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Code: 9A21505

1
AEROSPACE PROPULSION - I
(Aeronautical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
***** 1 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

What is the total thrust comprised of? Derive a general equation for the trust developed in a Turbojet engine. What is the need of thrust augmentation? Explain any three methods of thrust augmentation implemented in turbojet engines. Discuss the performance of a subsonic inlet in terms of total pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency. What are the major design variables for subsonic inlet and nacelle? How a supersonic inlet differs with subsonic inlet? Write the classification of supersonic inlets and explain any one with suitable diagram. Name at least any three important types of sub sonic combustion chambers of a gas turbine and explain their merits and demerits. Explain briefly combustion stability, combustion intensity and combustion flammability of a combustion chamber. Explain the need of cooling in combustion chamber and explain the different cooling techniques. What are the factors affecting the combustion chamber design? What are the functions of exhaust nozzles? What is the need of thrust reversers? Explain the different types of thrust reversers. Define slip factor in centrifugal compressor and derive an expression for the same. Draw the characteristic curves of a centrifugal compressor and briefly explain the phenomena of surge and choking. A ten stage axial flow compressor provides an overall pressure ratio of 5:1 with an overall isentropic efficiency of 87%, when the temperature of air at inlet is 150 C. The work is equally divided between the stages. A 50% reaction is used with a blade speed of 210 m/s, and a constant axial velocity of 170 m/s. Estimate blade angle. Assume a work done factor of 1. Derive an expression for work input to the axial flow compressor and explain what is meant by work done factor. *****

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Code: 9A21505

2
AEROSPACE PROPULSION - I
(Aeronautical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
***** 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

Define thermal efficiency, propulsive efficiency and overall efficiency of a turbojet engine and write the corresponding equations. Explain the ideal thermodynamic cycle with p-v and T-s diagrams for a turbojet engine. Explain the features of external flow near a subsonic inlet with a diagram. Derive the relation between minimum area ratio and external deceleration ratio. Discuss different modes of supersonic inlet operation with diagrams.

3 4 (a) (b)

What is meant by fuel air equivalence ratio and how a lean mixture and rich mixture are identified? An aero engine is using octane as fuel. The temperature of working fluid at the inlet and outlet of combustion chamber are 650 K and 1600 K respectively. The fuel heating value is QHV=42.800 kJ/kg. The specific heats of cold and hot streams are Cpc=1.005 kJ(kg.K) and Cph=1.23 kJ(kg.K). Calculate equivalence ratio. Write the important requirements to be full filled for a combustion chamber. Explain with a neat sketch the various components of a basic combustion chamber and describe the air flow pattern. Explain the concept of exhaust flow pattern with pressure ratios through a convergent nozzle with suitable sketches and relevant equations. Define the efficiency of a nozzle and drive an equation for the efficiency of a conversant nozzle in terms pressure ratio. Explain the working principle of a centrifugal compressor with aid of diagrammatic sketches. Explain the following for centrifugal compressor. (i) Rotating stall. (ii) Pressure coefficient and (iii) Vane less diffuser. Describe the different flow losses in an axial flow compressor. Show that when the degree of reaction is 50% the blades are symmetrical. *****

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Code: 9A21505 AEROSPACE PROPULSION - I


(Aeronautical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
***** 1 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

Define specific thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption. An advanced fighter engine operating at Mach 0.8 and 10 km altitude has the following uninstalled performance data and uses a fuel with hPR = 42,800 kJ/kg. Thrust (F) = 50 kN, mass flow rate at entrance (ma) = 45 kg/s and mass flow rate f fuel (mf) = 2.65 kg/s. (Assume exit pressure equal to ambient pressure. Determine the specific thrust, thrust specific fuel consumption, exit velocity and propulsive efficiency. At altitude 10 km the ambient temperature = 223.3 K. Discuss the streamline patterns for two typical subsonic conditions of high speed or low mass flow and low speed or high mass flow and the corresponding thermodynamic path of an average fluid particle using sketches. Discuss starting problem in supersonic inlets using schematic diagrams.

3 4 (a)

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Write short notes on: (i) Ignition system and (ii) Blow out in connection with combustion chamber. Define combustion efficiency. Explain with suitable sketches/graphs the influence of pressure on combustion efficiency. How fuel injection is done in a combustion chamber? Explain atomization, vaporization and recirculation in a combustor. Draw a neat sketch of an annular combustion chamber, explain the working principle and its advantages and disadvantages. Explain the effect of area change for sub sonic and supersonic velocities in a conversant nozzle. Write short notes on the following: (i) Variable area nozzles and (ii) Nozzle choking. Briefly explain prewhirl and its advantages in centrifugal compressors. Derive an expression for the work done and pressure ratio in a centrifugal compressor. With suitable sketch explain the working principle of an axial flow compressor. Write short notes on: (i) Polytrophic efficiency, (ii) Stage efficiency and (iii) Diffusion factor in an axial flow compressor. *****

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Code: 9A21505

4
AEROSPACE PROPULSION - I
(Aeronautical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
***** 1 (a) (b)

Max. Marks: 70

Explain the working principle of a turboprop engine with a neat diagram. Write the advantages, disadvantages and applications of turboprop engine. Explain internal and external flow pattern in subsonic inlets. Discuss flow separation in internal flow of a subsonic inlet. Explain internal compression, external compression and mixed compression supersonic inlets with sketches.

(a) (b)

Explain briefly the working principle, advantages and disadvantages of a turbo-annular combustion chamber. Explain with suitable graphs and equations the pressure loss factor of a combustion chamber. Name different types of fuel injector and write their advantages and disadvantages. Explain: (i) Flame velocity, (ii) Ignition delay time and (iii) Residence time with reference to a combustion chamber of gas turbine engine. Explain over expansion and under expansion in nozzles. What are various losses in nozzles? Write the advantages and applications of centrifugal compressor. A centrifugal compressor under test gave the following data Speed 11,500 rev/sec Inlet total head temperature 210 C Out let and inlet total head pressure 4 bar and 1 bar Impeller diameter 75 cm If the slip factor is 0.92, what is the compressor efficiency? Define degree of reaction of an axial flow compressor and derive expression for the same in terms of air angles. Compare the centrifugal compressor and axial flow compressor under various heads. *****

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