, therefore, to provide adequate sight distance to enable faster vehicle drivers to recognize ‘when they are catching up to a slower vehicle and to adjust their speed accordingly. On steep down grades, it is desirable to increase the operating speed of the individual geometric elements progressively towards the foot of the steep grade. The topography in mountainous grades may not provide sufficient area for climbing lanes to be provided. In these instances turnouts may be used. A turnout is a short section of paved shoulder or added lane tat is provided to allow slow vehicles to pull aside and be overtaken. They differ from climbing lanes in their short length and different signing Turnouts will be satisfactory to use on upgrades if traffic volumes are low or construction costs very high In all the cases for the consideration of auxiliary lane provision, it is necessary for the designer to consider a strategy for the placement of these facilities rather than consider them in isolation. The strategy should look at a staging of the construction over lengths of highway to provide the most economical benefits and maximize the road safety gains. mom ai % 0% uh . ” Stet so so o > Ee Ss CT) Deceleration Length im) Ce eT Nore: it) This chart is for a representative 19m semi-traler Ql The dotted tr having a. gross vehicle nas of €25 tome epreserts. the Hakinum engine powsr «260 kW oe! Paver/Mnse rote = 6 ika/tonre on the shorts jd fo Fespective Figure 16.5: Truck Speeds on Grades 16.5.2 Vertical Curves The vertical alignment of a road consists of a series of straight grades joined by vertical curves. A vertical curve is expressed as a K value, which is. the length of vertical curve in meters for 1% change in grade. In the final design, the vertical alignment should fit into the natural terrain considering earthworks balances, appearance and the maximum and minimum vertical curvature allowed Large K value curves should be used where they are reasonably economical Minimum K value vertical curves should be selected on the basis of three controlling factors: * Sight distance is a requirement in all situations for driver safety; * Appearance is generally required in low fill and flat topography situations; and * Riding comfort is a general requirement with specific need on approaches to 2 floodway where the length of depression needs to be minimized. Figure 16.6 provides details for the vertical curve theory and formulae. The adopted driver eye height and object height for cars and trucks are detailed in Table 16.2. In summary, most vertical curves can be designed using the following equations: Lv=KA, K= —_S'____— when S< Lv, and 100 (Why + Yhy )? Ke 2S — 200Qh+he when S>Ly A where Lv = lenath of vertical curve (m) K = length of vertical curve in meters for 1% change in grade A= algebraic difference in grade (%) S = sight distance (m) 1, = driver eye height (m), refer Table 16. 2 (for cars and trucks) he = object height (m), refer Table 16.2 (for cars and trucks) For design purposes, the K value may be used to determine the equivalent radius of a vertical curve using R (radius m) = 100K. Values for stopping sight distance are shown in Table 16.3 70 w 7 > E Figure 16.6 : Symmetrical Vertical Curve FORMULA: = XA ELEV C =1/2(ELEV A + ELEVB) ve XA Y= 12(ELEVC- ELEVV) A =92-gt Xm= to Yy =Lateoo . yo sao?) WHERE: = L__ -LENGTH OF PARABOLIC VERTICAL CURVE A ALGEBRAIC DIFFERENCE OF GRADES IN PERCENT 91,92 - CORRESPONDING GRADE RATESIN PERCENT 9-9 ORg WHICHEVER IS APPLICABLE YW) -CORRECTION OR OFFSET AT THE VERTEX V YY -CORRECTION OR OFFSET AT ANY POINT P X = DISTANCE OF ANY POINT P FROM PYG OR PVT 8 -SLOPE OF TANGENT TO THE CURVE AT ANY POINT P IN PERCENT F_ -RADIUS OF OSCULATOR CIRCLE AT THE SUMMIT OR BOTTOM OF THE PARABOLE K -(AASTHO) RATE OF VERTICAL CURVATURE Xm _- DISTANCE OF HIGHEST OR LOWEST POINT m ON THE CURVE FROM PYCOR PVT a Algebraic difference in grade (%) (CREST CURVES: Minimum crest vertical curve lengths for different values of A to provide the minimum stopping sight distance are shown in Figure 16.7. In this figure, the solid lines give minimum vertical curve lengths, on the basis of rounded values of K (length of eye=1.08m; height of object =0.60m) as determined from the following equatio Lv= AS? when Sisless than Lv 658 Ly= 2S _ 885. when Sis greater than Lv A On Figure 16.6, the short dashed curve crossing the solid lines indicates where S = Lv. The vertical solid lines are the minimum lengths calculated es 0.6V (m). on a an 89 en ye hl KS ket we ker T \ 1 “ 1 y 2 wll ft ‘ \ a \ \ 6 v \ ‘ 2 oy 108 20 00 0 cy 0 Motwanly Length of crest vertical curve (m) Figure 16.7 : Crest Vertical Curves 72 u R SAG CURVES At least four different criteria are used for the establishment of sag vertical curves. These are: headlight sight distance, passenger comfort, drainage control and general appearance. DPWH sag vertical curves are designed using headlight sight cistance criteria. Headlight height is 0.6 m as shown in Table 16.2. A 1 degree upward divergence of the light beam is used in computing the length of sag vertical curves. The lengths of sag vertical curves are shown in Figure 16.8. For overall safety, a sag vertical curve should be long enough that the light beam distance is nearly the same as the stopping sight distance. The K values of crest and sag vertical curves for the comesponding design speed and stopping sight cistance are shown in Table 16.4. The K values for passing sight distance are also shown. The headlight sight distance for sags is equal to stopping sight distance. The following directions shows the relationship between S,L at A using S as the distance between the vehicle and point where the 1-degree upward single of the light beam intersects the surface of the roadway; When Sis less than L When S is greater than L Le _A4S L=2g.| 1204358 120+358 A Where: L= length if sag vertical curve, ‘S= light beam distance, A= algebraic difference in grades, percent 73 Table 16.4 : K Values for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves Algebraic difference in grade (%) Crest Sag Crest Design | Stepping | K for Kfor | Pen? | Kor Speed | pistnce | stopping | headlight | p220c, | passing (kph) (m) sight sight m) sight distance distance distance 20 20 1 3 30 35 2 6 200 46 40 50 4 9 270 4 50 65 7 13 345 108 60 85 Wn 18 410 195 70 105 17 23 485 272 80 130 26 30 ‘540 338 90 160 39 38 615 438 100 185 52 45 670 520 110 220 4 56 730 617 120 250 95 83 775 695 Source: AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001 “Take wb) eve] va v7 mp tai] ie le ee ao is “ iy = ; ~ " oe i/ A ae Set, iy EH Na 8 be £-% \ 73 | a ae l } Et I Drainage maximum K=51 ; ~~~ __Computed values S>L_ 0 100 200 300, 400 500 600 Length of saa vertical curve (mm) Figure 16.8 : Sag Vertical Curves 74 17 174 17.2 CROSS SECTION Introduction The provision of adequate space for all road users includes vehicles, cyclists, pedicabs and pedestrians as well as other features such as shoulders, drainage, sidewalks, cut or fill slopes and clearances to the edge of the right of way. The general cross section standards are detailed in Table 16.1, Design Standards for Philippine National Highways. Traffic Lanes ‘As indicated in Table 16.1, the basic lane width appropriate for national roads is 3.35 m. On lower trafficked roads, the lane width can be reduced. This is justified on the basis of economics. For a single lane road traffic the lane width is 4.0 m. For a two lane national road the minimum width is 2.x 3.35 m lanes (Iotal 6.7 m). As the taffic volume increases, so the Need for extra width is justified This wicth can increase up to a maximum of 3.85 m. Where warranted and where road space is available, an additional lane can be provided to improve safety of slow or vulnerable road users Such as cyclists or pedicads. An example of ths is in Figure 17.1 where the pedestrians have a sidewalk and bicyclists and trioyclists have a separate lane separated from motor traffic. Figure 17. : Good Cross-Section providing lane for vulnerable road users. 76 173 174 Shoulders The shoulder width is generally selected according to the traffic volume and standards ere detailed in Table 16.1. Shoulder widths on low volume roads may be increased if there are a significant number of pedestrians or other needs requiring use of the shoulder to improve safety. On curved alignments, it is advisable to consider the paving of the outside curve shoulder width. This will minimize the possibility of a vehicle that strays off the tratfic lane from loosing control due to poor traction on a graveled shoulder. The widening of traffic lanes on curved alignments is also advisable. This is dealt with in the DPWH Highway Design Guidelines. Shoulder paving is a valuable method of providing: Integrity of the pavement; width to place edgeline pavement markings; jonal safety to prevent vehicles skidding or drivers losing control in gravel; and low maintenance costs compared with unpaved shoulders ‘Shoulder paving provides width for traffic when passing or maneuvering from oncoming vehicles and sheds water away from the regular trafficked width. For roads with less than 1,000 ADT, a shoulder is provided but generally not paved. A general exception might be at locations of sharper than normal curves when the outside shoulder of 2 curve may be paved. Sharp vertical curvature may warrant pavement widening and shoulder paving to provide sufficient width for maneuvering traffic. The paving of the shoulder width needs to be considered during the planning and design stages. Paving of the shoulder is desirable for roads carrying over 1,000 ADT. The paving can then accommodate the character of the traffic feet, the maneuverability for passing needs, emergency parking, and periodical maintenance of the road. Curb and Gutter The concrete curb and gutter types may be barrier or mountable and either include a gutter for drainage, or curb only. The curb cross sections are detailed in Appendix 6 and are listed below: Barrier Curb & Gutter Barrier Curb Mountable / Drop Curb & Gutter Mountable / Drop Curb 76 175 The use of the barrier or mountable curb types needs to be considered in relation to the performance of vehicles that leave the traveled way for some reason. The barrier curb types are suited for the edge of the traveled way where it is generally considered that drivers should not mount the curb or sidewalk. The barrier curb types are used for areas where operating speeds are generally less than 60 kph and where parking of vehicles is allowed. The