Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

As described above there are recommended values for

steel strength which can be used in absence of more


detailed information available. The summary of chrono-
logical research summarized above clearly supports the
default value selection. The default value of steel
strength is yield strength of 210 N/mm and ultimate
strength of 380 N/mm . If the welded connections are to
be used, it is important to carry out chemical analysis of
steel to determine its weldability. Caution should be
exercised when the unidentified steel is to be used on a
project for rigid and braced frames member in seismic
zones. When the frame is designed for seismic load with
reduction factor R of 2 or greater, the accurate determi-
nation of yield strength is very important as it control
structural behaviour of a frame.
Codes and Standards
Although, the codes and standards are focusing on
new materials and new construction, their scope
accommodates reused material and adaptive building
reuse. They may not be as specific as designers would
like, but they give a sufficient framework which can be
followed. The codes and standards should not be seen
as an obstacle to material reuse and adaptive building
reuse. Certainly, with the emergence of new set of
objective based codes, it will be easier in the future to
develop innovative solutions.
ConcIusion
Over the period of last 35 years there have been signifi-
cant changes in loading. Very important was the emer-
gence of the limit state approach to design in 1980?s in
the NBC. New material standards since then started to
adopt the limit states approach leading to full adoption of
this design philosophy. Typically, the working stress
steel design underestimates the capacity of the section
by around 10% when compared with the ultimate design
strength for the same grade of steel. As deflection crite-
ria often govern the selection of sections for non-
composite steel construction, both approaches yield the
same section. Therefore, there should not be a problem
when checking a steel section today which was
designed to working stress design provided there were
no changes to design loads.
The first NBC was issued in 1941 which in many
instances provided only guidance to load determination.
The occupancy loads provided for in this code are quite
similar to the current practice. One wind pressure is
given for all locations. Its value is significantly greater for
low rise buildings but generally satisfactory for most of
the locations. The seismic provisions on the NBC 1941
are very general and generally inadeq uate. Between
1941 and 1970, the code has been republished four
times with snow, wind and earthquake loads being more
defined as well as climatic data building more readily
available (shift from contour maps to tables). The load
due to snow is generally greater than today's standards.
Wind loads continue to be overestimated for low rise
buildings.
1. General requirements
Steel-Reuse Information Paper No.4
www.reuse-steel.org
The Ontario Building Code (OBC) 1997 has additional
provisions which deal with existing buildings. Part 10 of
the OBC deals with performance requirements related
to change in use. Part 11 deals with Renovation. This
part considers extensively the issue of fire safety result-
ing from change in use and increase in occupant load.
It does not require a change in performance level in the
case of alteration or repair which is consistent with the
original design intention and use. However when the
occupancy load is increased, this code requires reme-
dial action to support the extra loads, although it
accepts postings of restricted loading requirements for
a portion of a floor.
The NBC 2005 has adopted a different, objective based
approach. It specifies the objectives which the code
aspires to achieve and in a separate division it describes
how these can be met. There are no longer firm require-
ments which designers have to comply with. This
approach will result in a significant change in the build-
ing approval process and the mind set of the building
officials. There is no longer the norm and prescriptive
solution but the designer has the freedom to address the
objectives of the code and provide relevant documenta-
tion. This should make the approval process for innova-
tive or non-standard construction far more readily
achievable.
CSA, (1960), CSA G40.8, Structural Steels with Improved Resistance to Brittle Fracture. Canadian Standards
Association, Canada.
CSA, (1959), CSA G40.7, Steel Sheet Piling. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-6, Structural Silicon Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
Further Information
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-5, Carbon steel plates of structural quality, Plates 2" and under in
thickness. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-4, Medium Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
CSA, (1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-3, Structural steel for locomotives and cars. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1950), CSA G40-3, Mild Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-2. Structural Steel Rivets. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-1 to G40-6, General requirements for delivery of rolled steel plates,
shapes and bars for structural use. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (2000), CAN/CSA-S6-00. 2000. Canadian Highway Bridge Code. CSA, Ca.
CSA, (2001,2003), CAN/CSA-S16-01. - Limit States Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1964), CSA G40.12, General Purpose Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1971, 1973, 1976, 1978, M1978, M81, 87, 98, 04), CSA G40.20/G40.21. General Requirements for
Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel/ Structural Quality Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
NRC. (1953,1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005). The National Building Code of
Canada. NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
NRC. (1996). User's Guide - NBC 1995: Structural Commentaries (Part4). NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
Bussell, M. (1997). Appraisal of Existing Iron and Steel Structures. SCI 138. The Steel Construction Institute,
Silwwod Park, Berkshire, UK.
CISC, 2004. Handbook of Steel Construction. Eighth edition. CISC & Quadratone Graphics Ltd, Toronto,
Canada.
2. Loading
The NationaI BuiIding Code
History of steeI
as refIected in standards
The reason for this research work arose as a result of
interviews and surveys of the professionals associated
with steel industry which suggested that there is a concern
that the main difficulty when reusing steel is the problem
of identification of steel and its structural properties.
Another issue which was brought up was related to the
approval by building officials. It was decided that the
investigation will be done to look into the national codes
and steel standards to trace the evolution and identify
potential problems, and ways to establish the characteris-
tics of old steel.
Although national standards and codes encourage new
construction and use of new materials, the National Build-
ing Codes (NBC) definition of the scope includes "altera-
tion, reconstruction, demolition, removal, relocation and
occupancy of existing buildings". Not only does the scope
reiterate the application to old construction and new /
different materials, but it has contained the following
clause since 1985 - "Unless otherwise specified, used
materials, appliances and equipment are permitted to be
reused where they meet the requirements of this Code for
new materials and are satisfactory for the intended use". It
should be noted that equivalence is defined for materials
and components failing to comply with Part 4 and past
performance, tests (for structure a full-scale test) or model
analogue are accepted.
The third revision of the 1990 NBC included for the first
time the relationship between NBC and other standards,
testing and certification organizations, defining for design-
ers authorities which can assist them to determine equiva-
lencies. The 1995 Code was accompanied by the Struc-
tural Commentaries on the National Building Code of
Canada 1995 which for the first time included a section
entitled "Application of NBC Part 4 for the Structural
evaluation and Upgrading of Existing Buildings", assisting
designers to deal with issues related to buildings designed
to previous codes in the context of Part 4. This document
is very important as it recognizes the shortcomings of Part
4 of the NBC with its focus on new construction (new or
addition) and the lack of its application to existing build-
ings which may contain a structural system or materials
no longer in use.
Used materials and systems are permitted if they
comply with the NBC requirements for new construction.
There is reasonable freedom given to designers to
prove equivalency but the problem is that it is a depar-
ture from the prescriptive, requirement based process.
The non-prescriptive approach challenges building
department officials leading to inconsistent interpreta-
tion and varying attitudes and requirements. From the
designer's point of view it results in uncertainty about
what may be required and acts as a deterrent to taking
an alternative design approach.
1. Review of steel properties
It should be noted that the chemical composition of "old"
steel is very similar irrespective of its origin.
CAN/CSA-S16-01 (5.2) considers steel suitable for
building construction only if its properties can be identi-
fied by a mill or producer certificate or a colour marking
which is defined in all the structural steel standards
above. The two main alternatives which are open to the
designer who wants to reuse steel components without
documentation are to approve steel and use the
prescribed properties (yield strength of 210 N/mm and
ultimate strength of 380 N/mm ) or to have a testing
agency carry out tests to determine the mechanical and
chemical properties and thus identify the steel. Once
the steel type is identified, the minimum values of yield
and ultimate strength given in the product specifications
for that type of steel (not actual tested values) must be
used. It should be noted that the determination of
2
3
2
2
2
introduced carbon content (previously ladle analysis
done by the manufacturer checked the carbon content),
while phosphorus and sulphur remained unchanged,
and further introduced limits on manganese and silicon.
The maximum carbon content decreases with the
increased steel strength. The next major revision of
CSA-G40.21 was in 1973. The metric version was pub-
lished in 1981. This revision covered a wide range of
steel strengths and the types described above. The
2004 version of CSA-G40.21 is similar to the 1981
version in terms of strengths but the general construc-
tion steel type was eliminated and corrosion resistant
weldable and notch-tough steel, and quenched and
tempered low alloy notch-tough steel types were add-
edIt should be noted that all standards dealt with steel
marking using colour codes to identify different steels.
This is important for mills but through the fabrication
process the marking gets lost.
It should be noted that the Canadian Highway Bridge
Code CAN/CSA-S6-00, Section 14.6 may be used as
guidance. Besides identification of steel using project
documentation including the mill certificates, the Code
offers alternative approaches, namely: testing of
samples to identify steel and use the minimum product
specifications; selecting yield and ultimate strength from
a given table based on the year of construction; or more
rigorous testing described in that standard which
includes the procedure for the evaluation of test result
and strength determination. Table 2 gives the estimation
of properties of structural steel by the age of construction
which are recommended by S6 in the absence of more
specific information.
chemical composition to determine its weldability may
be more important than its strength. A third alternative is
an affidavit from the fabricator stating that the fabricated
material conforms to material specifications.
Table 1 Properties of steel in Canadian history
From CAN/CSA-S6-00.
Table 2 Properties of steel by the age of construction
2)
2)
1)
From CAN/CSA-S6-00, Canadian Highway Bridge Code
Recommendations
The most significant changes are related to modifica-
tions in seismic loads and snow loads. The major impact
on the adaptive reuse of buildings designed before 1985
are the seismic loads. The previous code (NBC 1980)
was based on peak horizontal acceleration and seismic
contour map from 1970 with probability on 0.01 per
annum. The 1985 NBC included a new zoning map,
including both, peak accelerations and peak velocities
and increased probability of 10% in 50 years. Other
changes included the treatment of seismic load by limit
state design approach. The load factor for seismic load
since 1990 equals to 1.0. What this means for adaptive
reuse is that all buildings designed prior to adoption on
the 1980 NBC will require seismic retrofit and buildings
designed prior to 1970 in some locations were not
Steel components have great potential for reuse. The
knowledge of steel history is important for the designer
if reuse of components is to be adopted. The first Cana-
dian steel code for buildings (C.E.S.A. S16) dates from
1935 and remained in place until 1948. The steel which
is described in that code is mild and medium steel
(governed by C.E.S.A.-S40). This latter standard after
1950 became the CSA - G40.x series. Carbon steel for
plates and silicon steel appeared after the Second
World War in addition to the original mild and medium
steel which was used until 1964 (see Table 1). The
injection of preheated oxygen rather than air into the
modified Bessemer furnace and electric arc steel-
making processes, led to better quality and the emer-
gence of higher strength steels. Several types have
appeared: general construction steel, weldable steels
(regular and low temperature), corrosion resistant steels
(regular and with improved low temperature properties),
and quenched and tempered low alloy plates. The
chemical analysis in CSA-G40.21 1964 for the first time
The 1990 NBC introduced the rain components of snow
load and the ground snow load was changed (generally
for most areas ground snow load decreased) as well as
the default snow density was increased from 2.4 kN/m
to 3.0 kN/m3. This had a minor impact on the magnitude
and the extent of snow accumulation on lower roofs
adjacent to higher buildings. Since 1995, the snow
accumulation was typically decreased in recognition of
the fact that the amount of snow on upper is limited by
the size of the upper roof and there is often not enough
snow to fill the step. The extent of the lower roof zone
impacted by snow accumulation increased. Generally,
there should not be a problem resulting from snow load-
ing if a component or building remains in the same geo-
graphical location.
designed for seismic load at all or much smaller load.
Post 1990 buildings comply with current code seismic
provisions. When comparing the current maximum seis-
mic shear to the 1985 NBC, for ductile design, the
design shears are almost identical, however for nominal
ductility or non-ductile detailing, the 1990 and subse-
quent NBC result in greater loads, 40% and 36%
respectively.
If the components are older than 70 years (prior to
1935), there are potentially other materials than steel
available, such as cast and wrought iron, and it is more
difficult to assess the properties. The following refer-
ences are recommended:
ASTM Standards A7 and A9.
The publication "Appraisal of existing iron and
steel structures" by The Steel Construction Insti-
tute of the United Kingdom [Bussell, 1997].
CAN/CSA-S6-00 (Canadian Highway Bridge
Code).
FACILITATING GREATER REUSE AND RECYCLING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION PROCESS
Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change
www.reuse-steel.org
This information paper was prepared by Vera Straka at the Department of ArchitecturaI Science, Ryerson
University, with support from the Enhanced Recycling component of the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change, Minerals and Metals Program and by the Canadian Institute for Steel Construction (CISC).
Period

