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Petrol Engine Model

Engine Specifications:
1300 cc 4 Stroke petrol engine 4 cylinder Inline arrangement of cylinders Over head valve Naturally aspirated

Main Components:
Air filter Carburetor Spark plug for each cylinder Distributer Oil filter and pump Push rods Transmission system Radiator fan Timing chain Alternator

Starting system
The starting system consists of an electric starter motor and a starter solenoid. When you turn the ignition key, the starter motor spins the engine a few revolutions so that the combustion process can start. It takes a powerful motor to spin a cold engine. The starter motor must overcome: All of the internal friction caused by the piston rings The compression pressure of any cylinder(s) that happens to be in the compression stroke The energy needed to open and close valves with the camshaft

All of the "other" things directly attached to the engine, like the water pump, oil pump, alternator, etc. Because so much energy is needed and because a car uses a 12-volt electrical system, hundreds of amps of electricity must flow into the starter motor. The starter solenoid is essentially a large electronic switch that can handle that much current. When you turn the ignition key, it activates the solenoid to power the motor.

Air Intake System:

The air intake manifold ensures the optimal filling of the engine cylinders with a suitable mass of comburent consisting of fresh air and recirculated exhaust gases. The intake manifold also carries out the function of integrating other engine supply control functions: fuel supply, fuel anti-evaporation system control, and engine operation point control. Hence, the air intake manifold can also carry out the function of engine supply mechatronic module, with the following advantages: compact size, cost, and assembly on the engine.

Engine Cooling
The cooling system consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the radiator to cool it off.

Valve opening System:

Engines used a camshaft located in the sump near the crankshaft. Rods linked the cam below to valve lifters above the valves. This approach has more moving parts and also causes more lag between the cam's activation of the valve and the valve's subsequent motion. A timing belt or timing chain links the crankshaft to the camshaft so that the valves are in sync with the pistons. The camshaft is geared to turn at one-half the rate of the

crankshaft. Many highvalves per cylinder (two this arrangement of cylinders, hence the

performance engines have four for intake, two for exhaust), and requires two camshafts per bank phrase "dual overhead cams."

Ignition system
The ignition system has two parts: the primary side (the distributor and electronic control module), and the secondary side (the ignition coil, distributor cap, rotor, spark plug wires and spark plugs).

The ignition systemproduces a high-voltage electrical charge and transmits it to the spark plugs via ignition wires. The charge first flows to a distributor, which you can easily find under the hood of most cars. The distributor has one wire going in the center and four, six, or eight wires (depending on the number of cylinders) coming out of it. These ignition wires send the charge to each spark plug. The engine is timed so that only one cylinder receives a spark from the distributor at a time. This approach provides maximum smoothness.

The Ignition Coil and Distributor

The coil is a simple device -- essentially a high-voltage transformer made up of two coils of wire. One coil of wire is called the primary coil. Wrapped around it is the secondary coil. The secondary coil normally has hundreds of times more turns of wire than the



Current flowing through the primary winding creates a magnetic field. When the breaker cam opens the breaker points or the reluctor delivers its signal, the circuit is broken and current stops. The magnetic field collapses, inducing in the secondary winding a much higher voltage that is led to the distributor. Inside the distributor a moving finger rotates at half engine speed. As it rotates it touches contacts, each of which runs to a different cylinder. Rotation is timed so that when the finger is touching the contact for a particular cylinder, a high voltage has just been induced in the secondary winding of the ignition coil and the piston has almost reached the top of the compression stroke. Thus a high voltage is impressed across the spark plug gap.

The Spark Plug

The spark plug consists of a center electrode imbedded in insulating ceramic. Around the outside is a threaded metal shell that screws into a hole in the top of the cylinder. A ground electrode extends from the shell over the end of the center electrode. Between the two electrodes there is a small gap of .015.040 in. (.038.102 cm). At about 8,000 volts a spark jumps the gap and ignites the air-gasoline mixture. A centrifugal advance makes the spark fire earlier at high engine speeds; a vacuum advance makes it fire earlier at small throttle openings above idle.