mountable | drop curb types provide less vauiting of the errant vehicle on impact with the curb, lass likelihood of the driver losing control and less damage to occupants of the vehicles compared to barrier curds. The drop curb / mountable type shall be used for all traffic islands, medians and the right side of the roadway where operating speeds are greater than 60 kph. Drainage Longitudinal drainage ditches are essential part of any road that is not on fill and must be incorporated into the road cross section. These are designed to eccommodate the expected rainfall but can often be hazardous to vehicles that run off the road. Adequate attention must therefore be given to the safety considerations of drainage facilities when designing and upgrading highways. Drainage ditches collect and disperse the water from the road pavement and the runoff from the uphill side of the carriageway. However, a deep drain very close to the travel path of traffic can be very hazardous if traffic strays from the traffic lane and this may cause a driver to lose control. Careful design and location of such channels can reduce the potential hazard It is desirable that open ditches being included in new works are conereted and be provided with fitted pre-cast cover. This extends the clear zone width and forms a sidewalk for pedestrians. Consideration to the covering of existing open concrete drainage ditches and channels needs to be carried out in a logistical manner to cover the drainage structures where the need is greatest, such as in urban arees and on the inner side of curves in mountainous terrain. In rolling or mountainous terrain the cross section width may not always allow the construction of safe ‘vehicle friendly drainage structures. Sharp V-type and acute U-type drains are essential in many of these locations. The use of precast concrete cover (with slots to permit the entry of water) on these drains should be considered, especially on the inner side of curves. In flat and rolling terrain, the preference is to avoid safety hazards created by V-type and U-type drainage ditches. In this terrain development of drainage ditches that can cope with the expected rainfall levels and yet do not create unsafe conditions for motorists is a challenge to engineers. The most important criteria to consider are: Actual reconnaissance survey during wet whether to identify the natural run-out locations; Slopes on the side nearest the road should not be steeper than 3:1 and preferable flatter as this will minimize accident severity. The slope farthest from the road may be as steep as the ground will permit; Liype channe's (concrete barrier curb and gutter) should be used where expected run-off will not breach the top of curb. A larger than normal concrete gutter 600 mm wide may be an option. Additional pits and careful selection of drainage run- ut location to match natural run-outs is essential. L-type channels are also safer and provide a walking area for pedestrians; The U-type drainage channel offers no opportunity for a vehicle to recover and no facility or space for pedestrians, Rural roads become the main pedestrian routes between Barangays and the absence of pedestrian footways forces Pedestrians to walk on the road; and Safe drainage provisions need to be considered when the basic cross section of the road is being determined. 17.6 Pedestrian Facilities on Rural Roads Walking is a major mode of transport in the Philippines and pedestrians form a high proportion of accident victims. Special consideration need to be given to pedestrians along routes during the design phase or re-planning stage of highway design. Surveys of pedestrian movements need to be conducted to identity the lengths over which prionty needs to be siven to provide pedesbian cilities. On higher trafficked roads, the non-motorized movements should be segregated either by providing a sidewalk or cycle-way beyond the drainage facility, or on a segregated part of the road shoulder. The provision of wider shoulders with fatter cross slope also gives space for pedestrians in identified locations. Sidewalks need not be expensive. Grading a path along one side of the road levels the ground and removes most of the vegetation to create a cheap segregated pedestrian facility. A regular maintenance program should be initiated to ensure thet the surfaces of pedestrian facilities are kept reasonably clean and level end that vegetetion does ot cause an obstruction to either passage, visibility or to force Pedestrians onto the traveled way. 78 17.7 Visibility at crossing points is particularly important and advance waning signs should be used for traffic, particulariy if good visibility is ot available. On very low volume roads, reduced geometric standards will reduce vehicle speeds and may allow pedestrians to use the road sefely without segregation. This can lead to vehicles cutting comers across road shoulders used by pedestrians and creating an unsafe situation. These locations should be surveyed to locate off-road footways at these points, Where vehicle speeds are relatively high in Barangays and pedestrians are at risk, pedestrian crossing facilities may be protected by speed limiting devices, such as roundabouts at road junctions, slow down or reduce speed signs, among others. Through Vehicle on through traffic tends to travel at a relatively higher speed than does vehicle on local traffic, and for this reason such speed limiting devices ere a logical and beneficial to the communtty. Parked vehicles should be banned within 20 meters of each pedestrian crossing facility. The associated narrowing of traffic lanes on the approaches to along with adequate road signs and pavement markings will provide safety for the pedestrians. At culvert and bridge crossings, itis preferable for the road shoulder to continue across the structure to provide continuity of a pedestrian facility. However, if the highway is narrowed, speciel segregation should be made for cyclists and pedestrians. A segregated pedestrian facility should continue across a bridge where surveys indicate the need. A pedestrian barrier can further segregate pedestrians, however, the barrier terminals should be designed not to pose potential hazards for approaching vehicles and their occupants. A pedestrian bridge adjacent to the bridge used by vehicles can be an option where insufficient width is available for pedestrians. This can be cantilevered off the structure of the road bridge. A minimum width of 1.5 meters should be provided, although it may need to be wider for higher pedestrian and cycle volumes. The additional cost will be relatively small ifincorporated during the initial design and construction. Ifa continuous pedestrian facility cannot be provided on longer bridges, then refuges at regular intervals, would be of assistance to pedestrians so they can move off the roadway when a vehicle is passing. Where a pedestrian/cycle facility rejoins the road, it must be well signed and at a good point of visibilty to drivers using the through road. The provision of adequate space for all road users enhances safety. Altematively, if vulnerable road users share space with vehicular traffic or if inadequate lane widths are provided for trucks, this can create safety hazards, Overtaking Provision (Auxiliary Lanes) The need to provide overtaking opportunities is a major safety issue on two lane two way roads especially in rural areas where speeds are high. The other need for overtaking is when speeds of vehicles are reduced due to rolling or mountainous terrain. 79 ATTA In all cases of overtaking need, itis the vehicle that is overtaking that gains the benefit of safety, improved travel time and removal of frustration caused by slower moving traffic. The availabilty of overtaking opportunity depends on sight distance and gaps in the opposing traffic stream. As opposing traffic increases, overtaking opportunities become restricted even if sight distance is adequate. Sight distance that appears adequate may also be unusable (on occasions due to the size of the vehicle in front, particularly on right hand curves. It is under this delayed travel condition that drivers are tempted to take risks when considering overtaking. The provision of overtaking lanes removes this frustration and provides 2 safer and more efficient highway at relatively low cost. The pavement can be locally widened to provide an overtaking zone for one direction of travel, at low cost. The selection of the location for overtaking lanes requires site visits to observe traffic behavior and to select appropriate sites within the existing road structure and at minimum cost and maximum driver benefits. Overtaking Lanes: Overtaking lanes in flat to rolling terrain are used to break up platoons of traffic and to improve traffic flow over a section of road. They provide positive overtaking opportunities and are sometimes the only real chance for overtaking to occur. A series of such auxiliary lanes for both directions of traffic can greatly improve trafic flow and driver satisfaction. The desirable layout is based on the start or end of the lane merging location being separated by 2 3 second distance of travel time. This distance is to minimize the Possibility of conflict between opposing merging vehicles. An acceptable layout when the geometric considerations do not provide for an alternative is to allow the start of the merges to be opposite one another. The provision of overtaking lanes may delay the need for a major upgrading to provide dual carriageways. Where a four lane road has already been provided and the traffic volumes are consistently high, the need for auxiliary lanes on grades may stil arise when there is a high proportion of heavy vehicles. The traffic volume guidelines for the provision of overtaking lanes are shown in Table 17.1 Table 17.1 : Traffic Volume Guidelines for Provision of Overtaking Lanes Overtaking Opportunities ; over the Preceding 5 km (1) Design Volume (ADT) Percentage Description of the Length Anime ovenae | _provding Percentage of Slow Vehicles (3) Overtaking (2) a% 10% 20% Excellent 70-100 8,000 3,000__| 4,000 Good 30-70 3,000 4,000 | 3,500 Moderate 10-30 3,000 3,000__| 2,500 Occasional 5-10 2,500 2,000_| 1,500 Restricted 0-5 1,500 7,500__| 1,000 Very Restricted (4) 0 1,000 7,000 500. Notes: (1) Depending on road length being evaluated, this distance could range from 3 to 10 km. (2) See following text. (3) Include light trucks and cars towing trailers and other units. (4) No overtaking for 3 km in each direction. The proportion of road length offering overtaking provision is the sum of such section lengths, divided by the total road length being considered OP ‘Where: oP YOLs = Sum of overtaking lengths in road section (m) TSL LOLs x 100 TSL = Total road Length (m), = Proportion of road offering overtaking provision (%) The recommended lengths of overtaking lanes relative to the operating speed of the road section are shown in Table 17.2. 