Pre - 1905
1)

1905 - 1935
1)

1935 - 1964

1964

- 1973

1973 - 1981

From 1981

Yield Strength

N/mm
2

180

210


186

227

303

230

480

260

480

Tensile Strength

N/mm
2

360

360


344 - 427

413 - 497

427

380

- 500

590 - 790

410 - 590

590

- 790


Date of bridge construction

Specified
Fy, MPa
Specified
Fu, MPa
Before 1905
1905 - 1932
1933 - 1975
After 1975
180
210
230
250
360
420
420
420

As described above there are recommended values for
steel strength which can be used in absence of more
detailed information available. The summary of chrono-
logical research summarized above clearly supports the
default value selection. The default value of steel
strength is yield strength of 210 N/mm and ultimate
strength of 380 N/mm . If the welded connections are to
be used, it is important to carry out chemical analysis of
steel to determine its weldability. Caution should be
exercised when the unidentified steel is to be used on a
project for rigid and braced frames member in seismic
zones. When the frame is designed for seismic load with
reduction factor R of 2 or greater, the accurate determi-
nation of yield strength is very important as it control
structural behaviour of a frame.
Codes and Standards
Although, the codes and standards are focusing on
new materials and new construction, their scope
accommodates reused material and adaptive building
reuse. They may not be as specific as designers would
like, but they give a sufficient framework which can be
followed. The codes and standards should not be seen
as an obstacle to material reuse and adaptive building
reuse. Certainly, with the emergence of new set of
objective based codes, it will be easier in the future to
develop innovative solutions.
ConcIusion
Over the period of last 35 years there have been signifi-
cant changes in loading. Very important was the emer-
gence of the limit state approach to design in 1980?s in
the NBC. New material standards since then started to
adopt the limit states approach leading to full adoption of
this design philosophy. Typically, the working stress
steel design underestimates the capacity of the section
by around 10% when compared with the ultimate design
strength for the same grade of steel. As deflection crite-
ria often govern the selection of sections for non-
composite steel construction, both approaches yield the
same section. Therefore, there should not be a problem
when checking a steel section today which was
designed to working stress design provided there were
no changes to design loads.
The first NBC was issued in 1941 which in many
instances provided only guidance to load determination.
The occupancy loads provided for in this code are quite
similar to the current practice. One wind pressure is
given for all locations. Its value is significantly greater for
low rise buildings but generally satisfactory for most of
the locations. The seismic provisions on the NBC 1941
are very general and generally inadeq uate. Between
1941 and 1970, the code has been republished four
times with snow, wind and earthquake loads being more
defined as well as climatic data building more readily
available (shift from contour maps to tables). The load
due to snow is generally greater than today's standards.
Wind loads continue to be overestimated for low rise
buildings.
1. General requirements
Steel-Reuse Information Paper No.4
www.reuse-steel.org
The Ontario Building Code (OBC) 1997 has additional
provisions which deal with existing buildings. Part 10 of
the OBC deals with performance requirements related
to change in use. Part 11 deals with Renovation. This
part considers extensively the issue of fire safety result-
ing from change in use and increase in occupant load.
It does not require a change in performance level in the
case of alteration or repair which is consistent with the
original design intention and use. However when the
occupancy load is increased, this code requires reme-
dial action to support the extra loads, although it
accepts postings of restricted loading requirements for
a portion of a floor.
The NBC 2005 has adopted a different, objective based
approach. It specifies the objectives which the code
aspires to achieve and in a separate division it describes
how these can be met. There are no longer firm require-
ments which designers have to comply with. This
approach will result in a significant change in the build-
ing approval process and the mind set of the building
officials. There is no longer the norm and prescriptive
solution but the designer has the freedom to address the
objectives of the code and provide relevant documenta-
tion. This should make the approval process for innova-
tive or non-standard construction far more readily
achievable.
CSA, (1960), CSA G40.8, Structural Steels with Improved Resistance to Brittle Fracture. Canadian Standards
Association, Canada.
CSA, (1959), CSA G40.7, Steel Sheet Piling. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-6, Structural Silicon Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
Further Information
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-5, Carbon steel plates of structural quality, Plates 2" and under in
thickness. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-4, Medium Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
CSA, (1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-3, Structural steel for locomotives and cars. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1950), CSA G40-3, Mild Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-2. Structural Steel Rivets. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-1 to G40-6, General requirements for delivery of rolled steel plates,
shapes and bars for structural use. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (2000), CAN/CSA-S6-00. 2000. Canadian Highway Bridge Code. CSA, Ca.
CSA, (2001,2003), CAN/CSA-S16-01. - Limit States Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1964), CSA G40.12, General Purpose Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1971, 1973, 1976, 1978, M1978, M81, 87, 98, 04), CSA G40.20/G40.21. General Requirements for
Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel/ Structural Quality Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
NRC. (1953,1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005). The National Building Code of
Canada. NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
NRC. (1996). User's Guide - NBC 1995: Structural Commentaries (Part4). NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
Bussell, M. (1997). Appraisal of Existing Iron and Steel Structures. SCI 138. The Steel Construction Institute,
Silwwod Park, Berkshire, UK.
CISC, 2004. Handbook of Steel Construction. Eighth edition. CISC & Quadratone Graphics Ltd, Toronto,
Canada.
2. Loading
The NationaI BuiIding Code
History of steeI
as refIected in standards
The reason for this research work arose as a result of
interviews and surveys of the professionals associated
with steel industry which suggested that there is a concern
that the main difficulty when reusing steel is the problem
of identification of steel and its structural properties.
Another issue which was brought up was related to the
approval by building officials. It was decided that the
investigation will be done to look into the national codes
and steel standards to trace the evolution and identify
potential problems, and ways to establish the characteris-
tics of old steel.
Although national standards and codes encourage new
construction and use of new materials, the National Build-
ing Codes (NBC) definition of the scope includes "altera-
tion, reconstruction, demolition, removal, relocation and
occupancy of existing buildings". Not only does the scope
reiterate the application to old construction and new /
different materials, but it has contained the following
clause since 1985 - "Unless otherwise specified, used
materials, appliances and equipment are permitted to be
reused where they meet the requirements of this Code for
new materials and are satisfactory for the intended use". It
should be noted that equivalence is defined for materials
and components failing to comply with Part 4 and past
performance, tests (for structure a full-scale test) or model
analogue are accepted.
The third revision of the 1990 NBC included for the first
time the relationship between NBC and other standards,
testing and certification organizations, defining for design-
ers authorities which can assist them to determine equiva-
lencies. The 1995 Code was accompanied by the Struc-