Lubrication system
The lubrication system makes sure that every moving part in the engine gets oil so that it can move easily. The two main parts needing oil are the pistons (so they can slide easily in their cylinders) and any bearings that allow things like the crankshaft and camshafts to rotate freely. In most cars, oil is sucked out of the oil pan by the oil pump, run through the oil filter to remove any grit, and then squirted under high pressure onto bearings and the cylinder walls. The oil then trickles down into the sump, where it is collected again and the cycle repeats.

Electrical System:
The electrical system consists of a battery and an alternator. The alternator is connected to the engine by a belt and generates electricity to recharge the battery. Thebattery makes 12-volt power available to everything in the car needing electricity (the ignition system, radio, headlights, windshield wipers, power windows and seats, computers, etc.) through the vehicle's wiring.

Exhaust system:
Combustion products exit the engine cylinder through the exhaust valves in the cylinder head. Engines may be configured with either an exhaust manifold or an exhaust header. The exhaust manifold is a common chamber to which all the cylinders directly feed combustion products. The advantages of this method are manufacturing and positioning simplicity. The disadvantage is irregular backpressure at the exhaust ports of the cylinders. Headers are composed of a group of tubes, all of common length, connected on one end to each cylinder exhaust-valve location and on the other end to a common exit throat.

Exhaust back pressure

Engine exhaust back pressure is defined as the exhaust gas pressure that is produced by the engine to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the exhaust system in order to discharge the gases into the atmosphere. For this discussion, the exhaust back pressure is the gage pressure in the exhaust system at the outlet of the exhaust turbine in turbocharged engines or the pressure at the outlet of the exhaust manifold in naturally aspirated engines.

Diesel Engine Model

Engine Specifications. 2000 cc 4 cylinder Timing belt Over head cam Turbocharged Indirect injection Glow plug

Diesel Fuel Injection

The diesel engine is an intermittent-combustion piston-cylinder device., unlike the spark-ignition gasoline engine, the dieselengine induces only air into the combustion chamber on its intake stroke. Diesel engines are typically constructed with compression ratios in the range 14:1 to 22:1. The diesel engine gains its energy by burning fuel injected or sprayed into the compressed, hot air charge within the cylinder. The air must be heated to a temperature greater than the temperature at which the injected fuel can ignite. Fuel sprayed into air that has a temperature higher than the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel spontaneously reacts with the oxygen in the air and burns. Air temperatures are typically in excess of 526 C (979 F); however, at engine start-up, supplemental heating of the cylinders is sometimes employed, since the temperature of the air within the cylinders is determined by both the engines compression ratio and its current operating temperature.

Diesel engines are sometimes called compression-ignition engines because initiation of combustion relies on air heated by compression rather than on an electric spark. In a diesel engine, fuel is introduced as the piston approaches the top dead centre of its stroke. The fuel is introduced under high pressure either into a precombustion chamber or directly into the piston-cylinder combustion chamber. With the exception of small, high-speed systems, diesel engines use direct injection. Precise control of fuel injection is critical to the performance of a diesel engine. Since the entire combustion process is controlled by fuel injection, injection must begin at the correct piston position (i.e., crank angle). At first the fuel is burned in a nearly constantvolume process while the piston is near top dead centre. As the piston moves away from this position, fuel injection is continued, and the combustion process then appears as a nearly constant-pressure process. The combustion process in a diesel engine is heterogeneousthat is, the fuel and air are not premixed prior to initiation of combustion. Consequently, rapid vaporization and mixing of fuel in air is very important to thorough burning of the injected fuel. This places much emphasis on injector nozzle design, especially in direct-injection engines. Engine work is obtained during the power stroke. The power stroke includes both the constant-pressure process during combustion and the expansion of the hot products of combustion after fuel injection ceases.

Glow plug
Diesel engines contain a glow plug. When a diesel engine is cold, the compression process may not raise the air to a high enough temperature to ignite the fuel. The glow plug is an electrically heated wire that heats the combustion chambers and raises the air temperature when the engine is cold so that the engine can start.

Diesel Engine Lubrication System

Sump:The sump is at the base of an engine. It can be used as a storage container in a
'wet sump system

Oil collection pan:An oil collection pan is used in 'dry sump systems' prior to being
returned to an oil tank.

Oil tank: The oil tank

is part of the dry system and is used Pickup tube: A provide a means of pump. sump lubrication for oil storage. pickup tube is used to collecting oil for the oil


Oil pumps deliver oil under pressure to the internal engine parts. In a rotor-type oil pump, an inner rotor drives an outer one. Pressure differences force the oil to move. Geared oil pumps use a similar principle.