8 Table 17.2 : Overtaking Lane Lengths ‘Operating ‘Overtaking Lane Lengths - excluding Taper Speed lengths (m) (kph) Minimum Desirable Normal Minimum Minimum 50 75, 225 325) 60 100 250, 400 70 125 325 475 80 200) 400 650 90 275 475 715 100 350 560, ‘950 410 420 620 1070 Note: The start and terminal areas of overtaking lanes should be located where they are clearly visible to approaching drivers. 47.7.2 Climbing Lanes Climbing lanes can be considered as a special form of overtaking lane but they are only provided on inclines. Climbing lanes form part of the network of overtaking opportunities and will therefore have an effect on decisions associated with the location of other overtaking lanes. The warrant for climbing lanes is where’ ‘Truck speeds fall to 40 kph or less; ‘Truck speeds reduction by more than 15 kph; Upgrade traffic flow rate in excess of 20 vehicles per hour; Upgrade truck flow rate in excess of 20 vehicles per hour, Extended grades over 8% occur, Level of service E or F exist on the goods; Accidents attributable to the effects of slow moving trucks are significant; A reduction of two or more levels of service is experience when moving from the approach segment to the grade; and Heavy trucks from an adjacent industry enter the traffic stream Table 17.2 indicates the lenaths on constant individual grades needed to produce a reduction in truck speed to 40 kph Truck speeds on grades can be assessed using the curves included in Figure 16.5 and the longitudinal section of the road. The deceleration chart in Figure 16.5 assumes a truck entrance speed of 100 kph. 17.7.3 Merging and Diverging for Auxiliary Lanes The design of overtaking lanes and climbing lanes requires the consideration of the: Initial diverge taper, Auxiliary lane length; and End or merge taper. Diverge Taper A taper is required at the start of an auxiliary lane to provide for the lateral movement of traffic. A diverge is the dividing of a single stream of traffic into separate streams as shown in Figure 17.2. The diverge taper length for a through traffic lane is based on a lateral shift movement of traffic of 1 ms. A lateral shift of 1 m/s means that for every second of travel in the longitudinal direction, there is a transverse movement of 1 meter. ‘henge Taper —4.¢ mi ata Shit Tor athreugh iene Figure 17.2 : Diverge Taper The taper lengths for various speeds and lane widths are in Table 17.3, Merge Taper A merge is a converging of separate streams into a single stream as shown in Figure 17.3 A merge taper length is based on @ lateral shift movement of traffic of 0.6 mis for a through lane merge and 1.0 rs for an acceleration lane taper. A lateral shift of 0.6 m/s means that for every second of travel in the longitudinal direction, there is a transverse movement of 0.6 meter. Nowe 208 ms wr troun lane meme 2 fom tor siclereton Imemege Figure 17.3 : Merge Taper The lengths provided for the diverge and merge movements are important to enable adequate notice and opportunity to complete the movement safely. Table 17.3 ; Diverge and Merge Lengths Lane widths Design speed] Design Speed [37 | 36] 35] 3a | 93 | 32] 94] 30 ph) Fy Fraper tent @ 10 s/slaterat aa RDegH Spenda.Ox tae wath stort samy 30 Taesma | si | 50 | a9 | a7 az | a2 60 (ass7ms) | 62 | 60 | 58 _| 57 52 | 50 10 | ~1aa44ms) [72 70_| 68] 68 38 80 | 2222 mvs) | 82 76 “eo | 67 20 2500ms) | 93 | eo | 78 | 75 100 @rrems) | 103 2 | eo | es | as | 110 | @056rvs) | 113 | 110 | 107 | 104 | 101 | 98 | 95 | 92 120 333m) | 123 | 120 | 117 | 113 | 110 | 107 | 103 | 100 Taper length @ O65 mi Iatoral shift 50 caesme [ee [ea |e: | vo | ve | 7a | 72 | oo 60 (16.67 me) | 103 | 100 | 7 | o4 | 92 | e9 | e5 | ea 70 (19.44 ms) [120 [ 417 [419 | 410 | 407 | 104 | 100 | 97 80 | @2zzmvs) | 17 | 199 | 1 faa re as ae 20 500m) | 154 | 150 | 1 yf ase | a33 | 129 | 129 00 @rzems) | 11 | 167 | 162 | 197 | 183 | 148 | 14a | 139 110 056s) | 188 | 163 | 176 | 173 | 168 | 163 | 158 | 153 120 @333ms) | 208 | 200 | 194 | 169 | 163 | 178 | 172 | 167 17.7.3 Slow Vehicle Turn-outs: ‘A turn-out is a very short section of fully constructed shoulder or added lane that is provided to allow slow vehices to pull aside and be overtaken. It differs from an overtaking lane due to its short length, different signing and that the majority of vehicles are not encouraged to travel in the right lane. A turnout may be appropriate if taffic volumes are low or construction costs are very high for an overtaking lane or climbing lane. ATTA 4775 Turn-out lengths of 60 to 170 m for average approach speeds of 30 to 90 kph respectively and a width of 3.7 m are to be used. Care must be taken to provide adequate sight distance. Signing at the start and merge points are required to better indicate diverge and merge locations. The minimum sight distance should be stopping sight distance for the section operating speed. Descending Lanes: (On steep down grades the speed of trucks will be as low as that on equivalent up grades. There will be a similar effect on traffic fiow if overtaking opportunities are not available. A descending lane may be appropriate in these circumstances. Sight distance provision at the terminals is also important. When passing sight distance warrants, overtaking will be readily accomplished. Similarly, if a climbing lane is provided in the opposite direction and the passing sight distance is adequate, overtaking slower downhill vehicles can be safely achieved and a descending lane will not be needed. Where the down grade is along sharp horizontal curves, a descending lane will be appropriate to provide satisfactory traffic operation. Design detzils are similar to those of climbing lanes. Emergency Escape Ramps: Where long steep grades occur, it is desirable to provide emergency escape ramps These are to be located to slow or stop an out of control vehicle away from the min traffic stream. Out of control vehicles result from drivers losing control of their vehicle. There are four types of escape ramps: © Sand Pile; * Descending Grade: + Horizontal Grade; and * Ascending Grade. Each one of the ramp types is applicable to a particular situation where an emergency escape ramp is desirable and must be compatible with the location and topography. The most effective ramp is an ascending ramp with a full depth arrester bed. The length of ramp can be assessed from L=V’/ (26a + 2.5591) Where: LL = length of arrester bed excluding 50 m transition at the start (m) \V = Entry speed (kph) a= deceleration = (3.0 m/sec? for 350 mm deep gravel) - (3.7 m/sec” for 450 mm deep grave!) 1 =grade (%) (positive for upgrade; negative for downgrade) The provision of escape ramps requires careful consideration of site factors including the land use adjacent to the exit. Existing roads and streets used for property access should only be used where the traffic volume is very low and there is very low probability of an escaping vehicle meeting another vehicee. 18 DELINEATION The guidance of drivers as they travel along a length of road is important to provide safe travel concitions. Delineation of the road alignment needs to be considered as part of the design process to ensure that adequate guidance is provided to road users. Improving delineation may also be needed to improve safety on a road section experiencing traffic accident problems. Good delineation enables a driver to laterally position the vehicle on the road and to be aware of the changes in direction or alignment that may be ahead. Delineation is particularly important during periods of poor Visibility e.g. at night or during rain or fog. Figure 18.1 : Good Road Delineation Delineation is generally provided by the use of the following devices: Pavement Markings Centerline Lane tines Edge lines or tactile edge lines Other painted markings e.g. islands, hatching Reflective Pavement Studs (RPS) Signs Warning signs indicating curves ete. Hazard markers Chevron signs for substandard curves Guide posts Reflective delineators Lighting Curb or other physical devices 7 Examples of poor road delineation are shown in Figures 18.2 and 18.3. Figure 18. : Poor Curve Delineation Figure 18.4 : Examples of Chevron Signs providing Delineation of Curves Figure 18.5 : Road Delineation affected by shadows. In Figure 18.5, shadows across the roadway affect delineation of the Toad alignment. Adding edge lines or chevron signs could improve the delineation, Details regarding the selection and use of signs and pavement markings for delineation are provided in DPWH Highway Safety Design Standards Manual Part 2: Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual. 19 191 19.2 INTERSECTIONS This section of the menual describes the safety features of intersections and the criteria for safe design. An intersection is the junction where two roads either cross or meet. Intersection Types The types of intersections that generally exist on the road network are: = Unflared and unchannelized intersections (without widening or traffic islands) = Flared and unchannelized intersections (with widening but without traffic islands); and, = Channelized intersections (traffic islands to guide traffic). The types of intersections are also described in Section 4.1.3 of the DPWH Highway Design Guidelines. Common types of intersection are cross intersections, T-intersections, Y-intersections, other multi-legged junctions and roundabouts. Principles of good design to reduce the likelihood of traffic accidents include: + Minimize the speed of vehicles at potential collision points; + Separate movements and points of conflict by channelization, or in some situations, prohibit certain movements (and provide for ‘them at other intersections along the route); = Control movements to reduce the possibility of conflict; and = Clearly define vehicle paths by use of pavement markings. Traffic Control Devices Traffic can be controlled at intersections by regulatory signs, traffic signals, roundabouts. If no traffic control devices are provided, it operates according to the road rules in Chapter IV - Traffic Rules, in Republic Act