tural Commentaries on the National Building Code of
Canada 1995 which for the first time included a section
entitled "Application of NBC Part 4 for the Structural
evaluation and Upgrading of Existing Buildings", assisting
designers to deal with issues related to buildings designed
to previous codes in the context of Part 4. This document
is very important as it recognizes the shortcomings of Part
4 of the NBC with its focus on new construction (new or
addition) and the lack of its application to existing build-
ings which may contain a structural system or materials
no longer in use.
Used materials and systems are permitted if they
comply with the NBC requirements for new construction.
There is reasonable freedom given to designers to
prove equivalency but the problem is that it is a depar-
ture from the prescriptive, requirement based process.
The non-prescriptive approach challenges building
department officials leading to inconsistent interpreta-
tion and varying attitudes and requirements. From the
designer's point of view it results in uncertainty about
what may be required and acts as a deterrent to taking
an alternative design approach.
1. Review of steel properties
It should be noted that the chemical composition of "old"
steel is very similar irrespective of its origin.
CAN/CSA-S16-01 (5.2) considers steel suitable for
building construction only if its properties can be identi-
fied by a mill or producer certificate or a colour marking
which is defined in all the structural steel standards
above. The two main alternatives which are open to the
designer who wants to reuse steel components without
documentation are to approve steel and use the
prescribed properties (yield strength of 210 N/mm and
ultimate strength of 380 N/mm ) or to have a testing
agency carry out tests to determine the mechanical and
chemical properties and thus identify the steel. Once
the steel type is identified, the minimum values of yield
and ultimate strength given in the product specifications
for that type of steel (not actual tested values) must be
used. It should be noted that the determination of
2
3
2
2
2
introduced carbon content (previously ladle analysis
done by the manufacturer checked the carbon content),
while phosphorus and sulphur remained unchanged,
and further introduced limits on manganese and silicon.
The maximum carbon content decreases with the
increased steel strength. The next major revision of
CSA-G40.21 was in 1973. The metric version was pub-
lished in 1981. This revision covered a wide range of
steel strengths and the types described above. The
2004 version of CSA-G40.21 is similar to the 1981
version in terms of strengths but the general construc-
tion steel type was eliminated and corrosion resistant
weldable and notch-tough steel, and quenched and
tempered low alloy notch-tough steel types were add-
edIt should be noted that all standards dealt with steel
marking using colour codes to identify different steels.
This is important for mills but through the fabrication
process the marking gets lost.
It should be noted that the Canadian Highway Bridge
Code CAN/CSA-S6-00, Section 14.6 may be used as
guidance. Besides identification of steel using project
documentation including the mill certificates, the Code
offers alternative approaches, namely: testing of
samples to identify steel and use the minimum product
specifications; selecting yield and ultimate strength from
a given table based on the year of construction; or more
rigorous testing described in that standard which
includes the procedure for the evaluation of test result
and strength determination. Table 2 gives the estimation
of properties of structural steel by the age of construction
which are recommended by S6 in the absence of more
specific information.
chemical composition to determine its weldability may
be more important than its strength. A third alternative is
an affidavit from the fabricator stating that the fabricated
material conforms to material specifications.
Table 1 Properties of steel in Canadian history
From CAN/CSA-S6-00.
Table 2 Properties of steel by the age of construction
2)
2)
1)
From CAN/CSA-S6-00, Canadian Highway Bridge Code
Recommendations
The most significant changes are related to modifica-
tions in seismic loads and snow loads. The major impact
on the adaptive reuse of buildings designed before 1985
are the seismic loads. The previous code (NBC 1980)
was based on peak horizontal acceleration and seismic
contour map from 1970 with probability on 0.01 per
annum. The 1985 NBC included a new zoning map,
including both, peak accelerations and peak velocities
and increased probability of 10% in 50 years. Other
changes included the treatment of seismic load by limit
state design approach. The load factor for seismic load
since 1990 equals to 1.0. What this means for adaptive
reuse is that all buildings designed prior to adoption on
the 1980 NBC will require seismic retrofit and buildings
designed prior to 1970 in some locations were not
Steel components have great potential for reuse. The
knowledge of steel history is important for the designer
if reuse of components is to be adopted. The first Cana-
dian steel code for buildings (C.E.S.A. S16) dates from
1935 and remained in place until 1948. The steel which
is described in that code is mild and medium steel
(governed by C.E.S.A.-S40). This latter standard after
1950 became the CSA - G40.x series. Carbon steel for
plates and silicon steel appeared after the Second
World War in addition to the original mild and medium
steel which was used until 1964 (see Table 1). The
injection of preheated oxygen rather than air into the
modified Bessemer furnace and electric arc steel-
making processes, led to better quality and the emer-
gence of higher strength steels. Several types have
appeared: general construction steel, weldable steels
(regular and low temperature), corrosion resistant steels
(regular and with improved low temperature properties),
and quenched and tempered low alloy plates. The
chemical analysis in CSA-G40.21 1964 for the first time
The 1990 NBC introduced the rain components of snow
load and the ground snow load was changed (generally
for most areas ground snow load decreased) as well as
the default snow density was increased from 2.4 kN/m
to 3.0 kN/m3. This had a minor impact on the magnitude
and the extent of snow accumulation on lower roofs
adjacent to higher buildings. Since 1995, the snow
accumulation was typically decreased in recognition of
the fact that the amount of snow on upper is limited by
the size of the upper roof and there is often not enough
snow to fill the step. The extent of the lower roof zone
impacted by snow accumulation increased. Generally,
there should not be a problem resulting from snow load-
ing if a component or building remains in the same geo-
graphical location.
designed for seismic load at all or much smaller load.
Post 1990 buildings comply with current code seismic
provisions. When comparing the current maximum seis-
mic shear to the 1985 NBC, for ductile design, the
design shears are almost identical, however for nominal
ductility or non-ductile detailing, the 1990 and subse-
quent NBC result in greater loads, 40% and 36%
respectively.
If the components are older than 70 years (prior to
1935), there are potentially other materials than steel
available, such as cast and wrought iron, and it is more
difficult to assess the properties. The following refer-
ences are recommended:
ASTM Standards A7 and A9.
The publication "Appraisal of existing iron and
steel structures" by The Steel Construction Insti-
tute of the United Kingdom [Bussell, 1997].
CAN/CSA-S6-00 (Canadian Highway Bridge
Code).
FACILITATING GREATER REUSE AND RECYCLING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION PROCESS
Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change
www.reuse-steel.org
This information paper was prepared by Vera Straka at the Department of ArchitecturaI Science, Ryerson
University, with support from the Enhanced Recycling component of the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change, Minerals and Metals Program and by the Canadian Institute for Steel Construction (CISC).
Period


Pre - 1905
1)

1905 - 1935
1)

1935 - 1964

1964

- 1973

1973 - 1981

From 1981

Yield Strength

N/mm
2

180

210


186

227

303

230

480

260

480

Tensile Strength

N/mm
2

360

360


344 - 427

413 - 497

427

380

- 500

590 - 790

410 - 590

590

- 790


Date of bridge construction

Specified
Fy, MPa
Specified
Fu, MPa
Before 1905
1905 - 1932
1933 - 1975
After 1975
180
210
230
250
360
420
420
420

