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\ 93 Though women workforce has risen to a greater extent, the old attitudes of men still exist in organizations.

For example: a woman was not introduced while sharing a stage with men when ever one else was. !nother woman was asked repeatedl " his "oss whether she can work in shifts even though she happened to "e a #ualified engineer holding senior manager position. ! senior man in the organization denied concession in work timings to a pregnant lad who re#uested so. $o these instances indicate that men lack sensitivit on women specific issues% &omen in offices #uite often have to travel along with men as part of their duties or sta together during conferences. 'en would readil agree to travel with a woman whereas a woman would face several #uestions from various fronts. (he herself is in dilemma sometimes, whether should she accept this% )ow the famil would react to it% )ow would organization address such gender issues% &hether this is an issue for oung women working in '*+s% &omen 'anagers in ,ndian -rganizations )... /aila (.*.$.T. &omen0s 1niversit , 'um"ai This is a #ualitative stud of 234 female managers interviewed in 52 organizations in order to review trend of pro"lems faced " women managers, the wa s in which the pro"lems affect them, and the coping strategies used " them to overcome their pro"lems. ,n6depth personal interviews were conducted with the help of a structured #uestionnaire using open6ended #uestions. The narratives of managers have provided a "road"ase in understanding managerial life and profession of women. The implications are underlined for "etter organizational health and performance. This paper is an extract from a larger stud . /e words: ,ndian, women managers, pro"lems, coping, narratives ,n a stud on stress coping st les among 7erman managers 8/irkcald 9 Furnham, 2999:, the a""reviated 7erman version of -ccupational (tress ,ndicator0s +oping (cale was completed anon mousl " over 2;4 managers. *o difference in coping profiles of men and women was found, "ut different levels of management and educational status did influence preference for coping st les. 'ore specificall , it was seen that at the most senior levels of management, delegation and maintaining sta"le relationships are considered the most useful forms of coping with stress.

! comparative stud on managerial stress in )ong /ong and Taiwan " -i6ling, .uo, 9 +ar 82999: investigated occupational stress in managers in )ong /ong and Taiwan using the -ccupational (tress ,ndicator6< 8-(,6<:. The results showed that there were gender differences in managerial stress in )ong /ong: female managers scored higher in sources of stress and #uitting intention= "ut had lower > ?ournal of the ,ndian !cadem of !pplied @s cholog , ?anuar <44A, Bol. 33, *o.2, 93624<.93 Co"satisfaction, worse mental and ph sical well"eing than male managers. These differences could not "e found in Taiwanese managers, et Taiwanese female managers did report more stress related to Dmanagerial roleE than their male counterparts. /aila 8<44<: studied 2<4 managers in metropolitan 'um"ai and found that 54 per cent of them experienced the most common workplace stresses and challenges such as: meeting deadlines, working in a competitive industr , managing finances, exhausting working hours, and rotation work in addition to handling regular tasks 8such as sales, marketing, training, research and development, and accounts of core clients:. ! 'ala sian surve on occupational stress among managers 8Taap, Fontaine, 9 +hong, <443: examined sources of stress among 'ala sian managers working in multinational companies. ! total of 334 managers participated in this surve . $ata was collected through a #uestionnaire distri"uted to the managers in 33 multinational companies operating in 'ala sia. ,t was found that workloads, working conditions and relationship at work were main concerns of the managers that lead to stress at the workplace. The results also indicated that certain demographic varia"les do influence the level of stress among managers. /asper, 'e er, 9 (chmidt 8<44F: conducted an explorative anal sis on managers dealing with work6famil conflict. The sample was drawn largel according to the principles of theoretical sampling= famil 6work constellations provided the "asis of selection. Thirt pro"lem6focused interviews were content anal zed. Gesults showed three distinct protot pes of dealing with