No. 4136 ‘Land Transportation and Traffic Code’. Whatever type of traffic control is used, it must be clear and visible to drivers from a distance that will allow the motorist to react and stop if necessary All intersections should have appropriate pavement marking, not only to ensure vehicles stop at the correct position, but to also help define the intersection area. Where intersections have no traffic control device other than pavement marking, vehicles are required to give way to other vehicles that are 19.24 19.2.2 19.3 already in the intersection or have reached the intersection first and are about to enter. Priority Intersections. Stop or Give Way signs facing the minor road approaches at an intersection are used to give priority to the major road. Safety at an intersection is improved by assigning clear priority to inform drivers of their responsibilities. A Stop sign is installed on the minor road if the visibility to trafic on the major intersecting road is below specified distances relative to the major road operating speed. Otherwise a Give Way sign is used. The Highway Safety Design Standards Part 2: Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual, Sections 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 provide details on the visibility requirements for the use of Stop and Give Way signs. Signal Controlled Intersections Traffic signals improve safety and simplify decision making. They also: = Separate vehicle movements in time. This minimizes conflicts. = Minimize delays at an intersection; = Enable vehicles from a side road to cross or enter the major road; and = Assist pedestrians in crossing the road. Control of Conflicts A conflict point occurs where two travel paths interact or cross. Safe intersection design uses the following principles: = Minimizing the number of confict points: = Minimizing the area of confit; + Separating points of confit; = Giving preference to major movements; and + Minimizing relative speed of conflicting movements A large area of conflict can occur when roads intersect at an acute angle, where wide roads intersect or with offset cross intersections. Figure 19.1 shows an intersection with a large area of conflict This could be a safer intersection with channelization of the movements or by controlling movements. with a roundabout or traffic signals. Figure 19.1 : Large Intersection Conflict Area The number of conflict points depends on the type of intersection. Figures 19.2 to 19.4 demonstrate where the conflict points occur for various types of intersection. Table 4-1.2 of the DPWH Highway Design Guidelines also refers to intersection conflict points. The figures below show the major points of conflict for crossing and merging Movements. The diverging conflicts are not shown as they are generally of 2 minor nature and would usually occur prior to the intersection, rather than within the intersection itself. Generally, from a sefety point of view, the fewer conflict points the safer the intersection, S points of major conflict Figure 19.2: Three-Legged Intersection 24 points of maior conflict Figure 19.3 : Four-Legged Intersection A points of major conflict igure 19.4 : Roundabout at Four-Legged Intersection 19.4 Control of Speed The speed of vehicles through an intersection depends on: = Alignment, = Road environment; + Traffic volume and composition; and = Traffic control devices. 19.4.1 Relative Speod The safety of an intersection depends largely on achieving low relative speeds. Relative speed is the vectorial speed of convergence of the vehicles in a conflict maneuver. In each of the figures below, it can be ‘seen that the higher the collision angle the higher the relative speed. A= 60 kph B= 60 kph Relative Speed C= 85 kph Figure 19.5 : Cross Road A= 60 kph B= 60 kph Relative Speed C= 112 koh Figure 19.6 : Y Intersection Layout A= 20 kph B= 20 kph Relative Speed C= 10 kpa Figure 19.7 : Roundabout 19.4.2 Attaining low relative speeds Low relative speed conditions at intersections can be obtained by: Choosing a layout where conflicting movements cross at angles less than or equal to 90 degrees; + Providing a layout or alignment that siows down approaching vehicles; end = Providing deceleration lanes. A common intersection type where the layout can be hazardous is the Y-junction or T-junction with two way traffic each side of a single triangular island (refer to Figure 19.8 below). These layouts have six (6) points of conflict similar to other 3-legged intersections. However, they can be less safe due to the angles of conflict involved (at points A, B, and C), as there is a potential for high speed high severity head on accidents. A driver's view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway also creates a difficulty in seeing possible conficts. Effective traffic contro! using signs to define priority for the major movement is also difficult to achieve. Figure 19.8 : Conflicts at Y and T Intersections 19.5 Channelization Channelization at an intersection involves the control of traffic by provision of traffic islands or pavement markings to direct the traffic into Predetermined paths. The shape of an intersection layout and channelization depends on the layout of the approaching roadways, the traffic patterns and control strategy, traffic volumes including turning movements, pedestrian needs, parking arrangements and access to abutting properties. Channelization can be used to: Merge traffic streams at small angles to ensure low relative speed between conflicting stations Reduce areas of conflict by causing opposing traffic streams to intersect generally at right angles (desirable range is in the order 0f 70 to 90 degrees); Improve and define the alignment of major movements; Control the speed of traffic entering an intersection by changing alignment or bending their approach path; Control the speed of traffic by restricting width or funneling; Provide a refuge or median to shelter a turing or crossing vehicle; Provide protection for pedestrians, Improve conspicuity of an intersection e.g. a splitter island on an approach, Prohibit certain turnsimovement, end Provide locations for traffic signal poles or traffic signs. In the design and layout of channelization care should be taken to provide clear guidance to drivers with simple decision making and to avoid any possible cause of confusion. 196 19.7 Lane widths The width of through traffic lanes at an intersection can affect how motorists behave on the approach and within an intersection. If lanes are too wide then it can encourage drivers to travel at high speeds or form extra lanes of traffic. It can also result in poor lane delineation Lane widths at intersections may be less than midblock lane widths to enable additional through or turning lanes to be provided for reasons of safety or capacity. Narrow lanes need to be avoided where single lane roadways have curbs on both sides e.g. on slip lanes, as there needs to be sufficient width for vehicies to get past a stalled vehicle. Itis desirable to provide at least 5m between curbs to enable passing of a stalled vehicle. Turning lanes within an intersection need to provide for the swept path of turning vehicles. It is also desirable to provide at least 6m between curbs on siip lanes to cater for the swept paths of larger vehicles during the tum. When designing an intersection, turning templates should be used to indicate the “swept path envelope’ for various angles of tun. An example template is shown in Appendix 2. These are used to ensure that there is enough pavement width on which the vehicle can turn and to ensure that the vehicle will not encroach into an adjacent lane or overhang areas with poles or signs. These ere placed on the layout design to ‘map’ the areas of the wheel paths and the truck overhang. A computer program called AUTOTURN can also be used to ‘map’ the swept path of large vehicles. Auxiliary Lanes at Intersections Auxiliary through traffic lanes may be provided at urban signalized intersections to increase capacity. An auxiliary lane may also be Tequired through a roundabout to provide appropriate capacity, Tapers are required at the start and end of auxiliary lanes to provide for the lateral movement and merging of traffic. Details of diverge and merge taper lengths for auxiliary through lanes are detailed in Section 1773 For right and left turn lanes the diverge tapers are shorter so that the commencement of the lane is more obvious and so the driver is required to make a conscious decision to change lanes. Typical lengths are = Urban area (up to 70 kph) - 30 m taper = Rural or high speed area up to 80 kph - 40 m taper = Rural or high speed area up to 100 koh — 50 m taper 198 Right and Left Turning Lanes The safety of an intersection can be improved by provision of right and left auxiliary turning lanes. Turning lanes also improve intersection cepacity and traffic flow. They are perticularly important if the volume of traffic making these moves is high or if the through or oncoming traffic flows are high. Provision for turning lanes can generally be provided in the following ‘+ Shared tuming and through lene; ‘+ Flaring and taper; or ‘© Separate lane for deceleration and storage Figure 19.9 can provide guidance on choosing an appropriate treatment in rural or outer urban locations. (Qr— Traffic flow in peak hour of through traffic (vehicles / hour) (Q. — Traffic fow in peak hour of left tun traffic (vehicles / nour) Qs — Traffic flow in peak hour of right tum traffic (vehicles / hour) If peak hour volumes are not available, assume the design peak hour volume equals 10% to 15% of the ADT. Figure 19: : Guideline for Left and Right Turn Lanes At some intersections there may need to be two or more turning lanes to cater for high turning volumes. The provision of slip lanes for right turning traffic is also desirable where space is available, The type of treatment used depends on the volume and composition of the traffic, wanting to make the move. The auxiliary lanes used for turning traffic are provided to allow vehicles to decelerate in a separate lane, avoiding delays for through traffic vehicles and to provide an area for vehicles while waiting to make the turn. Itis important from a safety point of view that the length of the auxiliary lane is adequate to store waiting vehicles and to ensure that vehicles do not queue cut into the adjacent lane and create a hazard for through traffic. 