As described above there are recommended values for
steel strength which can be used in absence of more
detailed information available. The summary of chrono-
logical research summarized above clearly supports the
default value selection. The default value of steel
strength is yield strength of 210 N/mm and ultimate
strength of 380 N/mm . If the welded connections are to
be used, it is important to carry out chemical analysis of
steel to determine its weldability. Caution should be
exercised when the unidentified steel is to be used on a
project for rigid and braced frames member in seismic
zones. When the frame is designed for seismic load with
reduction factor R of 2 or greater, the accurate determi-
nation of yield strength is very important as it control
structural behaviour of a frame.
Codes and Standards
Although, the codes and standards are focusing on
new materials and new construction, their scope
accommodates reused material and adaptive building
reuse. They may not be as specific as designers would
like, but they give a sufficient framework which can be
followed. The codes and standards should not be seen
as an obstacle to material reuse and adaptive building
reuse. Certainly, with the emergence of new set of
objective based codes, it will be easier in the future to
develop innovative solutions.
ConcIusion
Over the period of last 35 years there have been signifi-
cant changes in loading. Very important was the emer-
gence of the limit state approach to design in 1980?s in
the NBC. New material standards since then started to
adopt the limit states approach leading to full adoption of
this design philosophy. Typically, the working stress
steel design underestimates the capacity of the section
by around 10% when compared with the ultimate design
strength for the same grade of steel. As deflection crite-
ria often govern the selection of sections for non-
composite steel construction, both approaches yield the
same section. Therefore, there should not be a problem
when checking a steel section today which was
designed to working stress design provided there were
no changes to design loads.
The first NBC was issued in 1941 which in many
instances provided only guidance to load determination.
The occupancy loads provided for in this code are quite
similar to the current practice. One wind pressure is
given for all locations. Its value is significantly greater for
low rise buildings but generally satisfactory for most of
the locations. The seismic provisions on the NBC 1941
are very general and generally inadeq uate. Between
1941 and 1970, the code has been republished four
times with snow, wind and earthquake loads being more
defined as well as climatic data building more readily
available (shift from contour maps to tables). The load
due to snow is generally greater than today's standards.
Wind loads continue to be overestimated for low rise
buildings.
1. General requirements
Steel-Reuse Information Paper No.4
www.reuse-steel.org
The Ontario Building Code (OBC) 1997 has additional
provisions which deal with existing buildings. Part 10 of
the OBC deals with performance requirements related
to change in use. Part 11 deals with Renovation. This
part considers extensively the issue of fire safety result-
ing from change in use and increase in occupant load.
It does not require a change in performance level in the
case of alteration or repair which is consistent with the
original design intention and use. However when the
occupancy load is increased, this code requires reme-
dial action to support the extra loads, although it
accepts postings of restricted loading requirements for
a portion of a floor.
The NBC 2005 has adopted a different, objective based
approach. It specifies the objectives which the code
aspires to achieve and in a separate division it describes
how these can be met. There are no longer firm require-
ments which designers have to comply with. This
approach will result in a significant change in the build-
ing approval process and the mind set of the building
officials. There is no longer the norm and prescriptive
solution but the designer has the freedom to address the
objectives of the code and provide relevant documenta-
tion. This should make the approval process for innova-
tive or non-standard construction far more readily
achievable.
CSA, (1960), CSA G40.8, Structural Steels with Improved Resistance to Brittle Fracture. Canadian Standards
Association, Canada.
CSA, (1959), CSA G40.7, Steel Sheet Piling. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-6, Structural Silicon Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
Further Information
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-5, Carbon steel plates of structural quality, Plates 2" and under in
thickness. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-4, Medium Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
CSA, (1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-3, Structural steel for locomotives and cars. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1950), CSA G40-3, Mild Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-2. Structural Steel Rivets. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-1 to G40-6, General requirements for delivery of rolled steel plates,
shapes and bars for structural use. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (2000), CAN/CSA-S6-00. 2000. Canadian Highway Bridge Code. CSA, Ca.
CSA, (2001,2003), CAN/CSA-S16-01. - Limit States Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1964), CSA G40.12, General Purpose Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1971, 1973, 1976, 1978, M1978, M81, 87, 98, 04), CSA G40.20/G40.21. General Requirements for
Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel/ Structural Quality Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
NRC. (1953,1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005). The National Building Code of
Canada. NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
NRC. (1996). User's Guide - NBC 1995: Structural Commentaries (Part4). NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
Bussell, M. (1997). Appraisal of Existing Iron and Steel Structures. SCI 138. The Steel Construction Institute,
Silwwod Park, Berkshire, UK.
CISC, 2004. Handbook of Steel Construction. Eighth edition. CISC & Quadratone Graphics Ltd, Toronto,
Canada.
2. Loading
The NationaI BuiIding Code
History of steeI
as refIected in standards
The reason for this research work arose as a result of
interviews and surveys of the professionals associated
with steel industry which suggested that there is a concern
that the main difficulty when reusing steel is the problem
of identification of steel and its structural properties.
Another issue which was brought up was related to the
approval by building officials. It was decided that the
investigation will be done to look into the national codes
and steel standards to trace the evolution and identify
potential problems, and ways to establish the characteris-
tics of old steel.
Although national standards and codes encourage new
construction and use of new materials, the National Build-
ing Codes (NBC) definition of the scope includes "altera-
tion, reconstruction, demolition, removal, relocation and
occupancy of existing buildings". Not only does the scope
reiterate the application to old construction and new /
different materials, but it has contained the following
clause since 1985 - "Unless otherwise specified, used
materials, appliances and equipment are permitted to be
reused where they meet the requirements of this Code for
new materials and are satisfactory for the intended use". It
should be noted that equivalence is defined for materials
and components failing to comply with Part 4 and past
performance, tests (for structure a full-scale test) or model
analogue are accepted.
The third revision of the 1990 NBC included for the first
time the relationship between NBC and other standards,
testing and certification organizations, defining for design-
ers authorities which can assist them to determine equiva-
lencies. The 1995 Code was accompanied by the Struc-
tural Commentaries on the National Building Code of
Canada 1995 which for the first time included a section
entitled "Application of NBC Part 4 for the Structural
evaluation and Upgrading of Existing Buildings", assisting
designers to deal with issues related to buildings designed
to previous codes in the context of Part 4. This document
is very important as it recognizes the shortcomings of Part
4 of the NBC with its focus on new construction (new or
addition) and the lack of its application to existing build-
ings which may contain a structural system or materials
no longer in use.
Used materials and systems are permitted if they
comply with the NBC requirements for new construction.
There is reasonable freedom given to designers to
prove equivalency but the problem is that it is a depar-
ture from the prescriptive, requirement based process.
The non-prescriptive approach challenges building
department officials leading to inconsistent interpreta-
tion and varying attitudes and requirements. From the
designer's point of view it results in uncertainty about
what may be required and acts as a deterrent to taking
an alternative design approach.
1. Review of steel properties
It should be noted that the chemical composition of "old"
steel is very similar irrespective of its origin.
CAN/CSA-S16-01 (5.2) considers steel suitable for
building construction only if its properties can be identi-
fied by a mill or producer certificate or a colour marking
which is defined in all the structural steel standards
above. The two main alternatives which are open to the
designer who wants to reuse steel components without
documentation are to approve steel and use the
prescribed properties (yield strength of 210 N/mm and
ultimate strength of 380 N/mm ) or to have a testing
agency carry out tests to determine the mechanical and
chemical properties and thus identify the steel. Once
the steel type is identified, the minimum values of yield
and ultimate strength given in the product specifications
for that type of steel (not actual tested values) must be
used. It should be noted that the determination of
2
3
2
2
2
introduced carbon content (previously ladle analysis
done by the manufacturer checked the carbon content),
while phosphorus and sulphur remained unchanged,
and further introduced limits on manganese and silicon.
The maximum carbon content decreases with the
increased steel strength. The next major revision of
CSA-G40.21 was in 1973. The metric version was pub-
lished in 1981. This revision covered a wide range of
steel strengths and the types described above. The
2004 version of CSA-G40.21 is similar to the 1981
version in terms of strengths but the general construc-
tion steel type was eliminated and corrosion resistant
weldable and notch-tough steel, and quenched and
tempered low alloy notch-tough steel types were add-
edIt should be noted that all standards dealt with steel
marking using colour codes to identify different steels.
This is important for mills but through the fabrication
process the marking gets lost.
It should be noted that the Canadian Highway Bridge
Code CAN/CSA-S6-00, Section 14.6 may be used as
guidance. Besides identification of steel using project
documentation including the mill certificates, the Code
offers alternative approaches, namely: testing of
samples to identify steel and use the minimum product
specifications; selecting yield and ultimate strength from
a given table based on the year of construction; or more
rigorous testing described in that standard which
includes the procedure for the evaluation of test result
and strength determination. Table 2 gives the estimation
of properties of structural steel by the age of construction
which are recommended by S6 in the absence of more
specific information.
chemical composition to determine its weldability may
be more important than its strength. A third alternative is
an affidavit from the fabricator stating that the fabricated
material conforms to material specifications.
Table 1 Properties of steel in Canadian history
From CAN/CSA-S6-00.
Table 2 Properties of steel by the age of construction
2)
2)
1)
From CAN/CSA-S6-00, Canadian Highway Bridge Code
Recommendations
The most significant changes are related to modifica-
tions in seismic loads and snow loads. The major impact
on the adaptive reuse of buildings designed before 1985
are the seismic loads. The previous code (NBC 1980)
was based on peak horizontal acceleration and seismic
contour map from 1970 with probability on 0.01 per
annum. The 1985 NBC included a new zoning map,
including both, peak accelerations and peak velocities
and increased probability of 10% in 50 years. Other
changes included the treatment of seismic load by limit
state design approach. The load factor for seismic load
since 1990 equals to 1.0. What this means for adaptive
reuse is that all buildings designed prior to adoption on
the 1980 NBC will require seismic retrofit and buildings
designed prior to 1970 in some locations were not
Steel components have great potential for reuse. The
knowledge of steel history is important for the designer
if reuse of components is to be adopted. The first Cana-
dian steel code for buildings (C.E.S.A. S16) dates from
1935 and remained in place until 1948. The steel which
is described in that code is mild and medium steel
(governed by C.E.S.A.-S40). This latter standard after
1950 became the CSA - G40.x series. Carbon steel for
plates and silicon steel appeared after the Second
World War in addition to the original mild and medium
steel which was used until 1964 (see Table 1). The
injection of preheated oxygen rather than air into the
modified Bessemer furnace and electric arc steel-
making processes, led to better quality and the emer-
gence of higher strength steels. Several types have
appeared: general construction steel, weldable steels
(regular and low temperature), corrosion resistant steels
(regular and with improved low temperature properties),
and quenched and tempered low alloy plates. The
chemical analysis in CSA-G40.21 1964 for the first time
The 1990 NBC introduced the rain components of snow
load and the ground snow load was changed (generally
for most areas ground snow load decreased) as well as
the default snow density was increased from 2.4 kN/m
to 3.0 kN/m3. This had a minor impact on the magnitude
and the extent of snow accumulation on lower roofs
adjacent to higher buildings. Since 1995, the snow
accumulation was typically decreased in recognition of
the fact that the amount of snow on upper is limited by
the size of the upper roof and there is often not enough
snow to fill the step. The extent of the lower roof zone
impacted by snow accumulation increased. Generally,
there should not be a problem resulting from snow load-
ing if a component or building remains in the same geo-
graphical location.
designed for seismic load at all or much smaller load.
Post 1990 buildings comply with current code seismic
provisions. When comparing the current maximum seis-
mic shear to the 1985 NBC, for ductile design, the
design shears are almost identical, however for nominal
ductility or non-ductile detailing, the 1990 and subse-
quent NBC result in greater loads, 40% and 36%
respectively.
If the components are older than 70 years (prior to
1935), there are potentially other materials than steel
available, such as cast and wrought iron, and it is more
difficult to assess the properties. The following refer-
ences are recommended:
ASTM Standards A7 and A9.
The publication "Appraisal of existing iron and
steel structures" by The Steel Construction Insti-
tute of the United Kingdom [Bussell, 1997].
CAN/CSA-S6-00 (Canadian Highway Bridge
Code).
FACILITATING GREATER REUSE AND RECYCLING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION PROCESS
Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change
www.reuse-steel.org
This information paper was prepared by Vera Straka at the Department of ArchitecturaI Science, Ryerson
University, with support from the Enhanced Recycling component of the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change, Minerals and Metals Program and by the Canadian Institute for Steel Construction (CISC).
Period