work6famil 6tension: career as su"Cect of social fascination, famil as a factual task, the tradition of two worlds, dou"le "urden and the pressure of tasks. -ne outstanding result was that if "oth partners were professionall active, the famil was increasingl dominated " merel functional re#uirements. !rmstron6(tassen 8<44F: compared the reactions of executive6level and middle managers prior to a large6scale downsizing, during initial and final phases, and following the downsizing. +ompared with executives, middle managers perceived greater Co" insecurit , were more likel to use escape coping, and reported lower Co" performance and higher levels of health s mptoms. -ver time, "oth executives and middle managers reported a decline in perceived threat of Co" loss "ut an increase in sense of powerlessness, a decrease in the use of control6oriented coping strategies, and reduced Co" performance in the initial phase of downsizing. !lthough less so, executive6level managers were also adversel affected " the downsizing, suggesting that this group should "e included in stress management interventions. The studies on managerial ps cholog recentl as well as in the past depict that crossculturall there are similarities and differences on managerial "ehaviours. (econdl , female managers report more stresses regardless of cultural "ackground. Thirdl the sources of managerial stress across cultures are similar. 'oreover the managerial researches so far have "een "ased on #uantitative methodologies. )ence it is postulated that the use of #ualitative and narrative methods on the stud of managerial issues would "roaden our understanding and provide us more depth in the field. 'ethod ! structured #uestionnaire using the following three open6ended #uestions was presented to individual managers in their respective organizations. H &hat do ou think was the greatest pro"lem ou faced in the past 2< months% @lease descri"e "elow. H @lease explain in which wa s did it affect

ou personall or professionall % &omen 'anagers in -rganizations 9F H +ould ou give a title or heading to this pro"lem a"ove and how did ou overcome this pro"lem% @lease explain. The managers were asked to narrate their experiences. The women managers took time out of their reall "us and hectic schedule to share their pro"lems and issues in organizations. Though managerial pro"lems and coping have "een researched using #uantitative research techni#ues, the depth of understanding on managerial issues is lacking. )ence a narrative approach was attempted in this stud in order to enrich the managerial research. (ample The sample consisted of 234 female managers "etween <; to FF ears of age in 52 organizations 8including private and pu"lic sector, and '*+s: from different parts of ,ndia such as 'um"ai, Iangalore, and ) dera"ad, ranging from "anks to ,T, pharmaceutical companies to call centers. $ata were collected from varied work "ackgrounds, different age groups and different levels of management: upper, middle and lower working in various departments through in6depth personal interviews and e6mails in a few cases with the help of a structured #uestionnaire using openended #uestions. Gesults and $iscussion The surve results have "een presented under the following section:@ro"lems faced " women managers, the wa s in which the pro"lems affect the women managers, and the coping strategies used " women managers to overcome their pro"lems The first #uestion asked to managers was: &hat do ou think was the greatest pro"lem ou faced in the past twelve months% @lease descri"e. The second #uestion asked was: @lease explain in which wa s did pro"lems faced " ou affect ou personall or professionall % The third #uestion asked to managers was: +ould ou give a title or a heading to the pro"lem faced " ou and how did ou overcome the pro"lem% @lease descri"e. ,n this wa , the manager herself titled the pro"lem. The women managers responded:

Time Crisis - The

greatest pro"lem , have faced during the last 2< months is Time +onstraints to meet deadlines. !t a managerial level, , am assigned with a lot of responsi"ilities and the expectation of the superiors from me is also high. (ince , have a famil to look after it is even more difficult to attend to m work responsi"ilities. 'an a time it leads to an inCustice on m part towards either the home responsi"ilities or work responsi"ilities. ' pro"lem has affected me positivel and negativel . ,n a negative manner it "rought a"out a lot of work pressure as , was falling short of time and , could not spend appropriate time on the assignments given to me " m superiors. Secondly, I found it difficult to maintain a balance between my home and work responsibilities also. Iut in a positive manner "ecause of m constant efforts as well as correct planning , have "ecome Dimmune to stressE. , overcame the pro"lem " planning and prioritizing the tasks "ased on urgenc , discussion with m colleagues and collectivel resolving issues leading to lesser "urden of work. (ince, , cannot take long holida s , take short "reaks of <4 minutes from m work and listen to soothing music. , also watch pla s in the theatre with m famil to keep me in good spirits. Gelocation Trauma 6 $uring the recent times , faced the pro"lem of relocation and shifting of archives "ecause of the merger. (ince we relocated from our old office to the current one, we had to ph sicall shift more than 244 cartons of important documents and arrange it in the new location. (ince there was