Oil pressure relief valve: The pressure relief valve is used to prevent damage to an
engine due to too much oil pressure.

Oil filters: The oil filter helps to clean the oil in the system. If the filter clogs, a valve
opens and directs unfiltered oil to the engine. Most oil-filters on diesel engines are larger than those on similar gasoline engines.

Spurt holes & galleries: Spurt holes and galleries are used to deliver oil from the oil
pump to various components and bearings in the engine.

Oil indicators: Oil indicators are used to check when there are safe oil levels in an

Oil cooler: An oil cooler cools oil prior to its reuse in the engine.An internal
combustion engine would not run for even a few minutes if the moving parts were allowed to make metal-to-metal contact. The heat generated due to the tremendous amounts of friction would melt the metals, leading to the destruction of the engine. To prevent this, all moving parts ride on a thin film of oil that is pumped between all the moving parts of the engine.Once between the moving parts, the oil serves two purposes. One purpose is to lubricate the bearingsurfaces. The other purpose is to cool the bearings by absorbing the friction generated heat. The flow of oil to the moving parts is accomplished by the engine's internal lubricating system. Oil is accumulated and stored in the engine's oil pan where one or more oil pumps take a suction and pump the oil through one or more oil filters as shown in Figure 12. The filters clean the oil and remove any metal that the oil has picked up due to wear. The cleaned oil then flows up into the engine's oil galleries. A pressure relief valve(s) maintains oil pressure in the galleries and returns oil to the oil pan upon high pressure. The oil galleries distribute the oil to all the bearing surfaces in the engine. Once the oil has cooled and lubricated the bearing surfaces, it flows out of the bearing and gravity-flows back into the oil pan. In medium to large diesel engines, the oil is also cooled before being distributed into the block. This is accomplished by either an internal or external oil cooler. The lubrication system alsosupplies oil to the engine's governor.

Diesel Exhaust System

A Diesel Exhaust System is the combination of many parts that are designed to move the gases from the engine to the rear of the truck into the atmosphere. Depending upon the truck, your exhaust gases will flow through one or more exhaust pipes, a cylinder head and exhaust manifold, a turbocharger, a catalytic converter and a muffler. An exhaust system from a diesel passenger car is illustrated in Figure 1. The exhaust system is typically connected to the exhaust manifold, which collects exhaust gases from the engine cylinders exhaust ports. In light-duty applications, catalytic converters and

diesel particulate filters (DPF) can be placed either in the close-coupled position to the exhaust manifold (the converter in Figure 1) or in the underfloor position (the particulate filter in Figure 1). The choice of location is determined by the availability of space and the desired temperature profile, with the close-coupled location providing exposure to the highest possible exhaust gas temperatures.

Turbochargers and Engines

One of the surest ways to get more power out of an engine is to increase the amount of air and fuel that it can burn. One way to do this is to add cylinders or make the current cylinders bigger. Sometimes these changes may not be feasible -- a turbo can be a simpler, more compact way to add power, especially for an aftermarket accessory. Turbochargers allow an engine to burn more fuel and air by packing more into the existing cylinders. The typical boost provided by a turbocharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50 percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50 percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, so you might get a 30to 40-percent improvement instead.

One cause of the inefficiency comes from the fact that the power to spin the turbine is not free. Having a turbine in the exhaust flow increases the restriction in the exhaust. This means that on the exhaust stroke, the engine has to push against a higher backpressure. This subtracts a little bit of power from the cylinders that are firing at the same time. The turbocharger is bolted to the exhaust manifold of the engine. The exhaust from the cylinders spins the turbine, which works like a gas turbine engine. The turbine is connected by a shaft to thecompressor, which is located between the air filter and the intake manifold. The compressor pressurizes the air going into the pistons.

Inside a turbocharger
The exhaust cylinders through blades, turbine to more that goes blades, the spin. On the of the shaft from the passes the turbine causing the spin. The exhaust through the faster they other that end the

turbine is attached to, the compressor pumps air into the cylinders. The compressor is a type of centrifugal pump -- it draws air in at the center of its blades and flings it outward as it spins.