Pre - 1905
1)

1905 - 1935
1)

1935 - 1964

1964

- 1973

1973 - 1981

From 1981

Yield Strength

N/mm
2

180

210


186

227

303

230

480

260

480

Tensile Strength

N/mm
2

360

360


344 - 427

413 - 497

427

380

- 500

590 - 790

410 - 590

590

- 790


Date of bridge construction

Specified
Fy, MPa
Specified
Fu, MPa
Before 1905
1905 - 1932
1933 - 1975
After 1975
180
210
230
250
360
420
420
420

As described above there are recommended values for
steel strength which can be used in absence of more
detailed information available. The summary of chrono-
logical research summarized above clearly supports the
default value selection. The default value of steel
strength is yield strength of 210 N/mm and ultimate
strength of 380 N/mm . If the welded connections are to
be used, it is important to carry out chemical analysis of
steel to determine its weldability. Caution should be
exercised when the unidentified steel is to be used on a
project for rigid and braced frames member in seismic
zones. When the frame is designed for seismic load with
reduction factor R of 2 or greater, the accurate determi-
nation of yield strength is very important as it control
structural behaviour of a frame.
Codes and Standards
Although, the codes and standards are focusing on
new materials and new construction, their scope
accommodates reused material and adaptive building
reuse. They may not be as specific as designers would
like, but they give a sufficient framework which can be
followed. The codes and standards should not be seen
as an obstacle to material reuse and adaptive building
reuse. Certainly, with the emergence of new set of
objective based codes, it will be easier in the future to
develop innovative solutions.
ConcIusion
Over the period of last 35 years there have been signifi-
cant changes in loading. Very important was the emer-
gence of the limit state approach to design in 1980?s in
the NBC. New material standards since then started to
adopt the limit states approach leading to full adoption of
this design philosophy. Typically, the working stress
steel design underestimates the capacity of the section
by around 10% when compared with the ultimate design
strength for the same grade of steel. As deflection crite-
ria often govern the selection of sections for non-
composite steel construction, both approaches yield the
same section. Therefore, there should not be a problem
when checking a steel section today which was
designed to working stress design provided there were
no changes to design loads.
The first NBC was issued in 1941 which in many
instances provided only guidance to load determination.
The occupancy loads provided for in this code are quite
similar to the current practice. One wind pressure is
given for all locations. Its value is significantly greater for
low rise buildings but generally satisfactory for most of
the locations. The seismic provisions on the NBC 1941
are very general and generally inadeq uate. Between
1941 and 1970, the code has been republished four
times with snow, wind and earthquake loads being more
defined as well as climatic data building more readily
available (shift from contour maps to tables). The load
due to snow is generally greater than today's standards.
Wind loads continue to be overestimated for low rise
buildings.
1. General requirements
Steel-Reuse Information Paper No.4
www.reuse-steel.org
The Ontario Building Code (OBC) 1997 has additional
provisions which deal with existing buildings. Part 10 of
the OBC deals with performance requirements related
to change in use. Part 11 deals with Renovation. This
part considers extensively the issue of fire safety result-
ing from change in use and increase in occupant load.
It does not require a change in performance level in the
case of alteration or repair which is consistent with the
original design intention and use. However when the
occupancy load is increased, this code requires reme-
dial action to support the extra loads, although it
accepts postings of restricted loading requirements for
a portion of a floor.
The NBC 2005 has adopted a different, objective based
approach. It specifies the objectives which the code
aspires to achieve and in a separate division it describes
how these can be met. There are no longer firm require-
ments which designers have to comply with. This
approach will result in a significant change in the build-
ing approval process and the mind set of the building
officials. There is no longer the norm and prescriptive
solution but the designer has the freedom to address the
objectives of the code and provide relevant documenta-
tion. This should make the approval process for innova-
tive or non-standard construction far more readily
achievable.
CSA, (1960), CSA G40.8, Structural Steels with Improved Resistance to Brittle Fracture. Canadian Standards
Association, Canada.
CSA, (1959), CSA G40.7, Steel Sheet Piling. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-6, Structural Silicon Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
Further Information
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-5, Carbon steel plates of structural quality, Plates 2" and under in
thickness. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-4, Medium Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association,
Canada.
CSA, (1959, 1963, 1966.), CSA G40-3, Structural steel for locomotives and cars. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1950), CSA G40-3, Mild Structural Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-2. Structural Steel Rivets. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1950, 1959, 1963, 1966), CSA G40-1 to G40-6, General requirements for delivery of rolled steel plates,
shapes and bars for structural use. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (2000), CAN/CSA-S6-00. 2000. Canadian Highway Bridge Code. CSA, Ca.
CSA, (2001,2003), CAN/CSA-S16-01. - Limit States Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standards Associa-
tion, Canada.
CSA, (1964), CSA G40.12, General Purpose Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
CSA, (1971, 1973, 1976, 1978, M1978, M81, 87, 98, 04), CSA G40.20/G40.21. General Requirements for
Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel/ Structural Quality Steel. Canadian Standards Association, Canada.
NRC. (1953,1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005). The National Building Code of
Canada. NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
NRC. (1996). User's Guide - NBC 1995: Structural Commentaries (Part4). NRC, Ottawa, Canada.
Bussell, M. (1997). Appraisal of Existing Iron and Steel Structures. SCI 138. The Steel Construction Institute,
Silwwod Park, Berkshire, UK.
CISC, 2004. Handbook of Steel Construction. Eighth edition. CISC & Quadratone Graphics Ltd, Toronto,
Canada.
2. Loading
The NationaI BuiIding Code
History of steeI
as refIected in standards
The reason for this research work arose as a result of
interviews and surveys of the professionals associated
with steel industry which suggested that there is a concern
that the main difficulty when reusing steel is the problem
of identification of steel and its structural properties.
Another issue which was brought up was related to the
approval by building officials. It was decided that the
investigation will be done to look into the national codes
and steel standards to trace the evolution and identify
potential problems, and ways to establish the characteris-
tics of old steel.
Although national standards and codes encourage new
construction and use of new materials, the National Build-
ing Codes (NBC) definition of the scope includes "altera-
tion, reconstruction, demolition, removal, relocation and
occupancy of existing buildings". Not only does the scope
reiterate the application to old construction and new /
different materials, but it has contained the following
clause since 1985 - "Unless otherwise specified, used
materials, appliances and equipment are permitted to be
reused where they meet the requirements of this Code for
new materials and are satisfactory for the intended use". It
should be noted that equivalence is defined for materials
and components failing to comply with Part 4 and past
performance, tests (for structure a full-scale test) or model
analogue are accepted.
The third revision of the 1990 NBC included for the first
time the relationship between NBC and other standards,
testing and certification organizations, defining for design-
ers authorities which can assist them to determine equiva-
lencies. The 1995 Code was accompanied by the Struc-
tural Commentaries on the National Building Code of
Canada 1995 which for the first time included a section
entitled "Application of NBC Part 4 for the Structural
evaluation and Upgrading of Existing Buildings", assisting
designers to deal with issues related to buildings designed
to previous codes in the context of Part 4. This document
is very important as it recognizes the shortcomings of Part
4 of the NBC with its focus on new construction (new or
addition) and the lack of its application to existing build-
ings which may contain a structural system or materials
no longer in use.
Used materials and systems are permitted if they
comply with the NBC requirements for new construction.
There is reasonable freedom given to designers to
prove equivalency but the problem is that it is a depar-
ture from the prescriptive, requirement based process.
The non-prescriptive approach challenges building
department officials leading to inconsistent interpreta-
tion and varying attitudes and requirements. From the
designer's point of view it results in uncertainty about
what may be required and acts as a deterrent to taking
an alternative design approach.
1. Review of steel properties
It should be noted that the chemical composition of "old"
steel is very similar irrespective of its origin.
CAN/CSA-S16-01 (5.2) considers steel suitable for
building construction only if its properties can be identi-
fied by a mill or producer certificate or a colour marking
which is defined in all the structural steel standards
above. The two main alternatives which are open to the
designer who wants to reuse steel components without
documentation are to approve steel and use the
prescribed properties (yield strength of 210 N/mm and
ultimate strength of 380 N/mm ) or to have a testing
agency carry out tests to determine the mechanical and
chemical properties and thus identify the steel. Once
the steel type is identified, the minimum values of yield
and ultimate strength given in the product specifications
for that type of steel (not actual tested values) must be
used. It should be noted that the determination of
2
3
2
2
2
introduced carbon content (previously ladle analysis
done by the manufacturer checked the carbon content),
while phosphorus and sulphur remained unchanged,
and further introduced limits on manganese and silicon.
The maximum carbon content decreases with the
increased steel strength. The next major revision of
CSA-G40.21 was in 1973. The metric version was pub-
lished in 1981. This revision covered a wide range of
steel strengths and the types described above. The
2004 version of CSA-G40.21 is similar to the 1981
version in terms of strengths but the general construc-
tion steel type was eliminated and corrosion resistant
weldable and notch-tough steel, and quenched and
tempered low alloy notch-tough steel types were add-
edIt should be noted that all standards dealt with steel
marking using colour codes to identify different steels.
This is important for mills but through the fabrication
process the marking gets lost.
It should be noted that the Canadian Highway Bridge
Code CAN/CSA-S6-00, Section 14.6 may be used as
guidance. Besides identification of steel using project
documentation including the mill certificates, the Code
offers alternative approaches, namely: testing of
samples to identify steel and use the minimum product
specifications; selecting yield and ultimate strength from
a given table based on the year of construction; or more
rigorous testing described in that standard which
includes the procedure for the evaluation of test result
and strength determination. Table 2 gives the estimation
of properties of structural steel by the age of construction
which are recommended by S6 in the absence of more
specific information.
chemical composition to determine its weldability may
be more important than its strength. A third alternative is
an affidavit from the fabricator stating that the fabricated
material conforms to material specifications.
Table 1 Properties of steel in Canadian history
From CAN/CSA-S6-00.
Table 2 Properties of steel by the age of construction
2)
2)
1)
From CAN/CSA-S6-00, Canadian Highway Bridge Code
Recommendations
The most significant changes are related to modifica-
tions in seismic loads and snow loads. The major impact
on the adaptive reuse of buildings designed before 1985
are the seismic loads. The previous code (NBC 1980)
was based on peak horizontal acceleration and seismic
contour map from 1970 with probability on 0.01 per
annum. The 1985 NBC included a new zoning map,
including both, peak accelerations and peak velocities
and increased probability of 10% in 50 years. Other
changes included the treatment of seismic load by limit
state design approach. The load factor for seismic load
since 1990 equals to 1.0. What this means for adaptive
reuse is that all buildings designed prior to adoption on
the 1980 NBC will require seismic retrofit and buildings
designed prior to 1970 in some locations were not
Steel components have great potential for reuse. The
knowledge of steel history is important for the designer
if reuse of components is to be adopted. The first Cana-
dian steel code for buildings (C.E.S.A. S16) dates from
1935 and remained in place until 1948. The steel which
is described in that code is mild and medium steel
(governed by C.E.S.A.-S40). This latter standard after
1950 became the CSA - G40.x series. Carbon steel for
plates and silicon steel appeared after the Second
World War in addition to the original mild and medium
steel which was used until 1964 (see Table 1). The
injection of preheated oxygen rather than air into the
modified Bessemer furnace and electric arc steel-
making processes, led to better quality and the emer-
gence of higher strength steels. Several types have
appeared: general construction steel, weldable steels
(regular and low temperature), corrosion resistant steels
(regular and with improved low temperature properties),
and quenched and tempered low alloy plates. The
chemical analysis in CSA-G40.21 1964 for the first time
The 1990 NBC introduced the rain components of snow
load and the ground snow load was changed (generally
for most areas ground snow load decreased) as well as
the default snow density was increased from 2.4 kN/m
to 3.0 kN/m3. This had a minor impact on the magnitude
and the extent of snow accumulation on lower roofs
adjacent to higher buildings. Since 1995, the snow
accumulation was typically decreased in recognition of
the fact that the amount of snow on upper is limited by
the size of the upper roof and there is often not enough
snow to fill the step. The extent of the lower roof zone
impacted by snow accumulation increased. Generally,
there should not be a problem resulting from snow load-
ing if a component or building remains in the same geo-
graphical location.
designed for seismic load at all or much smaller load.
Post 1990 buildings comply with current code seismic
provisions. When comparing the current maximum seis-
mic shear to the 1985 NBC, for ductile design, the
design shears are almost identical, however for nominal
ductility or non-ductile detailing, the 1990 and subse-
quent NBC result in greater loads, 40% and 36%
respectively.
If the components are older than 70 years (prior to
1935), there are potentially other materials than steel
available, such as cast and wrought iron, and it is more
difficult to assess the properties. The following refer-
ences are recommended:
ASTM Standards A7 and A9.
The publication "Appraisal of existing iron and
steel structures" by The Steel Construction Insti-
tute of the United Kingdom [Bussell, 1997].
CAN/CSA-S6-00 (Canadian Highway Bridge
Code).
FACILITATING GREATER REUSE AND RECYCLING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION PROCESS
Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change
www.reuse-steel.org
This information paper was prepared by Vera Straka at the Department of ArchitecturaI Science, Ryerson
University, with support from the Enhanced Recycling component of the Government of Canada Action Plan 2000
on Climate Change, Minerals and Metals Program and by the Canadian Institute for Steel Construction (CISC).
Period

