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# CONFIDENTIAL

CS/APR 2006/MAT652

## ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES MAT652 APRIL 2006 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1 2 3 4 This question paper consists of six (6) questions Answer ALL questions Start each answer on a new page Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of i) the Question Paper n) an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

## DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
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CS/APR 2006/MAT652

QUESTION 1 a) Write two conditions that define * a binary operation on a set S. (2 marks)

b)

Determine whether * defines a binary operation on the following given set. Explain your answers clearly. i) ii) iii) Defines * on Z+ by a * b = a - b. Defines * o n Z + b y a * b = c where c is at least 3 more than a + b. Defines * on Z+ by a * b is the smallest integer greater than both a and b. (6 marks)

c)

State three conditions for a function <b: S -> S' to be an isomorphism of (S,*) with

<sv>.
(3 marks) d) Determine whether < b is an isomorphism of <S,*> with < S' ,*'). Explain your answers clearly. i) ii) <S,*> = (Z,+) with < S' ,*') = <Z,+) where (b(n) = 3n for n e Z . <S,*> = <Z,+) with < S' ,*') = <Z,+) where <b(n) = n + 3 for n e Z. (4 marks)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

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CS/APR 2006/MAT652

QUESTION 2 a) Write the definition of the following: i) ii) iii) iv) Group. Subgroup. Abelian group. Cyclic group. (7 marks)

b)

< Z 8 , + 8 ) is a cyclic group, find i) ii) all generators of Z 8 . all subgroups of < Z 8 , + 8 ). (7 marks) Given a set rZ = {rs | s e Z } where r e Z+. Show that <rZ, +> is a group. (5 marks)

c)

d)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MAFIA

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CS/APR 2006/MAT652

QUESTION 3

a)

Leta =

[2 1 3 5 4 6 J

a n d P =

'1 2 3 4 5 6 V
6 1 2 4 3 5

be two permutations in

fc

S6Compute a " 2 p . (2 marks) b) State the Lagrange's theorem on the number of elements of a subgroup. Hence, prove that every group of prime order is cyclic. (6 marks) Let M and N be subgroups of a group G. Define ~ on G by a ~ b if and only if a = mbn for some m e M and some n e N. Show that ~ is an equivalence relation on G. (6 marks)

c)

QUESTION 4 a) Find the order of (3, 10, 9) in the group of the direct product Z 4 x Z 1 2 x Z 1 5 . (2 marks) What is the largest order of all cyclic subgroups of Z 6 x Z 1 5 . (1 mark) c) Let : G -> G' be a homomorphism of groups. We define a subgroup

b)

## <|T1[{e'}] = { x e G I <|>(x) = e ' }

to be the kernel of , denoted by Ker(<t>). Given a homomorphism \$ : Z - Z 10 such that (|)(1) = 6. Find Ker((|)) and <(>(19). (5 marks)

d)

A subgroup H of a group G is said to be normal if its left and right cosets coincide. Let <|>: G - G' be a group homomorphism, a e G and H = Ker((|>). Then <|f1[{<|>(a)}] = {x e G I \$(x) = <|>(a)} = aH. Prove that Ker((|)) is a normal subgroup of G by showing f ' K ^ l M x e G I <|>(x) = <|>(a)}=Ha. (7 marks)

## Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

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CS/APR 2006/MAT652

## QUESTION 5 a) Write the definition of i) ii) a ring, a field. (5 marks)

b)

Given a set

Z [V2 ] = j a + b ^

## a, b e Z }. Under the ordinary addition and

multiplication of real numbers show that i) ii) Z [V2 ] is a ring. Z [V2 ] is a field. (9 marks)

c)

Let R be a ring. The center of R is the set {x e R I ax = xa for all a in R}. Prove that the center of a ring is a subring. (6 marks)

b)

## Prove that every finite integral domain is a field. (5 marks)

c)

Prove that for every prime p, Z p the ring of integers modulo p, is a field. (5 marks)

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