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Communication Theory (EE302)

Fourier Transform
Lecturer: Dr. Ghafour Amouzad Mahdiraji Semester: May 2010

Fourier Transform and Continuous Spectra


Consider signals whose energy
E = v (t ) dt
2

is finite.

This also means that the signal is concentrated to relatively short time period (time-limited). The Fourier transform for this kind of energy signal is defined as

V ( f ) = F [v (t )] = v (t )e j 2ft dt

V(f) is the spectrum of signal v(t). Non-periodic signals have continuous spectra => Fourier transform is used (instead of Fourier series). Periodic signals have line spectra (discontinuous spectra); they can be developed in Fourier series.

Fourier Transform and Continuous Spectra The time function v(t) is obtained from V(f) by using the inverse Fourier transform:
v (t ) = F [V ( f )] = V ( f )e j 2ft df
1

Spectrum Properties
1. V(f) is a complex function. |V(f)| is the amplitude spectrum and argV(f) is the phase spectrum. The value of V at f = 0 equals the net area of v(t), since

2.

V (0) = v(t )dt

3.

If v(t) is real, then

V ( f ) = V * ( f ) and

| V ( f ) |=| V ( f ) |

arg V ( f ) = arg V ( f )

so again we have even amplitude symmetry and odd phase symmetry.

Example: Rectangular pulse


The notation (t / ) is used for rectangular pulse. The following rectangular pulse is defined as

A | t |< /2 (t / ) = 0 | t |> /2

Consider the signal v(t ) = A (t / ) . Its Fourier transform derive as

V( f ) =

/2

/ 2

Ae

j 2ft

A dt = sin(f ) = A sinc( f ) f

Rectangular Pulse Spectrum V ( f ) = A sinc( f )

Rectangular Pulse Spectrum


It can be seen that the spectrum of the rectangular pulse obtained from Fourier transform corresponds to the envelope of the spectrum of the rectangular pulse train obtained from Fourier series (the previous example). It can be also noted that most of the spectral content (signal energy) is located in the frequency band of |f| < 1/ . This means that the spectrum of a narrow pulse is wide.

Rayleighs Energy Theorm


Rayleighs energy theorem is similar to Parsevals theorem

E = | v(t ) | dt = V ( f )V ( f )df = | V ( f ) |2 df
2 *

Thus, the energy of the signal can be calculated by integrating the square of the amplitude spectra. Example: The total energy of the rectangular pulse A (t / ) is E = A2 .

The energy in the frequency band | f |< (1 / ) is

1/

1 /

| V ( f ) | df =
2

1/

1 /

( A ) 2 sinc 2 ( f )df =0.92 A2

This is about 90% of the total energy.

Rectangular Pulse Time and Frequency Domains


Squared Fourier transform (signal spectrum) and the energy distribution per frequency bands.

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