Pre - 1905
1)

1905 - 1935
1)

1935 - 1964

1964

- 1973

1973 - 1981

From 1981

Yield Strength

N/mm
2

180

210


186

227

303

230

480

260

480

Tensile Strength

N/mm
2

360

360


344 - 427

413 - 497

427

380

- 500

590 - 790

410 - 590

590

- 790


Date of bridge construction

Specified
Fy, MPa
Specified
Fu, MPa
Before 1905
1905 - 1932
1933 - 1975
After 1975
180
210
230
250
360
420
420
420


APPENDIX: Research notes
Structural steel standards
C.E.S.A. S16-1935 Steel Structures for Buildings until 1948
Composite construction allowed Type-A and Type-B
C.E.S.A.-S39: Mild structural steel
C.E.S.A.-S40: Medium structural steel
Table 3 Steel Properties. (fromC.E.S.A. S16 1935)
Elongation Steel type Chemical
Analysis
Yield stress
(psi)
Tensile
strength
(psi)
8 gauge (%) 2 gauge (%)



Mild


P acid 0.06
P basic 0.04
S 0.05
Medium
Cu 0.20
33,000
min 0.5 of
tensile strength
60,000
72,000
1.5E6/(tensile
strength)
22

Standards Material Properties after 1950:
CSA-G 40-1: General requirements for delivery of rolled steel plates, shapes and bars for structural use
CSA-G 40-2: Structural steel rivets
CSA-G 40-3: Mild structural steel
CSA-G 40-4: Medium structural steel
CSA-G 40-5: Carbon steel plates of structural quality, plates 2 and under in thickness
CSA-G 40-6: Structural silicon steel
General notes:
All revised and reissued in 1959; G40-1 reissued in 1959 and last revised in 1963
G40-1 1959 has section headings
Ladle analysis of molten steel from each heat of open-hearth or electric furnace is required by the
Manufacturer to determine the percentage of carbon, manganese, phosphorous (P) and sulphur
(S); of copper when copper (Cu) steel specifies; any other elements specified or restricted by the
applicable specifications.
Check analysis by the purchaser


Manufacturing process: open hearth or electric furnace; basic oxygen process added in 1959
Marking of steel required, typically of each piece but how to be done is vague (die stamp is referred
to for plates).
Tensile test and bend test (cold steel bent through 180without cracking on outside; ratio of inside
diameter to thickness specified) are prescribed; two of each per each heat. Speed of loading for
loads over one half of the yield is defined. The test specimen is either flat bar 9 long (8 gauge
length) of actual material thickness or greater thickness than 1.5 when thickness can be used
or 2.5 long (2 gauge length) rod test can be done.
G40.3-1959: Structural Steel for Locomotives and Cars change from mild steel previously used.
G40.7-1959: Steel Sheet Piling introduced.
Table 4 Steel Properties. (fromG40 series 1959)
Elongation Steel type Chemical*
Analysis
Yield stress
(psi)
Tensile
strength
(psi)
8 gauge (%) 2 gauge (%)
P acid 0.06
P basic 0.04
S 0.05
Mild
Cu 0.20
27,000 50,000
62,000
24 27
P acid 0.06
P basic 0.04
S 0.05
Medium
Cu 0.20
33,000 60,000
72,000
21 22
P acid 0.06 Grade A 24,000 45 55,000 27 30
P basic 0.04 Grade B 27,000 50 60,000 25 27
S 0.05 Grade C 30,000 55 65,000 23 25
Carbon
plates
Cu 0.20 Grade D 33,000 60 72,000 21 22
C 0.40
P acid 0.06
P basic 0.04
S 0.05
Silicon
steel
Silicon 0.2
45,000 80,000
95,000
16 17
* Based on ladle analysis
G40.3-1959, Structural steel for locomotives and cars
G40.5-1959, Low and Intermediate tensile strength carbon steel plates of structural quality. Plates
2inches and under in thickness




CSA G40.1-1966: General requirements for delivery of steel plates, shapes, sheet piling and bars,
for structural use
Major differences in comparison with 1959 edition:
Number of tests required is more precisely defined if there is a variation in tests from different
heats or when the product size is less than 50 tons.
It deals more elaborately with steel marking, especially for rolled sections which should be hot die
stamped or embossed along the length of the web section of each piece or cold die stamped at one
end of the web section of each piece. Remarking is required of all unmarked pieces removed from
bundles and pieces cut from marked pieces. Colour marking is introduced (reference to ASTM
A36).
CSA G40.8-1960: Structural steels with improved resistance to brittle fracture
This standard introduced three different grades of steel, namely A, B and C with the same strength but
different chemical composition and different impact tests results (Grade A suitable for above zero F
conditions, B for moderate cold temperatures and C for severe cold temperatures -25F to -60F). The
maximum thickness of material covered by this Standard is 1.5 inches. The minimum yield strength is
40,000 psi for thicknesses up to 5/8 (38,000 psi for thickness between 5/8 and 1 and 36,000 psi for over
1 thickness). The tensile strength for all grades is between 65,000 and 85,000 psi. The thickness is
related to web thickness for rolled sections. The minimum elongation in 8 inches is 20%. Marking of steel
should be in accordance with G40.1 with colour marking as follows:
Grade A: primary white plus secondary red
Grade B: white
Grade C: primary white plus secondary yellow
Welding for surface repair should be done using low hydrogen electrodes E60XX or E70XX.
CSA G40.12-1964: General purpose steel
This new standard covers steel plates, shapes and bars used for riveted, bolted or welded connections in
the structural field. It covers materials up to 2.5 inches thick. Steel can be manufactured by either open
hearth, electric furnace, or the basic oxygen process, with material over 1.5 inches thick required to be
made using a fine grain steelmaking practice.
Table 5 Steel composition. (fromG40.12)
Elongation Steel type Chemical*
Analysis Max.
Yield stress
(psi)
Tensile
strength
(psi)
8 gauge (%) 2 gauge (%)
C 0.22 (0.25)
P 0.04 (0.05)
S 0.05 (0.06)
M 1.50 (1.55)
General
Purpose
Structural
Steel
Si+ 0.15-0.30
(0.13-0.33)
44,000
(40,000 for
thickness >1.5
62,000 20 23 for
thicknesses
>1.5
* First value is from ladle analysis; value in the bracket from check analysis.
+ Applies to material over 7/8 thick.