19.9 Right Turn Slip Lanes Right turn slip lanes are provided to minimize the delays for right turning vehicles and to make the right turn movement easier and safer. A traffic island is provided with this treatment to: + Guide traffic into defined paths; = Separate through, turning and opposing traffic movements; + Give advance warning of the intersection to approaching drivers; + Provide refuge for pedestrians; and, = Prohibit undesirable or unnecessary tratfic movements. The provision of an auxiliary right turning lane in advance of the slip lane is desirable. The length is generally based on the distance needed for deceleration with consideration also given to the storage requirements for turning traffic. An auxiliary lane also enables turning traffic to enter the lane around the queued through vehicles, The two types of slip lane arrangements are: = High entry angle slip lane; and = Free Flow Siip Lane. The shape and size of the traffic island is important to guide vehicles along a path where a safe intersecting angle or merging can be Provided with traffic in the intersecting roadway. The choice of layout arrangements depends on site conditions. 19.9.1 High Entry Angle Slip Lane Ime OF KER 102 nin Pao of OFFSET OF 0.2 m PER 40 km/hr OF APPROACH SPEED Figure 19.10 : High Entry Angle Slip Lane The treatment in Figure 19.10 allows vehicles to wait at the hold line at an angle of about 70 degrees, which ensures good visibility of approaching traffic in the intersecting road. A lower angle promotes a higher speed movement and can also create difficulties for the driver seeing vehicles approaching from the left. 400 19.9.2 Free Flow Slip Lane 03m —e Acceleration (soeed change) Lare Reler AASHTO Exhibit 10.73 Incudes merge taper 9 mis lateral shit 1 in 10 Taper. Notes: * -offsstof0.2m per 10kph of apoach speed W.—Wiah based on swept pat of tuning white / indudng space fb ovetate «broken down vehicle / cubs or both ices) / | R.—Tum mus design sped based on 20% 0 €0% eau speed Figure 19.11 ; Free Flow Slip Lane The type of treatment in Figure 19.11 is appropriate when there is a high volume of right turning traffic and a low pedestrian volume (the free fiow slip lane does not cater as well for pedestrians due to the higher speeds). The free flow slip lane arrangement may be suitable in a rural situation or an expressway interchange. 19.10 Left Turn Treatments Provision of a special treatment for left turning vehicles at intersections is dependant on the total number of vehicles needing to make the movement and the opportunities available for the move to be completed. Three types of treatments that could be used, depending on the traffic volumes and road environment are shown in Figures 19.12, 19.13 and 19.14, 101 With sutcent to peers pasting of alefe turns vehicle Figure 19.12: Type A Left Turn Treatment ‘The Type A treatment in Figure 19.12 has no separate tuming lane and is appropriate when the left tum volume is low. A feature of this treatment is sufficient width to allow passing of left turning vehicles. This area of shoulder could be paved in the vicinity of the intersection as a measure to improve safety and reduce maintenance. eee ee emt TYRES. Figure 19.13 : Type B Left Turn Treatment The Type B layout in Figure 19.13 has a semi-protected left tun lane. Itis safer than a Type A treatment, as it provides a full width marked lane for through vehicles to pass waiting left tumers. This treatment is used for higher left turn volume situations. The length D; in the treatment above is based on a diverge movement with a lateral shift of 1.0 m/s. Appropriate lengths for various operating speeds are shown in Table 19.1. The length D; needs to allow for storage of waiting vehicles and would generally be in the range of 20 to 50 meters. The radius R is based on the design speed. pte cera ae ee a mene ae Figure 19.14; Type C Left Turn Treatment 402 The Type C layout in Figure 19.14 shows a protected left turn treatment. It features 2 formalized auxiliary tuming lane with a painted island to shelter a vehicle waiting to turn left. This treatment is appropriate for high speed roads with significant left turn volumes. The length D; in Figure 19.14 is based on a diverge movement with a lateral shit of 1.0 mis. Appropriate lengths for various operating speeds are shown in Table 19.1. The length of the deceleration taper entering the left turn lane would reduce to 30m in an urban or low speed environment. 19.11 Intersection Capacity The safety of at grade intersections is largely dependent on how well the traffic demand is catered for. The capacity of an intersection depends largely on the number of lanes provided and whether auxiliary lanes are provided. For a signalized intersection the phasing and cycle times also have an impact on the capactty of the intersection. Intersections without traffic signals are appropriate low traffic volumes. For higher volumes auxiliary lanes and signals need to be considered. When the fiow on the major leg is high, it can become an issue for vehicles ftom the minor road as they can have trouble entering or crossing the major road. This is a safety concern as they can decide to choose smaller gaps which increases the risk. Vehicles wanting to turn off the major road can delay through vehicles on the major road, if auxiliary lanes are not provided 19.12 Sight Distance at Intersections Safe intersection design requires that the appropriate sight distance be provided. The Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) values used for road sections are also applicable to the major road at intersections. SSD values for various design speeds are based an the stopping distance plus the travel distance during the reaction time. These are outlined in Table 16.2. Where possible, Intersection Sight Distance (ISD) should also be provided. The ISD applicable to drivers in the minor road enables vehicles from the minor road to enter or cross the major road without impeding the traffic on the major road. ISD values for various design speeds are outlined in Table 19.1 103, Table 19.1 : Intersection Sight Distance (ISD) Design Speed (kph) Stopping Sight Intersection Sight Distance (m) Distance (m) 20 20 45 30 35 65 40 50 85 50 65 105 60 85 130 70 105 150 80 130 170 90 160 190 100 185 210 110 220 230 120 250 255 19.13 Horizontal and Vertical Intersection Geometry Sight distance standards should be provided for both horizontal and vertical alignments. The optimal location of intersections is on straight alignments with uniform grade. This situation provides the best situation for sight distance requirements and also the driving task is simplified as vehicles cen be maintained more easily on correct paths through the intersection. For the same reason, severe changes of alignment within an intersection should be avoided. Where a straight alignment cannot be achieved, the position of intersections should be contained within @ horizontal curve, so that drivers are already traveling on the curve before reaching the intersection. In rolling terrein, intersections should be positioned on seg curves rather than near crest curves, as sight distances can be restricted. Sight distance restrictions can also occur when the minor road intersects on the outside of a horizontal curve. In this situation, the superelevation on the mejor road is sloping away from the minor road and the pavement may not be visible to the minor road driver, particularly if the minor road is on an upgrade approaching the intersection. To improve conspicuity of the intersection in this situation, it may be possible to regrade the minor road approach to the intersection or provide a splitter island. 404 19.14 Roundabouts 1914.1 Introduction A roundabout (or rotunda) is one of the safest type of intersection treatments. It consists of a circular island in the middle of an intersection and traffic moves around it in an anticlockwise direction. When designed correctly, the roundabout is probably the safest type of intersection as there are fewer conflict points. In addition, tratfic is slowed down by the layout before entering the roundabout, the relative speed at possible collision points is low and the decision making for drivers is simple. The provision of splitter islands on the approach to a roundabout also provides advance notice to the driver and controls vehicle movements. 19.14.2 Safety Benefits Roundabouts are a safe and effective form of intersection control as the central island physically deflects the traffic through the intersection and controls the speed of traffic. Any collisions that may occur in a roundabout are generally less severe because traffic is moving slowly and in the same general direction. In addition, drivers only look for traffic on the left, making it easier to judge an entry into the intersection. 19.14.3 Appropriate Locations for Roundabouts Many factors need to be taken into consideration when choosing the type of intersection to be provided at a given location. Roundabouts may be appropriate in the following situations: = At intersections with high accident rates = When physical control of speed is desirable = When the fiows on each approach are balanced and capacity analysis indicates that volumes can be managed; = When the volume of left tumers is significant = If traffic signals may be inefficient e.g. due to a large number of phases; and = For multi-legged intersections. Roundabouts may not be appropriate in the following situations: = Where satisfactory geometric design cannot be provided due to insufficient space of unfavorable topography; = Where unbalanced flows with high volumes are on one or more approaches; = Where a major road intersects a minor road and a roundabout ‘would result in unacceptable delay to the major road; or = Where there is considerable pedestrian activity and due to high traffic volumes it would be difficult for pedestrians to cross at the intersection. 105 19.14.4 Balanced Flows Roundabouts operate best when the traffic flows are balanced. This does not necessarily mean that all movements must be of the same magnitude but that the predominant movements are “broken up" by Circulating traffic so that gaps are provided to allow vehicles waiting on adjacent legs to enter the roundabout without major delays. When trafic fiows ore not balanced then significant delays can be experienced by traffic on the minor roads. 