ver little time and less help , had to manuall )... /aila9; fill the "oxes and arrange them in the new location. 'anuall shifting archives affected me personall and professionall . @ersonall , it caused ph sical discomfort and muscle pull due to manual shifting of archives. @rofessionall it affected "ecause "eing a #ualified professional , did not find it a pleasing task to do the work of shifting files and cartons " m self. , overcame the first pro"lem of shifting " doing what was re#uired i.e. shifted all the cartons manuall with colleagues help and took proper medications for the muscle pull. Time constraints to meet deadlines 6 The greatest pro"lem , have faced is the time constraint to cope up with multiple activities. (ince , am a famil woman , have to manage "oth the home as well as office. ' responsi"ilities in office are also tremendous and , have to do multitasking "ut the time is so little that , sometime have difficult in completing m assignments on time. The pro"lem of coping with multiple activities in a limited time has affected me personall "ecause , have to complete man assignments together , have to sta late in office which amounts to a lot of ph sical strain as well as neglect in m home responsi"ilities. , also tend to miss important events in m personal life. ,t affected me professionall as , find it difficult to finish proCects on the given deadline "ecause of the limited time availa"le to me thus causing stress. ,t also leads to crashed expectation from m superiors as the expect

a lot out of me. Therefore , am constantl under pressure to prove m self in front of them. , have managed to overcome m pro"lem " prioritizing m work "ased on urgenc of the tasks. , plan and organize m time so that multiple activities can lead to their goals. (ometimes , take a da or two off after hectic work schedules and go to resorts. &hen , return from there, , feel recharged and like a new person altogether. 7lass +eilingJ+ompetition 6 The greatest pro"lem was related to m up6gradation. $espite performing well ear after ear, , was not promoted to the higher cadre. , neglected a lot of areas of m life in the "id to get promoted "ut unfortunatel , was never noticed when it came to promotion. $espite achieving all the goals on time, , saw that a higher num"er of males had risen to good posts and were the preferred candidates for promotion, resulting in humiliation. The pro"lem affected me ver "adl personall . , started neglecting m personal life in the "argain to do well so that at least in the next appraisal , could get promoted. (imilarl , , endured a lot of mental trauma and ph sical strain as , used to work till long hours in office and remain tensed a"out m promotion. +ommunication with m famil decreased. ' self6esteem took a huge "low as , started dou"ting m self. @rofessionall , did not let if affect m work= in fact , started working more so that , could do m "est. , have not completel got over the pro"lem as , am still struggling to understand wh there was a "ias towards the males and wh hardworking deserving women like me were left

out. Iut off late , have stopped thinking a"out it an more, as it does not lead me an where. , constantl take support or spend time with m friends " going out for movies or dinner. , am doing m "est "ut do not har"or the hopes of promotion an more. Bolunteering or "u ing things for m nieces and nephews also helpsn me divert m attention from core pro"lems. ?o" ,nsecurit J1ncertaint 6 $uring the recent times , have faced the pro"lem of insecurit and uncertaint in m Co". This is due to the recent merger that took place "etween the two pharmaceutical companies. The merger changed the whole structure of our organization. 'an posts were declared &omen 'anagers in -rganizations 9A unnecessar leading to ouster of man emplo ees from the organization. , was constantl living under the fear of "eing asked to leave from the organization. &ith man new colleagues Coining in there was uncertaint in what , was supposed to do and whether , was re#uired " the organization or not. @ersonall , felt lost. , felt stressed as , was constantl thinking a"out m work. For a short while , "egan to avoid pleasura"le events. @rofessionall , , was ver unclear as to where m Co" was leading me. For a while , was also contemplating to leave m current Co" and look for a new one. , was confused, as m role in the organization was not defined. , have tried to overcome m pro"lem with the support of m colleagues at work and seniors. (econdl , , started spending more time with m child and "eing with her itself was extremel de6stressing as for some time , would forget a"out m own pro"lems. ,t0s "een nine