Colour identifying this steel is green.
CSA G40 series - 1971
G40.3, originally mild structural steel is not included.
G40.4-1959 and subsequently revised is referenced here. No change in properties from 1950 version
except in chemical composition acid and basic phosphorus is deleted and replaced by the maximum
percentage of phosphorus of 0.040 from ladle analysis and 0.050 from check analysis. The colour marking
for this steel is orange.
G40.6 is withdrawn
Structural shapes were required to be embossed at intervals along the length of each structural member
with the producers name or brand. Color marking scheme introduced.
CSA G40.20-1973: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel
This new standard defines products and processes, chemical composition, testing (types, specimens,
method and frequency), defects, tolerances and their repair and markings. It applies to all types of steels
described in G40.21-1973. Section 15 deals with welded shapes which in turn refers to CSA W59.1 for
welding specification.
CSA G40.21-1973: Structural quality steels
This is a new standard dealing with six types of structural quality plates, shapes, and bars for general
construction and engineering purposes. It is to be used in conjunction with G40.20-1973, General
requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel. Standards G40.4-1959, G40.5-1959, G40.7-1959
and G40.8-1971 are referred to in this standard. It introduces different type of steel as described below:
Type G General Construction Steel: meets the minimum strength, chemical composition may not
meet welding under normal field condition or controlled shop conditions. Bolted application.
Type W Weldable Steels: meet the minimum strength requirements. Suitable for welded
construction where notch toughness at low temperature is not of a prime importance. Application in
buildings, compression members of bridges.
Type T Weldable Low Temperature Steels: used where the notch toughness at low temperature
is a prime consideration, eg. Tension members of bridges.
Type R Atmospheric Corrosion Resistant Structural Steel: these steels have corrosion resistance
4-times of regular carbon steels. Copper content not exceeding 0.02 percent. Suitable for exposed,
unpainted application. Weldable, similar to type W.
Type A - Atmospheric Corrosion Resistant Structural Steel with Improved Low Temperature
Properties: similar to type R but has an improved notch toughness at low temperature.
Type Q Quenched and Tempered Low Alloy Steel Plate: exhibits a very high yield strength and
good resistance to brittle fracture. May be weldable, but caution should be exercised so that the
heat affected zone does not impact adversely its properties. Application in bridges.



Table 6 Steel types and grades (reproduced formG40.21- 1973.)
Yield Strength, Ksi
Type
33 38 42 44 50 55 60 70 100
G 33G 50G 60G
W 33W 38W 42W* 44W 50W 55W* 60W 70W
T 38T 44T 50T 55T* 60T 70T
R 50R
A 50A 60A
Q 100Q
* Available in hollow sections only.
Plates, bars and structural shapes are available in all grades except 42, 55 and 100. The chemical
composition and tensile strength tests are conducted on all type. In addition to these tests, grades T,A and
Q have impact tests and grain size tests. The steel manufacturing process is one of the following, basic
open hearth, basic electric furnace or basic oxygen process. Special delivery conditions such as stress
relieved, annealed, normalized can be specified. Chemical and mechanical properties are given. The
appendix contains the table of equivalencies with ASTM, BS and ISO.
CSA G40.20-1976: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel
This is a new edited version of 1973 standard. The references, text and tables revised but there are no
significant differences in comparison with the previous standard. Amended in 1979 and 1980.
CSA G40.21-1976: Structural quality steels
There are no changes to types but grade 42 was eliminated and grade 33 is only available for type G and
introduces grade 70A. Revisions published in1980.
CSA G40.20-M1978: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel (SI units)
This is a new edition of CSA G40.20-1976 which is in metric units.
CSA G40.21-1978: Structural quality steels
This is a new addition of CSA G40.20-1976 which is in metric units.
CAN3-G40.20-M81: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel
This is the second edition of this Standard published originally in1978. Revised and re-published in
1987and 1992.
CAN3- G40.21-M81: Structural quality steels
This is the second metric edition of this standard. It includes revisions to the imperial version of the
standard. Revised and re-published in 1987and 1992.
CAN/CSA G40.20-87, General Requirements for Rolled or Welded Structural Quality Steel
This is the third edition of this standard which was originally published in 1973. It includes all amendments
published so far as well as amendments approved but not released. This Standard is in imperial units.


CSA G40.20/G40.21-98: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel/ structural
quality steel
CSA G40.20/G40.21-04: General requirements for rolled or welded structural quality steel/ structural
quality steel
CAN/CSA-S6-00: Canadian highway bridge code
Section 14.6 deals with the strength determination of existing bridge structures. According to this clause,
the material strength can be determined adopting one of the following methods:
1. Review of original structural drawings and documents (the specified minimum yield strength of
steel, compressive strength of concrete, yield strength of reinforcement). The values of yield
strength from mill certificates should not be used but the guaranteed minimum strength for the steel
specified should be used.
2. Test of samples from the bridge or its components. Samples should not compromise the structural
stability, or integrity of the member. Location of each sample and its orientation should be recorded
and any other information which may be useful when interpreting the test results. The test results
should be evaluated and converted to the nominal material strength using A14.1 or other Approved
method. See below.
3. Estimation by considering the date of construction. In the absence of more specific information, S6
recommends the use of the following values:
Table 7 Default steel strength values (fromCAN/CSA-S6-00)
Date of bridge construction

Specified
Fy, MPa
Specified
Fu, MPa
Before 1905
1905 1932
1933 1975
After 1975
180
210
230
250
360
420
420
420

4. Other approved methods.
Equivalent material strength fromtests
Testing in accordance with CAN/ CSA-G40.20-M. At least three specimens should be tested. The yield
strength is recorded for each test; if the coupon was taken from the flange, then its yield strength cam be
increased by a factor of 1.05.
f
y
= (f
y average
28)exp(-1.3k
s
V), where
f
y
is yield strength to be used in the design check
f
y

average
is the average yield stress from the tests
V is the coefficient of variation
k
s
is the modification factor for coefficient of variation depend on number of strength tests n (see Table 8
below)


Table 8 Coefficient of Variation Modification Factors k
s
(fromCAN/CSA-S6-00)
n k
s
3 3.46
4 2.34
5 1.92
6 1.69
8 1.45
10 1.32
12 1.24
16 1.14
20 1.08
25 1.03
30 or more 1.00

Resistance of steel members:
There is an Adjustment Factor U which modifies the material factor. U varies from 1.00 for flexure, to 0.87
for shear, 1.01 for tension and compression, 1.27 for bolts and 1.32 for welds.
National Building Codes
First National Building Code, 1941
The NBC 1941 requires that the alteration and repair of an existing building in access of 50% of the
assessed value must bring the entire building to its requirements for new construction.
Change in the use of an existing building results in the need for entire building to comply with the
requirements for new construction. The exemption applies to change in occupancy for which it can be
demonstrated that the existing structure is capable of supporting new occupancy with loading described in
Section 3.6. If only portion of a building has a change in occupancy, only that part of the building must be
brought to the codes standards, provided there is a separation between the tow parts.
Additions greater than 50% of the area of the existing building must have fire separation complying with a
special occupancy separation (cl. 4.2.3.3) unless the existing building, addition and alterations are in
compliance with the new code.
Structural alteration shall be made to conform to the standards for new buildings. But the extent of such
work is to be determined by the authority having jurisdiction.
New materials and methods of construction are permitted provided their suitability and working stresses
determined by a publicly owned or recognized laboratory are approved by authority having jurisdiction.
Steel
Medium structural steel conforms to C.E.S.A. S40-1935
Mild structural steel conforms to C.E.S.A. S39-1935


Special steels conform to specifications approved by the authority having jurisdiction
Unidentified structural steel is required to be tested by an approved laboratory in accordance with A.S.T.M.
Standard E8-40T, Method of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials.
Mild steel: the unit working stress permitted shall be 90% of those permitted for Medium Structural Steel.
Unidentified structural steel: the unit working stress shall not exceed 6/10 of the yield point stress
determined in accordance with A.S.T.M. Standard E8-40T, but in no case shall the stresses exceed those
for mild structural steel.
Loading
Floor loads: (in pounds per square foot)
Sleeping rooms or domestic rooms 40
Office 50
Corridors in hotels, hospitals 50
Corridors in public buildings 100
Assembly halls with fixed seating 60
Public spaces, dance halls, grandstands 100
Retail shops and stores 100
Wholesale shops and stores 125
Factories 125
Garages for passenger cars 75
Garages for trucks and busses 150
Sidewalks, driveways 250
Reduction of live load:
Beams and girders: 15% when area supported by a member exceeds 200 square feet
Columns, piers, walls, and foundation: the percentage reduction given in Table 1 (Section 3.6) and it is
related to area supported (indirectly as the table deals with number of floors) and type of loading.
Combination of wind and live load: for consideration of stresses in a structure and on the foundation from a
combination of dead, live and wind, the assumed live load on floors can be reduced by one-half, provided
the stresses or bearing pressure are not less than those resulting from a combination of dead and live
loads.
Ceiling load: 10 psf; ceiling joists must be able to support this load
Snow load L:
Roof with slope 20 or less shall be designed for snow load of 20 to 40 psf depending on the location.
L = S + R,