19.14.5 Roundabout Design Practice The main components of a roundabout are shown in Figure 19.15 © Departure with Enty curve — ‘Comer curbradius (our relu) “2. eg = ~ Bait width Entry width Anpreach wid) Central islard diameter ~ cireutatng roadway Circulating roadway width 7 Give Way ine “ inseribod cielo diamotor Spliterisland — Note: Contra! itand ia gonorelly corcuar but may be ronicircular Figure 19.15 : Geometric Elements of a Roundabout The following points outline good practice in the use and design of roundabouts: = Roundabouts can be used to improve safety at any type of intersection, including urban or low speed environments as well as rural or high speed environments. The principles of good design provide for control of vehicle speeds by using an 106 appropriately designed central island as well as approach and departure geometry to control vehicle speeds. The central island should preferably be circular to keep the driving task simple. However, in some locations if there are constraints or layout issues limiting an appropriate design speed due to approach widths or angle of approach, other shapes e.9. egg shape, can be considered. Guidelines on the size of the central island are in Section 19.14.7 Step 4. The size of the central island is generally related to: Widths and location of approach roads; Design speed and deflection necessary; and Available space. At urban low speed roundabouts, the deflection is provided by the circular island in the intersection. Splitter islands on the approach assist in providing deflection and restrict ‘wrong way’ movements. Amy fi Figure 19.16 : Inner Urban Roundabout. ‘The layout in Figure 19.16 could be improved with splitter islands to guide drivers and control the entry of traffic into the roundabout 107 Figure 19.17 : Outer Urban Roundabout = At tural roundabouts where the approaches ere high speed, deflection has to be provided earlier by longer splitter islands on the approach before vehicles reach the intersection Figure 19.18 : Rural Roundabout = It is important that the approaches are designed to gradually slow traffic down before reaching the crculating roadway. The maximum design speed through the roundabout should generally be 40 kph in urban areas and no greater than 50 kph in rural areas, = Once a vehicle has entered the circulating roadway, it should be able to exit quickly. The departures should be designed with a tangential straight or high radius curve departure. 408 ‘rag tangena \ if 18ndown toon, il | Asm acceptable on satan Figure 19.20 : Urban Splitter Island + On high speed roads, the splitter island should generally extend across the full width of the approach lanes as seen by the approaching criver. The length should provide for adequate deflection and deceleration, Typically 20m to 30m diometer \, Low mounted hazerd boards Comfortable deceleration( 100 km/h to 20 km/h) Y Figuro 19.21 : Splitter Island for High Speod Approach 109 = Splitter islands discourage wrong way movements. The detailed design features of spliter islands, entrance and exit conditions are shown in Figure 19.19 and 19.21. It is important that they guide traffic into the roundabout on a smooth curve and at an angle that gives the drivers comfortable sighting of approaching traffic 19.14.6 Things to Avoid = Straight approaches on high speed roads; = Central island too small to provide deflection; and = Unbalanced trafic flows. 19.14.7 Design Stops The following steps should be followed when designing a roundabout: 1. Obtain peak hourly flow traffic data and then calculate entering flows and circulating flows. -—600 2400 50 600-——— ae Figure 19.22 : Movement Volumes and Circulating Flows 2. Select the General Design Criteria - Appropriate design vehicle. Generally a sem:-trailer for arterial roads and single unit truck/bus or 2 service vehicle for non-arterials, depending on the function of the intersecting roads. = Adopt a minimum design vehicle tuming radius. Generally, 15m (outside radius of turn path) on arterial roads and 12.6m on non- arterials, depending on the function of the intersecting roads and the types of vehicles anticipated. = Determine the number of lanes required (entry, exit and circulating carriageway). Refer to Figure 19.23. Commercial computer design packages can be used if a more detailed analysis of the roundabout capacity is desired 410 Entry 1600 Flow Wveh/ni Foundatout © 00 Cirevlating Flow Iveh/hl Figure 19.23 : Number of Lanes 3. Establish the space available for the roundabout taking into consideration site controls such as property boundaries, utilities, trees, parking etc. 4. Select a trial central island diameter and determine the width needed for the circulating carriageway. Refer to Figure 19.24 and Table 19.2. As a guide, the diameter of the central island should be 5 to 20 m diameter in an urban environment and 20 to 50m in a rural environment. Larger radius islands are used on divided carriageway roads or high speed roads. If large vehicles are going to be using the intersection then a desirable minimum central island radius of 8.0m is preferred. This then enables the use of a 15m radius (outside radius of turn path) turing template. Maximum of wath for 3 lanes passing through on radius Ri from approach 3404 width for 2 jones tuning Or radius R2 rom eppteacn Ito. Sa Vehicular pare Note: These are net lane markinos Figure 19.24 : Turning Radius for Determining Circulating Carriageway Width 4 “Turning Ratiue fone arcutatea vebicle | one articulated venice | one srueulted venice plus one passenger ear | plus wopasenger cars Rim) @ @ ©, 5 16 . 8 u . 10 67 . 2 65 103 . 14 62 101 ’ 16 60 99 . 18 59 97 * Ey 57 96 135) 2 56 95 14 4 35 9A 133 26 3a 93 B2 R 54 92 Bo % 33 94 120 0 88 26 i nares. 122 sx Insite Radius of Tarn Pa. ‘Three ane wide tuming pas ere most walihely 1 occu a tun raius Jes than 20 m. Table 19.2 : Circulating Carriageway Widths 5. Position the central island on the plan and sketch splitter islands and entry/exit lanes, ensuring that the offsets to the solitter islands are maintained 6. Check if adequate deflection has been achieved for the desired design speed. If not, adjust the layout including the entry and exit geometry and the position or size of the central island. Refer to Figure 19.25 or 19.26 (muttilane roundabout). Radii curves for various design speeds are attached as Appendix 4. These can be copied as transparencies and used to check the deflection criteria. Figure 19.25 : Deflection Requirement — Single lane 412 Figure 19.26 : Deflection Criteria - Multi Lane 7. Check sight distances on each approach in relation to horizontal and vertical visibility. The alignment on the approach should be such that the driver has a good view of the splitter island, the ‘Give Way’ line, the central island and desirably the circulating carriageway. At roundabouts, the speed of vehicles is controlled within the circulating carriageway, however, it is also desirable that drivers approaching the roundabout are able to see other entering vehicles before they reach the ‘Give Way’ line, particularly in a rural or high speed area. Therefore, a stopping sight distance requirement based on a 50 kph approach speed is also desirable. In urban areas, this criteria can be difficult to achieve. A driver stationary at the ‘Give Way’ line should have a clear line of sight to the left to approaching traffic in the circulating carriageway and Misibility to traffic entering the roundabout ftom the approach immediately to the lett, for e distance representing the travel tme equal to the critical acceptance gap. A critical gap of 4 to 5 seconds is appropriate. & Check turning path requirements using the appropriate turning path templates or a software package such as ‘Autoturn'. There are various software packages available and they are valuable computer design tools. 9. Finalize the edge of pavement design at each entry and exit including the splitter island details, providing the appropriate nose radii and offsets. 113, 10. Ensure that other road users such as pedestrians and cyclists are catered for in 2 safe manner. 11. Design the lane and pavement markings. Refer to Road Signs and Pavement Merkings Manual for details of roundabout pavement markings. Figure 19.27 : Typical Pavement Markings at a Multi Lane Roundabout 12. Complete a signing design. Refer to Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual for details of roundabout signs 13. Complete a lighting design. 14. Complete a landscaping design ensuring that sight cistance requirements will be meintained when plants are fully grown. 19.14.8 Traffic Control and Priority Priority at roundabouts is given to circulating traffic within the roundabout by installing Give Way signs facing all approaches. Roundabouts operate efficiently when the entering traffic gives way and waits for a gap in the circulating flow before entering the roundabout. This ‘operation enables circulating traffic to leave the roundabout without delay. Italso reduces congestion and the likelihood of the roundabout ‘locking up. 114 ‘The Give Way signs should be placed on both sides of an approach where it is two or more lanes wide. J Figure 19.28 : Give Way Sign (R1-2) In congested situations where the traffic flow on one approach is very heavy and it prevents traffic on another approach from entering the roundabout, it is possible to install traffic signals on the approach with the heavy traffic to stop it during busy times and allow traffic on the minor approach to enter. Where this type of control is used the signals are usually activated with loops to detect queue lengths. 