months since the merger so , am now getting ac#uainted with the new structure and "egun to understand m Co" responsi"ilities "etter. There have "een constant talks with the 'anagement and , "een assured that m Co" is secure hence , have stopped worr ing a"out that aspect also. +lash with (uperior 6 The pro"lem , suffered recentl is altercation with m "oss. )e wasn0t particularl happ with the wa one of our core team mem"ers was performing. Iut instead of reprimanding him, m "oss started to "lame all the core team mem"ers. (ince , am the proCect leader of the team , had a few altercations with m "oss. , was aware of the performance deficienc of m teammate and the remaining team was compensating for that person. ,nstead of appreciating the good contacts and trust we were "uilding with the customersJclients, he was getting upset a"out it. (o in order to overcome this he started to mentall harass a few of us. )e started to "ad mouth a"out the team mem"ers against each other. This affected m social as well as professional life. (ince m manager could not find an faults with m work he started criticizing me for m "ehavior. This made me lose interest in m work and as a result , was not a"le to give m 244K to m Co". ,t also increased m stress level and , was not a"le to concentrate on m social life. This pro"lem can "e solved if m "oss handles this situation in a more mature and intelligent manner. ,nstead of harassing us to gain an upper hand he can make use of the good connections and trust that we have "uilt

up to get more "usiness. (econdl , he can speak to our team mem"er a"out his performance deficienc and guide him to perform "etter. ,n this wa not onl will our organization "enefit "ut also all the team mem"ers will feel secured " having a good "oss around us. , haven0t "een a"le to overcome the pro"lem "ut whenever , feel stressed out , go with m friends for a movie or have a good meal somewhere and then , feel "etter for sometime. )onest is the "est polic in case of Fraud 6 $ue to "ogus stamp papers distri"uted in the workplace and stolen *ational (avings +ertificate issued through authorized vendors, m emplo ees and , faced serious pro"lems. &e were accused of creating a fraud in the organization. The customers of m "ank could not repa the amount within the stipulated period of time. Though there was no mistake on our part we as emplo ees underwent serious pro"lems. &e were taken to court where en#uiries were made. @rofessionall , it affected me "ecause as a 'anager , was under pressure to save the reputation of m organization. (econdl , it was m dut to support m su"ordinates and participate honestl in the en#uiries made " legal authorities. @ersonall , , was under tremendous pressure and stress. , suffered from a mild heart attack "ecause of the )... /aila95 pressure , underwent. ' famil also underwent massive worries. ,f people were honest and did not commit such a crime then we would not have undergone such stress. Ieing an honest

person, , participated in all the en#uiries made on the organization and me, as , had nothing to fear. , full supported m su"ordinates and stood " them. , was constantl in discussion with the top management regarding this scam. &e won the court case and the culprits were arrested. Thus, we all stuck together like one famil at the time of crisis. $uring stressful times , would either read "ooks so that , could divert m attention from pro"lematic issues or involve m self in making painting and handicrafts to get awa from the pro"lems. 1n6cooperative (u"ordinates 6 The greatest pro"lem , faced in the past 2< months was un6cooperative attitude of m workers due to the interference " the internal union. (ome of m workers were a part of the internal union. For sill reasons the used to "e instigated " their core mem"ers to suspend work at the drop of a hat. The a"ove pro"lem affected me personall and professionall . @ersonall "ecause , used to "e under constant stress "ecause , was una"le to understand wh the workers were "ehaving so erraticall and wh the were not working. @rofessionall , it affected me "ecause our dail production was affected "ecause the were suspending work. (econdl , m superiors were under the impression that , was una"le to handle the workers under m department. , called the workers under m department in groups of F and advised them a"out the losses incurred "ecause of suspending the work for some sill reason. , asked them the reason for suspending work and F4K said that the didn0t know the reason and the were doing it "ecause their fellow workers were

doing it, 34K said that the were doing it "ecause their union head had asked them to do so. &hereas the remaining 24K were among the ones who were laz and liked to drop work at the slightest reason. , looked into the matter with the help of our top management and as far as m workers were concerned , "rought in an ,ndustrialJ-ccupational +ounselor who gave them appropriate counseling regarding the disadvantages of "eing instigated " others to suspend work and generall made them aware of their contri"ution towards their organization so that the could work sincerel in the future. !s far as m personal coping was concerned spending time with m "a" was itself #uite a stress "uster and secondl since , am religious " nature, , would sa m pra ers and keep full faith in 7od. .oss of +ommunication 6 The greatest pro"lem , faced was loss of communication with colleagues in m prior organization. The merger "rought a"out a whole lot of changes. -ne of them "eing shifting the heads of all departments to the )ead -ffice. This relocation led to loss of communication with m colleagues "ecause a lot man of them were not at higher posts so the remained in the old office. .oss of communication affected me personall " the wa of setting in monoton and "oredom. , was not in touch with man of m colleagues due to the merger so , was not aware of what was happening with them. ,n a wa m social support s stem has "roken down "ecause with m Co" , rarel got the time to give them a call or keep in touch with them. ,n a professional wa , less communication means