Where: L is snow load
S is sum of average snow falls in January, February and March, in inches over number of years
R is sum of average rain falls in January, February and March, in inches over number of years

L (in) Live load due to snow (psf)
Less than 20 20
20 30 30
More than 30 40
Roofs with slopes in excess of 20, shall be designed for snow load L
1
L
1
= L [1- 0.023 ( 20)]
Minimum total load on roof member for slopes less than 20 and area less than 500 sqft shall be designed
for 50 psf (wind + snow) but excluding wind.
Wind loads:
On vertical surfaces:
Wind pressure: 0 to 300 ft 20 psf
Over 300 ft increase by 0.025 lb/ft of height
On plane sloping roofs (slopes both ways from the ridge)
Windward face: measured normal to the plane of the roof
20 or less -12psf
20 to 30 (1.2 36)
30 to 40 (0.3 9)
60 9
Leeward face: suction of 9 psf
Allowance for internal pressures or suctions:
In normally enclosed buildings with percentage of openings n:
Normal suction: (4.5 + 0.15n), or 9 psf, whichever is less
Normal pressure: (4.5 + 0.25n), or 12 psf whichever is less
For structures having open sides, e.g., grandstands
Open side facing the wind: a pressure 12 psf
Close side facing the wind: a suction 9 psf




Earthquake loads:
The design provisions for every structure located in a region where destructive earthquake is probable (St.
Lawrence basin- major shocks and elsewhere in Canada ref. Seismology in Canada Canada Year Book,
1938, pp.27-29):
F is a horizontal force applied at structures centre of gravity
W is the total dead load
C is a constant depends on the soil conditions at the location
C = 0.02, where soil allowable pressure more than 2000 psf
C = 0.04, where soil allowable pressure less than 2000 psf
For components: C = 0.25 for cantilevered parapets, walls, ornamentation, appendages
C= 0.05 for bearing walls, curtain walls, enclosure walls, panel walls.
The NBC 1953
This code is set up a set of by-law requirements.
This code has climatic information which includes winter design temperatures (based on 2.5 % - i.e., 2.5%
of temperatures fall below the listed value), mean annual total degree-days, min. January temperature, 15
minute rainfall, mean annual precipitation, maximum snow load on a horizontal surface, computed
maximum gust speed, winter wind directions, earthquake probability.
New materials and methods of construction are permitted provided their suitability and working stresses
determined by a publicly owned or recognized laboratory are approved by authority having jurisdiction.
Loads:
The minimum loads are given.
Occupancy loads:
No change from the previous code; see Table 3.2.
Snow load:
Roof with slope 20 or less shall be designed for the uniformly distributed snow load L obtained from Chart
8, Part 2 of this NBC.
For roofs with a slope x greater than 20, the snow load L
1
shall be determined as follows:
L
1
= L [1- 0.0233 (x 20)]
The code suggests that loads in excess of those given may occur, where the following conditions are
present, the shape, differences in roof levels, insulating qualities or orientation of a building or proximity to
other buildings. No provisions for snow accumulation given.
Rain:
Load resulting from 24 hour rain accumulation on the roof should be used.



Wind:
Structures of buildings less than 50 ft in height and where adequate transverse shear resistance is provided
by walls or bracing members to which wind load is transferred by floor or roof diaphragm do not need to be
designed for wind if approved.
Calculation of wind load P:
p = 0.00256 C
s
(C
h
V
30
)
2
, { or = C
s
(p) where p is from Table 4.1.A.1} where
C
s
is coefficient consisting of the sum of appropriate coefficient from Table 4.1.1 together with
appropriate internal pressure factors.
C
h
is velocity height coefficient, C
h
= (H
h
/H
30
)
1/7
for h up to 1000 ft.
Internal pressures coefficient:
One side open: + 0.5
Normal air infiltration: + 0.2
Wind overturning moment shall not exceed 75% of the moment of stability resulting from the dead load of
the building, unless the building or structure is anchored to resist the excess overturning moment.
Earthquake
In earthquake zones (see Chart 11 of Part 2) all buildings with the exception of non-combustible
construction Group C Division 2 One- or two-family dwellings must be designed to resist the horizontal
force F applied in a horizontal direction at each floor or roof level.
F = CW,
Where: C is the numerical constant from Table 4.1.2
C = 0.15/ (N + 4.5), where N is number of storeys
There were three zones assigned:
Zone 1 C
Zone 2 2C
Zone 3 4C
W is the total dead load (live load should be included for warehouses and storage tanks).
Steel
Structural steel is to conform to CSA G40.4. Mill test reports properly correlated to the materials shall
constitute sufficient identity of any material as to specifications.
Unidentified structural steel: can be used if approved. Test if required shall be carried by an approved
testing laboratory in accordance with CSA G40.1. The test results shall be used to determine the working
stresses.
The NBC 1953 was revised in 1960. In 1965 new addition of the code was issued as the first edition of
what was anticipated a five-year cycle.



The NBC 1965
It is still intended as by-law which will be accepted by local municipality.
Live load
There are no changes in live loads due to occupancy or rather loads due to use. There are two live load
reduction factors, one (0.5 + 15/A) for buildings used for storage, manufacturing, garage or assembly
applied when a member support an area in excess of 900 sq. ft. and another factor (0.3 + 10/A) for any
other occupancy when a member supports an area in excess of 200 sq. ft.
Minimum loads for railings separating a change in elevation in access of 18 in., 150 lf/ ft laterally and 100
lb/ ft vertically to be considered separately from lateral load.
Vibration due to equipment and machinery: it gives the magnification factor for equipment weight or its live
load.
Snow load
It introduces modification of 80% (C
b
= 0.8) to ground snow load given in the Supplement 1.
Design snow load = C
b
x ground snow load
Supplement No. 3 gives factors to account for snow accumulation. It also allows reduction of C
b
to 0.6 for
exposed roofs. The ground snow load contours changed slightly as well as the magnitude of the snow load.
Generally, there is no significant change in snow load for most locations.
Wind load
The minimum design wind load is given in climatic information included in Supplement No.1. This load
should be modified for height above 40 ft. Or the following formula can be used:
q
h
= q
30
(h/30)
1/5
The change in the exponent results in slightly greater values for design wind pressure.
The minimum design load acting on a surface is again given as an algebraic pressure difference on both
sides of the surface. Assistance with pressure coefficients is provided in Supplement No.3.
Rain load
There is no change in rain load.
Earthquake load
Significant changes in the determination of earthquake loading.
The minimum base shear V = KW
W is total dead load, including storage and weight of equipment and machinery,
K = R* C*I*F*S
R is the earthquake factor obtained from climatic information in Supplement No.1. It is a measure of
earthquake intensity.
C is a coefficient which reflects type of construction;


C = 0.75 for steel or reinforced concrete framed buildings with moment resisting connections, and
sufficiently stiff floors diaphragm, and the frame alone must be able to carry 50% of the design based shear
or shear walls reinforced in a ductile manner to carry design shear forces.
C = 1.25 for all types of buildings
I is importance factor;
I = 1.3 for important bldgs. such as hospitals, power plants and large occupancy and 1.0 for the others.
F reflects foundation conditions; F = 1.5 for buildings found on highly compressible ground and F = 1.0 for
all other soil conditions
S reflects number of storeys
N is number of storeys
S = 0.25/(9 + N)
The distribution of the base shear V to shear at F
x
each floor is in accordance with the ratio of (floor weight
w
x
x height above the base h
x
) to the sum of (floor weight x height above the base) for all storeys.
Also for the first time the overturning moment at base is given as M = F
x
h
x
.
Structural Steel
All structural steel should be accompanied by a Certified Mill Test Report, or Manufacturers certificate. The
fabricator shall if requested provide an affidavit confirming that fabricated steel meets the specifications.
Unidentified steel should be tested to identify both physical and chemical properties of steel in accordance
with G40.1-1966. Steel then classified and appropriate allowable unit stress is determined.
The NBC 1970
This edition of the code contains for the first time the limit on lateral deformations; storey deflection to
storey height of 1/500 and total deflection to total height of 1/500. It introduces T load; load due to
contraction or expansion due to temperature changes, shrinkage, moisture, creep or differential settlement.
The load combinations which have to be considered in structural engineering design. The load combination
factor is introduced for the first tome; 1.0 for combination dead and live; 0.75 for combination of dead with
live load and wind or earthquake; 0.65 for combination of dead load with live load and wind or seismic load
and temperature.
Dead load
The weight of permanent equipment and forces due to prestressing are added to the list of dead loads to
be considered.
Live load
There is no significant change in live loads; except more guidance is given to circumstances when live load
conditions were not covered.
Snow load
No significant changes to snow load occurred.


Wind load
The impact of wind is defined by designed wind pressure p:
p = qC
e
C
g
C
p
.
This approach is similar to current NBC. The mean hourly wind pressures q which are used are not
significantly different from