19.15 Examples of Poor Intersection Layouts 19.15.14 Y-Intorsection Example of poor intersection layout - road can give impression that it goes straight ahead (especially at night), poor curve delineation. Figure 19.29 : Poor Intersaction Layout 15 Poor layout and no pavement marking Not clear that. vehicles on this, leg nead to give way. Figure 19.30 ; Poor delineation 116 19.15.2 Y-Intersection with Triangular Island Poor Intersection Layout - high relative conflict speeds, difficulty defining priority, awkward layout to see vehicles ‘on intersecting roadway, no holding lines and no marked left turn lane. Figure 19.31 : Poor Intersection Layout 417 20 201 20.2 SAFETY OF THE ROADSIDE Introduction The first objective in road safety is to keep road users safely on the road pavement with a reasonable width, a sound road surface, a predictable alignment and good delineation and signs. However, it must be recognized that drivers and riders are only human and will sometimes make mistakes and lose control of their vehicles. The reasons that they might lose control are many, for example: + Excessive speed; Fatigue or inattention; * Alcohol or drugs; or "Road condition. Therefore the second objective is to provide a forgiving roadside free of roadside hazards thet may injure the occupants of vehicles that leave the road and enter the roadside. A forgiving roadside is more important on the higher speed roads because the severity of a crash with a roadside hazard increases rapidly with speed. The importance of a forgiving roadside is emphasized by the studies in many countries which show that around one in every three fatalities is the result of a single vehicle running off the road accident Clear Zone It may be difficult to provide width adjacent to the carriageway that will allow all errant vehicles to recover. Therefore it is generally necessary to decide on a level of risk management. ‘The most widely accepted form of risk management for the roadside is the clear zone concept. The clear zone distance provides a balance between recovery area for every errant vehicle, the cost of providing that area end the probability of an errant vehicle encountering a hezerd. The clear zone should be kept free of non-frangible hazards. Where this cannot be achieved, errant vehicles should be protected from running into these hazards by the use of certified roadside safety barriers. The median of a divided highway will need road safety median barners if hazards exist within the clear zone or if a traffic volume warrant is demonstrated. 118 Some typical road environment hazards are: + Poles; + Trees; ‘© Steep side slopes; ‘+ Water courses, dams; © Cuivert endwalls; ‘+ Fences and encroaching buildings; and ‘+ Bridge piers and abutments; The following frangible based facilites can be located within the clear zone: «Impact absorbent poles; + Slip base poles and other slip base stuctures: and + Frangible posts - steel, aluminum, wooden and conerete. Other systems include: © Drivable endwalls; and * Extended culverts beyond the clear zone. Research shows that about 85% of vehicles that leave the road at 100 kph are able to stop safely or regain control within an area of 9 meters wide measured from the edge of the traffic lane, Figure 20.1 : Recovery Area (100 kph operating speed, flat cross slope) The clear zone width depends on the speed that the vehicle is moving. ‘At 60 kph, 85% of vehicles would recover within 3 meters from the edge of the traffic lane. This clear zone area adjacent to traffic lanes should be kept free of features which could be potentially hazardous to the occupants of an out of control vehicle, such as trees or poles. 119 Figure 20.2 Road with Good Clear Zone. For economic reasons, the clear zone also varies with traffic volume. For very low traffic volumes where few motorists are exposed to a roadside hazard, it is not economically cost-effective to provide a full Clear zone and the width is reduced. Figure 20.3 shows how the clear zone can be calculated for different speeds and volumes. If the area to the side of the road is sloped, it will influence how far an out of control vehicle travels. Figure 20.3 therefore has an adjustment for roadside slope. On curved roads the dear zone should be wider on the outside of a curve because drivers and riders will require more distance to recover. Table 20.1 provides a curve factor, which is used to increase the clear zone width. If a major hazard such as a cliff lies just outside the clear zone, consideration should still be given to protecting the 15% of road users who would travel beyond the clear zone. 120 wat Spot saa 4 ; Z e coms EXAMPLE #1 Fi ge Bor ‘1V30H FORESLOPE eer ut evore) FY ‘0k 0 vod answer, LEAR 20NE Fontsong WoTH =o ol watt 4 FUL sores AUT | 1V:20H — CUT SLOPES: — exAMPLe #2 ‘wareacrsiore tH ge (CUT SLOPE) g WHO “Teo TA 100 kv 7s ved sve ANeWER: ive | CLEAR ZONE WOTH=6n me) “SEE SECTIONS. 24. FOR DSSCUSBIONON VARABLE SLOPE DETERIANATION. wat 4 . ‘OVER 6000 DESIGN AD. o 3 el lf) lm ow 1500 - 6000 DESIGN A.D.T, + s ele 2 8 we om Mm @ 760-1600 DESIGN ADT, t+} pp pf o 38 6 8 2 68 8 UNDER 750 DESIGN A.D.1, ° 3 6 ° 12 18 CLEAR-ZONE DISTANCE (m) ‘Source: Roadside Design Guide, American Association of State Highway and Transportation (Officials (AASHTO), 2002 Figure 20.3 : Clear Zone Calculation 124 Radius n Speed (kph) (m) 900 700 600 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 Table 20.1 : Curve Correction Factor Note: The clear zone curve correction factor is applied to the outside of curves, only. The clear zone distance obtained from Figure 20.3 is multiplied by the correction factor. Curves flatter than 900m radius do not require an adjustment. 203 204 New Roads Achievement of the clear Zone Is most often economically feasible when a new road is being built or an existing road is undergoing major reconstruction. For this reason, the provision of a clear zone should always be considered when new works are planned. Existing Roads On the existing road network, particularly in urban areas, it can be very difficult to achieve a clear zone. In urban areas there are many features on the roadside like electricity and telephone poles, signs, trees and many services under the surface like water pipes, drainage, and cables. This usually means there are very few options for relocating poles or other hazerds. Therefore, on existing roads it is best to focus on the high risk sites such as on tight curves or at the end of long downward slopes and on roads with high operating speeds. 122 20.5 Treatment of Hazards The options for treating roadside hazards are: * Remove the hazard. "Move the hazard outside the clear zone. a. EE y a Figure 20.4 : elocated Pole The above pole has been placed as far as possible trom the traffic. = Modify the hazard so that it is not so dangerous. For example, installing a cover on an open pit or making the end of a culvert drivable. Figure 20.5 : Drivable Culvert End Drivable culvert ends are designed to enable vehicles to ride over the hazard. Bars are placed tangential to the flow of traffic to be spaced at not greater than 0.6m center lines. These can be utilized for longitudinal drain culverts and cross drain culverts. 123 = Replace the hazard with something that it is not so dangerous, for ‘example replace steel sign posts with frangible (collapsible) wooden posts The steel |-beam sign posts in the following photo constitute a road safety hazard: Figure 20.6 : Steel Sign Posts Frangible wooden posts breakaway if struck by a vehicle and will Not injure occupants: SST iL) Figure 20.7 : Frangible Wooden Posts 124 Another example is roadside poles. They are generally immovable objects that cause significant damage if struck. In the photo below, the engine has been pushed into the passenger compartment. Figure 20.8 : Pole Hazard Specially designed poles are available which absorb the impact and collapse when struck by a vehicle thus protecting the occupants of a vehicle. Figure 20.9 : Impact Absorbing Pole 125 "Shield the hazard with a barrier system. Figure 20.10 shows a picture of a roadside hazard with no barriers. Figure 20.10 : Unprotected Roadside Hazard Figure 20.11 is an example of how such a hazard could be treated: Figure 20.11 : Use of Barrier 126 20.6 Roadside and Median Safety Barriers Roadside barriers are used to shield errant vehicles from running into hazards that cannot be relocated or made more frangible. The barriers are a hazard in themselves and accordingly should only be used when they are less of a safety concern than the hazard they are protecting, Roadside barrier systems maybe considered for use only after they have been satisfactorily crash tested, computer simulated or designed by other professionally acceptable methods that demonstrate acceptability to meet the testing regime stated in the Road Design Guidelines, AASHTO 2002 The acceptance of roadside safety barrier systems is based on an evaluation of its performance in an idealized crash test (vehicle in tracking mode, approach surface 1:10 or flatter, paved and free from obstructions such as curbs) for a specific weight and type of vehicle at designated speeds and impact angles. In accordance with the National Corporative Highway Research Project 350 (NCHRP350) procedures, there are six test levels to provide a range of restraint requirements and impact severity conditions (refer to Table 20.2). The criteria are based on: + Structural adequacy of the barrier system; ‘* Occupancy risk and the impact velocity and ride down acceleration limits; and + Vehicle trajectory after impact. Table 20.2 : Test Levels for Roadside Barriers Fant ere 27 20.6.1 Test level 3 is considered to be the rating by which roadside barriers are designed. They are applicable for cars and pick-up trucks at 100 kph with a nominal angle of impact of 20 degrees. The roadwork zone systems can be designed for test levels 0, 1, 2 and 3 at nominal speeds of 50, 70, and 100 kph respectively, and at 20 degrees nominal angle. Roadside safety barriers and the equivalent test level category of each are listed below. The test level rating of a barrier system can be increased by raising the height of the top of the system and proven by acceptable methods. Road Safety Barrier Systems: Flexible Wire Rope Safety Barrier Systems: Test Level ‘+ ‘Brifen’ four (4) wire ropes 13 ‘+ ‘Flexible’ four (4) wire ropes 13 ‘+ ‘Armour Wire’ three (3) wire ropes 1s Semi Rigid Systems: + W-beam steel barrier 13 ‘© Thiie-beam steel barrier 1s + Hollow box ste! barrier 13 Rigid Systems: ‘+ Stone masonry ~ parkway 13 « F-shape concrete barrier TL4 * Concrete single slope berrier TL4 tos + Vertical face concrete barrier TL4tos + High containment concrete barrier TLS t06 Road Work Systems: + F-shape conorete barrier Ts + Plastic water filled barrier LO, 1,283 + Truck mounted attenuators 13 These road safely barrier systems are detailed in Figures 20.12, 20.13 and 20.14, The systems all have specialized terminals that provide control led decelerations. Terminals provide deceleration below recommended limits and ensure thet the vehicle is not speared, vaulted, snagged or rolled on impact. All these criteria combine to provide the necessary road safety features of a total system, Crash cushion systems are also used to shield hazards in confined lovations, such as the junction of concrete bariiers, at ramp gore locations and other rigid hazards. 