, was not clearl aware of what was happening in different "usiness areas "ecause of the merger. (ince , was new in the current organization and not well ac#uainted with m new colleague there was am"iguit on the professional front. , haven0t "een a"le to overcome the second pro"lem "ecause , have completel lost touch with m old colleagues due to m hectic routine. , feel as if , have lost a "ack"one, as &omen 'anagers in -rganizations 99 now , have no one to share m pro"lems with. ,n the current organization there is still loss of communication as , am new here and not well ac#uainted with m new colleagues. (o there is still am"iguit with respect to m Co" role also. ,n order to get awa with tension , spend some time on m own Dme timeE so that , feel much "etter and relaxed. (hift &ork @ro"lem 6 The greatest pro"lem , face is working *ight (hifts. (ince , am in a call center, night shifts are inevita"le. &orking night shifts affected me personall and professionall . @ersonall , it "ecomes ver difficult to manage m home and work together "ecause at home , have to attend to m < rs old "a" and responsi"ilities in office are e#uall pressurizing. , felt guilt since , do not get time to spend with m famil . *ight shifts disrupt the whole schedule due to which , encountered a lot of health pro"lems such as fatigue, headaches and a lot of stress. There is often a spillover of tensions from home to work and work to home. @rofessionall , m health pro"lems decreased m productivit at work. Though , was una"le to handle m team, m appraisal rating from m superiors took a

"low. , have "een a"le to over come the pro"lem with the support of m famil . &hen , am not around m hus"and takes care of our "a" . (econdl , , spend some of m times with m friends who are not from call centers, which takes some load off. , am a mem"er of an *.7.- named !akansha and there is no other "igger pleasure than "u ing gifts for the need children and seeing a smile on their face. , plan and organize m schedule during night shifts so that , can spend ade#uate time with m child too. The a"ove responses revealed that maCorit of the women managers faced the pro"lem of meeting deadlines due to time constraints. 'an women managers com"ine their full time paid work with parenthood or household responsi"ilities. The tend to remain the primar caretakers on the home turf inspite of "eing assigned with a Co" which re#uires long hours of ph sicall and mentall demanding work. -ther main pro"lems included getting work done from su"ordinates, relocation pro"lems as well as feelings of Co" insecurit and uncertainit . ,t was also found that women managers find internal politics "etween their colleaguesJsu"ordinates as well as altercations, lack of communication with colleaguesJfriends and clashes with their superiors extremel stressful. The D7lass ceiling effectE was also reported " one woman manager who said, D(he felt that there was a "ias against women who wanted to move up the ladder.E .astl , night shifts too posed a maCor hindrance for a woman manager who reported D*ights shifts are inevita"le in call

centers, "ut , feel guilt for not spending time with m famil E. !ccording to a woman manager DThe glass6ceiling effect and not "eing a"le to handle ones su"ordinate are pro"lems that are ver gender specific. ,n man organizations, in spite of working so hard, man women still face discriminationE. &omen managers reported that their pro"lems affected them personall as well as professionall . &omen managers who faced the pro"lems of meeting deadlines due to time constraints, working night shifts and insecurit and uncertaint regarding ones Co" reported that personall overwork was causing a strain on their families and relationships as it ro""ed them of time, energ and attention needed to maintain health relationships with partners and children. The also reported missing out on important social events such as weddings or outings with families. !ccording to one female manager D, have to complete man assignments together so , have to sta late in office which amounts neglect in m home responsi"ilitiesE. Feelings of insecurit and uncertaint regarding ones Co" created a lot of anxiousness and stress in women managers "ecause the were constantl "om"arded with )... /aila244 thoughts a"out their future in the organization. The also remained tensed, as the were unclear regarding their Co" function in the organization. 'an of these women also reported a spill over of tensions a"out ones work to home and from home to work. This spill6over resulted in conflicts "etween them and their spouses. Their pro"lems are further compounded "ecause the also tended to

