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TITTLE:

Reynolds Number

OBJECTIVES:

1. To investigate the dependence of flow pattern on Reynolds number.


2. To investigate the nature of the flow in a pipe by observing the behavior of a
filament of dye injected into the fluid.
3. To demonstrate the change, or ‘transition’, between laminar and turbulent flow by
varying the flow rate.

THEORY:

Consider the case of a fluid moving along a fixed surface such as the wall of a pipe. A
shear stress given by:

τ=μdudy

The nature of flow depends on the ratio of inertia to viscous forces. Inertia force of the
fluid particles is the force that tends to carry each fluid particle to move at its own
accelerated direction. While viscous force due to the surrounding fluid will tend to make
the individual fluid particle conform to the motion of the rest of the stream.

For flow in a circular pipe,

Inertia force ∝ρd²u.u

Where d is the diameter of the pipe.

Similarly the viscous forces are given by shear stress multiplied by area so, using equation
(10, we may write:

Viscous force ∝μudd²

Dividing the inertia force by the viscous force we obtain a non-dimensional variable,
namely Reynolds number, Re:

Re=ρd²u²μud=ρduμ

The term μ/ρ is called the kinematic viscosity, v and it is often convenient to write

Re=udv

APPARATUS:
PROCEDURES:

1. The constant head bank with water to the level of overflow pipe was filling up.
2. The dye injector with the dye was filling up.
3. For laminar flow, the discharge control valve was adjusting in such a way the dye
will flow down in a straight line. Make sure the water level at par with the overflow
pipe.
4. Once the laminar flow occurred, the time for collection of 200ml water from the
drain pipe was starting.
5. Procedure 3 for transition and turbulent flow was repeating with timing for 200ml of
water from the drain pipe.
6. Water temperature was recording at any time during the experiment.
7. The whole experiment whole repeating by reversing condition starting with
turbulent flow, transition was following by laminar flow.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA:

Table 1: Increasing velocity


Temperature Condition Time for Velocity, u Kinematic Re

(⁰C) 200ml (s) Viscosity, v


x

(s)
29 Fully laminar 10.31 1.098X10 ³̄ 0.8174X10 ⁶̄ 201.49
29 Transition 5.59 2.025X10 ³̄ 0.8174X10 ⁶̄ 371.6
29 Fully 1.69 6.697X10 ³̄ 0.8174X10 ⁶̄ 1228.96
turbulent

Table 2: Decreasing velocity

Temperature Condition Time for Velocity, u Kinematic Re

(⁰C) 200ml (s) Viscosity, v


x

(s)
29 Fully 2.34 4.837X10 ̄³ 0.8174X10 ̄⁶ 887.63
turbulent
29 Transition 7.06 1.603X10 ³̄ 0.8174X10 ⁶̄ 294.16
29 Fully laminar 12.28 9.217X10 ⁴̄ 0.8174X10 ⁶̄ 169.14

CALCULATION:

200 ml liter
1000ml = 1 l T(⁰C) dynamic
velocity,μ
200ml = 0.2l
25 0.891X10 ̄³
1l m³
29 μ
1l = 1000m³
30 0.798X10 ̄³
0.2l = 0.0002m³
Interpolation

29 -2530 -25= μ -0.891X10 ̄


A = πd24 ³0.798X10 ̄³
=π(15X10²4 μ=0.8174X10 ̄³
= 0.01767 m²

For increasing velocity:

u = QA
Re = udv
= 0.000210.310.01767
=1.098X10 ̄
= 1.098X10 ̄³ ³(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³

u = QA = 201.49

= 0.00025.590.01767 Re = udv

= 2.025X10 ̄³ = 2.125X10 ̄
³(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³
u = QA
= 371.6
= 0.00021.690.01767
Re = udv
= 6.697X10 ̄³
= 6.697X10 ̄
³(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³

= 1228.96
For decreasing velocity

u = QA
= 0.00022.340.01767 Re = udv

= 4.837X10 ̄³ =4.837X10 ̄
³(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³
u = QA
= 887.63
= 0.00027.060.01767
Re = udv
= 1.63X10 ̄³
= 1.63X10 ̄
u = QA
³(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³
= 0.000212.280.01767
= 296.16
= 9.217X10 ̄⁴
Re = udv

= 9.217X10 ̄
⁴(0.15)0.8174X10 ̄³

= 1228.96

DISCUSSION:

1. Write down your observation in term of valve opening and flow condition
The observation that is obtained if the valve opened larger, the velocity will
increase and the flow condition will become turbulence. For the small valve opening,
the velocity will decrease and the flow will become laminar. The flow between
laminar and turbulence is called as transition flow.
2. What is the relationship between velocity and flow condition? Justify your answer in
term of viscous force.
For higher velocity, the flow will become turbulent and for slower velocity the flow
will become laminar. The transition occurs between velocity or turbulence and
laminar. For higher velocity, the flow have low internal resistant. This can cause the
flow have least viscous force than the water inertia that makes the dye-spread
around and dispread in the water.

3. What is happening to the flow condition in procedure?


The first observation was there were nothing that can be seen in the test pipe
because when the dye are at the test pipe, it will spread to the water and show it
was in the turbulent condition. The second observation was dye is in shale linear in
the test pipe which shows the laminar flow.

4. Describe in detail on how the Reynolds number affects the flow?


The Reynolds number can show how the flow condition when the Reynolds number
is less than 2300 that shows that the flow is fully laminar. For Reynolds number
2300 to 4000 the flow are in the transition state and when the Reynolds number
shows more than 4000 that shows the flow are at fully turbulent condition.

CONCLUSION:

Each flow of fluid have own characteristic motion whether is smooth and orderly while
some rather chaotic. The nature of flow depends on the ratio of inertia to viscous force.
The highly disordered fluid motion characterized by smooth layers of fluid is called
laminar. The highly disordered fluid motion typically occurs at high velocity and it is
characterized by velocity fluctuation are called as turbulent. Transition occurs of
increasing of velocity from laminar flow to turbulent flow. All of this correlation within
the inertia force and the fluid itself that tends to carry each partial to move at its own
path. Viscous force tends to make the individuals fluid particle due to the surrounding.
Fluids follow to the motion of the rest of the flow. In this experiment, for the example
increasing velocity, the Reynolds number for laminar is 167.82. Transition flow is
804.10. This is difference from the theoretical valve of Reynolds number that is for fully
laminar is less than 2300 and transition is between 23000 and 4000.

QUESTION:

Identify and explain the factors that determine whether the flow will be laminar or
turbulent.

For practically, from our identification to determine the flow of the dye substances will
be laminar or turbulent is the valve. This valve plays the major role in determining
whether the flow is to laminar or turbulent. If the valve is opened larger, the velocity of
water moving inside the pipe will decrease and flow condition will become turbulent. If
the valve opened smaller, the velocity of water moving inside the pipe will decreased
and flow become laminar. If the valve opened medium, the flow becomes in between
laminar and turbulent that is transition flow.

The next factor identified is the velocity of water moving in the pipe. This is because
when the velocity is higher, the flow become turbulent and if the velocity is lower, the
flows become laminar. The higher the velocity, the lower the internal resistant that also
could included in the factors to determine the flow is laminar, transition and turbulent.