128 —— 1 ne] 7. a Figure 20.12 : Median Barriers 129 am Cs Bae a oh Figure 20.13 : Roadside Barriers 130 SAFE-STOP TRUCK MOUNTED ATTENUATORS Figure 20.14 : Roadwork Barriers 181 Concrete barriers are best suited to situations where there is limited ‘space between the barrier and the hazard. Typically, this occurs in narrow medians or in areas of restricted road cross section. The greatest concern with concrete barriers is the method of termination. Available options include: + Steel W-beam terminal assembly to shield the end of the concrete barrier in association with @ bridge approach assembly; ‘+ Plastic water filled barrier systems used as terminals, ‘+ Burying the end of the barrier in an adjacent cut face; end + Shielding the barrier system with an impact attenuator/crash cushion system Site characteristics will generally determine the most appropriate type of termination/attenuation ta use. Conerete barrier systems may be considered on high volume roads as they retain full functionality after impact, provide excellent whole of life time costs and minimize the risk to workers on roadwork sites. Maintenance of concrete barriers is minimal after impact. Itis important that on roadwork sites, individual F-shape concrete block barrier systems are adequately and physically connected to each other to form a continuous system of units rather than free standing units. Refer to Appendix 2 Continuous Concrete Barriers. Stee! W-beam barriers are perhaps the most common barrier and are used extensively in urban and rural areas. The effectiveness of W- beam is dependant on its length and offset from the traveled way. W- beam termination also needs to meet appropriate standards. The Breakaway Cable Terminals (BCT) are detailed on standard drawings in Appendix 1 - Roadside Barriers Standard Drawings. Standard drawings are available for the approach end terminal SD 3541 (BCTA) and the departure end SD 3642 (BCTB). The cable tensions the system over the first and last 30m of installation. Parallel and flared systems can be designed and these systems are included in the standard drawings in Appendix 1 Wire rope safety barrier systems work through high tension cables. An errant vehicle deflects the wire ropes, the supporting posts bend and the vehicle is redirected back towards the direction of travel. Wire rope barriers are the most forgiving of the barrier systems. However, due to the deflection of the wire ropes, consideration of the offset to features behind the barrier is very important. The minimum offset of the barrier systems from the edge of the traffic lane are detailed in Table 20.3. The deflections of the various systems are detailed in Table 20.4. In design, the consideration of the location of the barrier systems and the offset to the face of the hazard, are the first steps in designing a system. 432 Table 20.3 : Offset from edge of traffic lane to face of barrier Description Offset (m) Minimum offset 1.50 Minimum offset without DPWH, Director, 1.00 Bureau of Design approval. ‘Absolute minimum offset with DPWH, 60 Director, Bureau of Design approval. Table 20.4 : Clearance from face of barrier to face of hazard Barrier Type Deflection (m) Wire Rope Safety Barrier 2.40 to 3.20m post spacings 2.00 1.20m post spacings 1.50 1.00m post spacings 1.30 Blocked Out Steel W-Beam 2.50m post spacing 1.00 4.25m post spacing 075 Concrete Barriers All types 0.10 Location of Curb Adjacent to Barriers The location of safety barriers in the vicinity of curb and gutter is to be considered carefuly. If curb and gutter is essential in high speed locations, the face of curb should be located: ‘+ At least 3m from the face of concrete safety barriers; + At least 3m from W-beam and wire rope safety barriers for ‘concrete barrier curb; ‘+ At least 3.0m from W-beem safety barrier or wire rope safety barrier for concrete mountable / drop curb & gutter; and + In areas where the operating speed is less than 70 kph, an offset of 0.2 to 0.3m can be tolerated to minimize damage to vehicies, 139. The use of concrete mountable / drop curb & gutter in conjunction with sefety barrier systems is preferable to using concrete barrier curb and gutters es the drop curb minimizes resultant dynamic jump of vehicles. Roadwork Safety Barriers Roadwork barrier systems come in various forms and can be precast concrete with impact attenuators/eresh cushion terminals or water filled plastic systems. These systems must be considered during the design phase of a project. Truck mounted attenuators can be used for short term or mobile roadwork or pavement marking works. 20.6.2 Design Of Barrier System Installations The design of road safety barrier systems should take info account the following considerations: + Location - topography; © Clear zone (Cz) © Warrant; © Runout length (LR); + Length of need (x); + Offset from edge of traffic lane to face of barrier; + Clearance from face of barrier to face of hazard; * Ground approach slope to the barrier; + Flare rate; ‘+ Transition lengths from barrier to barrier system type: and + End terminals. The following steps provide guidance in the design process: STEP 4, CLEAR ZONE The design of clear zone width for the various criteria of design speed, ADT exposed to the hazard (ADT/2), fore slope and back slope (fil and cut) is determined using Figure 20.3. The clear zone width should be increased on the outside of curves using the curve factor shown on Table 20.1. ‘further factor in the determination of clear zone is the consideration of the steepness of the siope of fill. In this case an effective dear zone width needs to be calculated. As the slope becomes steeper, the ability of a vehicle to recover back to the traveled way reduces. This results statistically in only a proportion of the slope width being available as clear zone. The variations of effective clear zone can be calculated 134 us gare oe 5 ee RoR MOTH Ba Faw EE Wye Hae Wy + wg str ves ott te wt —e oar an na 102 a oe ere ar ama I Pot omen (a exTTEN 3042 om SreenR he he ried on Fare 112 ar oursng to al batter Top ant toe Kage ponte Figure 20.15 : Effective Clear Zone (ECZ) STEP 2, WARRANT. The warrant for barrier systems can be determined by a risk assessment taking into account the various issues (refer to Section 21 Risk Assessment). The warrant for the use of safety barriers can be established considering: + Fore slope or back slope steepness and height; + Unforgiving hazards within the clear zone; and + Weter hazards within the clear zone The warrant for roadside safety barriers on fill slope can be determined by reference to Figure 20.16. The warrant is based on fill height and slope. ‘The warrant for median safety barners is determined by using Figure 20.17. This warrant is based on the width of the median and the ADT. In both the fil slope and median considerations, @ warrant to install a barrier system may also be determined by accident blackspot investigations if traffic accidents indicate that a barner would reduce the severity of accidents. factors discussed in or quardfence Figure 20.16 : Fill Slope Safety Barrier Warrant 436 TRAVELED te ‘TRAVELED. WAY a Se ete Se —— MEDIAN WiOTHE 0 70 0 EVALUATE |leanmien | eannien NEED FOR 17/Joomiouat| |NOT BARRIER, NORMALLY [CONSIDERED] AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFC* (Mrovsanas) 20 6 i 0 2 4 6 @ 0 2 4 6 1 20 [MEDIAN WIDTH Figure 20.17 : Median Safety Barrier Warrant STEP 3. RUNOUT LENGTH & TRIANGLE The statistical length over which a vehicle leaves the edge of traffic lane to come to rest is the runout length for errant vehicles. The length is determined by using Table 20.6 considering ADT and design speed. The runout triangle can then be plotted by using the appropriate runout length and the protected width SDs 3521 & 3531, the clear zone width or effective clear zone width. Refer to Figures 20.18 and 20.19 for detailed descriptions of the runout triangle for the approach barrier and departure / opposing barrier lengths. For hazards located within the clear zone width, the roadside barrier systems can be designed using SD 3521 and SD 3531. The protected width can be applied to each layout type using the tabulations shown. 137 Table 20. : Runout Lengths for Barrier Design ADT Over 6000 | 2000-6000 | 800-2000 | Under 800 Design Runout | Runout | Runout | Runout Speed Length Length Length Length (kph) (m) (m) (m) (m) 110 145 135 4120 110 100 130 120 108 100 20 110 105 95 85 80 100 80 80 75 70 £0 76 6 60 60 70 60 55 50 50 50 50 45 40 taomct Figure 20.18 : Approach Barrier Design Elements earner ne ronconcine yen - te assoe Efi Figure 20.19 : Departure / Opposing Barrier Design Elements ‘STEP 4, OFFSET & CLEARANCE The offset from the edge of the traffic lane to the face of barrier needs to be established. The barrier should be located as far as possible from the face of the barrier. The minimum offsets are shown in Table 20.3. Adjacent to fil slopes, the offset to the face of barriers can extend to within 1.0m of the hinge point of the fill slope for W-beam barrier and wire rope safety barrier systems respectively. The location of the barrier in front of a hazard requires consideration of the minimum clearance from the face of the barrier to the face of the hazard being protected. The minimum clearances are shown in Table 20.4 for the various types of barrier systems. STEP 5. LENGTH OF NEED The length of need (X) is the length over which a barrier is needed to statistically protect a vehicle from running into 2 hazard that would have worse results than running into a barrier. The length of need is the length of barrier that falls within the runout triangle. STEP 6. BARRIER TERMINALS Barrier terminals are needed to transition ‘rom no bartier to the full barrier system. Position the end terminals outside the runout triangle. The breakaway cable terminal to be used for W-beam is detailed in the standard drawings. Concrete barrier system terminals can be designed using W-beam or Thrie beam lengths suitably flared or tapered away from approaching traffic. Wire rope safety barners can also be used and plastic water filed barriers may be used as terminals for worksite terminal treatments. Refer to the standard drawings for more detail For other barrier systems, the manufacturers will provide detailed drawings of their certfied terminal details. STEP 7, FLARE RATE ‘A further consideration is to flare the barrier systems away from the traveled way. The flared barrier is used when terminating a system beyond the clear zone width. Maximum flare rates for barrier systems are shown in Table 20.6. A flared barrier system is detailed on SD 3511 in Appendix 1. When designing flared barriers the flare rates must be kept within the maximum values to ensure any impact angle is acceptable. 139