suffer from health pro"lems due to long working hours or disruptions in shift hours. The complained of headaches, "ack pain, fatigue, weakness and other ph sical ailments. Their pro"lems also "rought along professional hazards for them in the form of dissatisfaction of superiors regarding their #ualit of work and low productivit in their performance in the organization. &omen managers who were concerned of interpersonal conflicts at work felt de6motivated and stressed out seeing the conflicts "etween their colleagues. !ccording to a woman manager Dit0s a challenge to remain neutral and listen to "oth sides of the stor E. !s far clashes with "osses were concerned managers felt demotivated to work especiall when the clash was a result of misunderstandings or feelings of insecurit har"ored " the superiors. ! woman manager reported D+onstant clash with m "oss made me lose interest in m work and as a result , was not a"le to give m 244K to m Co"E. 1ncooperative su"ordinates posed a pro"lem for women managers "ecause the attitude of the su"ordinates gave an impression to their superiors that the manager was una"le to handle the su"ordinates. This pro"lem also affected the productivit of the organization as the su"ordinates used to suspend work. &omen managers reported a lot of confusion as the were una"le to understand the real reason "ehind their su"ordinates erratic "ehaviors. The also reported "eing under constant work pressure as the felt a need to prove themselves in front of their superiors. &omen managers who faced the pro"lem of discrimination in the workplace reported

Dfeeling humiliatedE and left out "ecause of unfair appraisals. $ecrease in their self esteem was another apparent effect due to the discrimination in the workplace. The also reported of neglecting their famil life in a "id to do well resulting in less communication with their famil . (tress, feelings of anxiousness and work pressure were their chief pro"lems. +omplaints of monoton , "oredom and lack of social support were stated " women managers who reported the pro"lem of communication. The also complained of feelings of am"iguit as the were unware of the ongoings in different "ussiness areas due to restrictive communication. )ealth pro"lems such as muscle pulls were the chief complaints of women managers who suffered from the pro"lem of relocating from one office to another. (o far we saw the negative effects of pro"lems faced " the women manager. Iut the results of this surve also revealed a welcome change. !ccording to a few women managers, the stress, tension and anxiet caused to them "ecause of work pressure and deadlines had made them Dimmune to stressE as a result of which the reported handling work pressure much "etter than "efore. This effect is called as eustress as it connotes a positive change in the "ehaviors with respect to handling of stressful situations. Thus, it can "e seen that the pro"lems faced " women managers affected them personall and professionall and the effects of the pro"lems the faced were positive as well as negative. !s far as coping with pro"lems among

women managers is concerend, it was seen that onl a few managers were not a"le to overcome their pro"lems. Iut overall, the responses towards coping with pro"lems were positive. $ifferent individuals have different st les of coping with their pro"lems. ,t was seen that man women managers worked activel towards eliminating their pro"lems " &omen 'anagers in -rganizations 242 meditating, going on holida s, taking short "reaks and having appropriate medications. -ther common coping strategies reported " women managers included, discussing pro"lems with colleagues and seeking advise from superiors, spending time with friends " going for movies and holida s, planning and organizing ones schedule. 'an women managers were sprituall inclined as a result of which the participated in different kinds of religoius activities to relax their minds such as singing "haCans, visiting temples or sa ing pra ers. !ccording to a woman manager Dwhenever , face a pro"lem , send a small pra er up there so that things go well with meE. -ther interesting wa s of coping with pro"lems included pampering oneself " going for shopping or having a good meal. 'an women managers Coined *.7.-s where the generousl donated gifts. -ne such manager exclaimed DThere is no other pleasure than seeing a smile on children0s face. ,ts ver destressingE. 'an of them indulged in giving gifts to relatives and friends in order to feel "etter. Iut the unanimous votes went in the favour of spending time with ones famil especiall ones children. !ccording to one manager D,ts extremel destressing to spend

time with m child "ecause for sometime , forget that , have a pro"lem. -ther indulged in activities like painting or watching pla s in a theatre to keep their minds off work pressure. +onclusion &hen we o"serve ,nternational &omen0s $a on 5 th 'arch ever ear, we need to ponder over the gender issues in organizations. 'ale attitude is an issue to "e addressed, attitudinal "arriers from men trou"le women. Though male dominance in organizations is changing a "it, still an issue remains to "e addressed. (ome suggestions can "e considered to deal with these pro"lems: (uccessful women or women at higher positions should act as mentors to other women and make women friendl organizations. &omen0 leadership training need to "e emphasized so that the can tackle their issues more effectivel . The perspectives of international women0s da need to go "e ond gender and look at relationship "uilding. ,nclude men in women0s seminars and other programmes. 7ender sensitivit programmes at schools and organizations must "e conducted on regular "asis as a part of )uman Gesource $evelopment. -rganizations need to develop women development cell for soft skills training and personalit development programmes. ,t is sexual harassment for some women and romance at work for others especiall oung people. These different sets of responses of women to the opposite gender need to "e understood and addressed accordingl .

Lssentiall organizations have to take up work6famil "alance mechanisms such as pickup facilit , !T' machines, flextime, compressed week etc. &omen must come united, raise their voices on issues that haunt them, don0t leave an single case of harassment un6attended. ,ntroduce Lmplo ee !ssistance @rogramme and counselling in organizations.@s chosomatic ill6health of women working on computers is an issue to tackle. Moga and health check6ups are necessar . ,nternational women0s da should "e called as ,nternational 7ender $a . Though men and women are socialized differentl , women are more rigorousl trained for famil and social roles= whereas men remain weak in these roles or opposite gender related responsi"ilities. $o men need to "e resocialized at the organizations for "ecoming gender6friendl or gender6Cust people% '*+s toda are "ecoming inclusive organizations and open to people0s issues 8"oth male and female emplo ees as e#ual partners:. ! few common solutions are suggested to make a woman0s life easier in organizations such as compressed working week, crNches at the workplace, emplo ee counseling at )... /aila24< workplaces, flexitime, compulsor periodical medical examinations, providing the facilit of working from home, oga for improved ph sical and mental health 8/aila, <443= <443a= <44F:. Geferences !rmstrong6(tassen '. 8<44F:. +oping with downsizing: ! comparison of executive6level and middle managers. ,nternational ?ournal of (tress 'anagement, 2<, 22A6232.

/aila )... 8<44<:. (tress is a wa of life for 'um"ai workers. @s cholog ,nternational, 23, Fall <44<. /aila )... 8<443:. ,ndian women managers: Their stresses, health and coping "ehaviour 6 ! surve in 'um"ai. ?ournal of )ealth 'anagement, ;, 23A62;2. /aila, )... 8<443a:. &omen of 'um"ai towards new millennium. 'um"ai: )imala a @u"lishing )ouse. /aila, )... 8<44F:. &omen, work and famil . *ew $elhi: Gawat @u"lications. /asper, /= 'e er, '. 9 (chmidt, !. 8<44F:. 'anagers dealing with work6famil 6conflict:an explorative anal sis. ?ournal of 'anagerial @s cholog . <4, 33463;2. /irkcald , I.$. 9 Furnham, !.F. 82999:. (tress coping st les among 7erman managers. ?ournal of &orkplace .earning. 22, <<6<;. -i6ling, (.= .uo, .. 9 +ar , +. 82999:. 'anagerial stress in Taiwan: ! comparative stud . ?ournal of 'anagerial @s cholog . 23, ; 6<F. Taap, !. '.= Fontaine, G. 9 +hong (. +. 8<443:. -ccupational (tress among managers: ! 'ala sian surve . ?ournal of 'anagerial @s cholog . 25, ;<<6;<5. Geceived: !ugust <9, <44; !ccepted: $ecem"er 2<, <44; )... /aila, @h$, is the )ead, @ostgraduate $epartment of @s cholog , (*$T &omen0s 1niversit , 'um"ai O 344 4<4. )is current research interests are women and health, school ps cholog , organizational ps cholog and safet . 'o"ile: 93<<46 4;F25. L6mail: kailahlPhotmail.com &omen 'anagers in -rganizations @s chometric

Lducational (ervices 23<J2<, ?eevanantham (alai, (ri IalaCi +omplex 8upstairs:, !rcot 8Bellore $istrict:, @in: ;3< F43 +ontact 'o"ile: 93;<93F3;9 Gegularl conducting teacher training programmes on Larl +hildhood, *urser , $.Ld, I.Ld, '.Ld, Technical Teacher Training, I.@.Ld, and '.@.Ld (upplier of @s chological .a" !pparatus, Tests, +harts, @hotographs of 7reat @s chologists and Lxperimental 'aterials &ith Iest &ishes from T*7(T *o. 3F52;22 +(T *o 3A3A95