Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS
Intermittent flow Continuous flow

Positive displacement

Dynamic Ejector
Reciprocating Rotary

Radial Mixed Axial


Mechanical •Helical lobe flow flow flow
piston
•Straight lobe
•Sliding vans
• Liquid piston
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

COMPRESSORS
Intermittent flow Continuous flow

Positive displacement

Dynamic Ejector
Reciprocating Rotary

Radial Mixed Axial


Mechanical •Helical lobe flow flow flow
piston
•Straight lobe
•Sliding vans
• Liquid piston
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor

Diffuser

Impeller
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Centrifugal compressors or radial flow compressors are
second only to reciprocating compressors in numbers of
.machines in service
The centrifugal compressor has been around for quite a
long time. Originally it was used in process applications at
.relatively low pressure, high volume service
An Introduction to Pumping Equipment

200

Multistage
Pressure ratio

Reciprocating

20
Single stage
Recip. Multistage
Centrifugal Multistage Axial
Rotary
compressors
2 .Single S Cen

102 103 104 105 106


)Flow rate )CFM
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Classification
Classification can be established by how the machine
casing is constructed:
Horizontal split.
Vertical split.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Classification
Single stage, vertically split,
overhung style centrifugal
compressor.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Classification
Multistage barrel type
compressor.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Classification
an overhung style machine
mounted on a gearbox and
uses the gear pinion shaft
extension to mount an
impeller .
The casing is also attached
to the gearbox.
This style is built in both the
single and multistage
configuration.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The overhung style is, on very
rare occasions, constructed in
the multistage form, usually
overhanging no more than two
impellers.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
Careful application must be
made because the overhung
impeller configuration is more
sensitive to unbalance than the
between-bearing design. If
impeller fouling is anticipated,
this design may not be
acceptable.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
A beam type single-stage is a less
common form of the single-stage. In
this form, the impeller is located
between two bearings as is the
multistage.
The flow enters and leaves in a
tangential direction with the nozzles
located in the horizontal plane.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The between-bearing, single-stage
is found most commonly in pipe line
booster service where the inherent
rigidity of the two outboard bearings
is desirable.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The integrally geared
compressor. As shown, it
consists of three impeller,
the first located on one
pinion, which would have a
lower speed than the other
pinion which has mounted
the remaining two
impellers.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
This arrangement is
common to the plant air
compressor. Configurations
such as this are used in
other air and gas services,
with the number of stages
set to match the
application.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The flow path is straight
through the compressor,
moving through each
impeller in turn. This type
of centrifugal compressor
is probably the most
common of any found in
process service, with
applications ranging from
air to gas.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
In the double-flow compressor , the flow enters the case
at two points, is compressed by a single impeller at each
end and then enters the double-flow wheel.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The flow enters the case and is divided to each side of
the double flow impeller and then joins at the impeller exit
prior to entering the diffuser.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
If a number of options are open
for a given application, the
double-flow option should not
be the first choice.
Although it should be evaluated
as there are successful
applications in service indicating
that with careful design, the
compressor will perform
satisfactorily.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The back-to-back arrangement is normally considered
useful in solving difficult thrust balance problems where
the conventional thrust bearing and balance drum size are
inadequate or become excessively large.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The flow is removed part way through the compressor and
reintroduced at the opposite end, then allowed to exit at
the center.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The obvious use is for applications generating high
thrusts, higher than can be readily controlled by a normal
size thrust bearing and balance drum.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
An evaluation of the cross leakage between the two
discharge nozzles must be made and compared to the
balance drum leakage to determine the desirability of the
"back to back".
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The sidestream compressor is the very common
compressor design used in the chemical industry,
particularly in large refrigeration systems.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
Arrangement
The properties of the gas stream are modified at the
mixing point, as the sidestream is rarely at the same
temperature as the stream from the second impeller.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Casings
All centrifugal compressors' casings were initially of cast
construction, particularly in the smaller sizes.
Casing materials are, in most cases, cast of iron or
nodular iron and steel.
Fabricated casings are generally made of carbon or alloy
steel.
Casings are, on occasion, made of austenitic stainless
steel or one of the high nickel alloys.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Casings
For low temperature, suction applications a low nickel
alloy may be used
API Standard 617 includes material guidelines in its
appendix.
The vertically-split, multistage barrel compressor is
generally constructed of steel or steel alloy. It may be
cast, fabricated or for very high pressure service it may be
forged.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Casings
The vertically-split should always be used when the gas
contains hydrogen at or above a partial pressure of 200
psig.
It may also be required in those services where the overall
pressure is too high for the horizontal-split joint
compressor.
This occurs when the horizontally-split joint deforms too
much at the operating pressure to maintain a gas tight
seal.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Diaphragms
They are the stationary members located inside a
multistage casing.
The function of the diaphragm is to act as a diffuser for
the impeller and a channel to redirect the gas into the
following stage.
The diaphragm also acts as the carrier for the impeller
eye seal and the interstage shaft seal.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Diaphragms
The diaphragm are split, located with matching grooves in
the upper and lower half casing and pinned to upper half
for maintenance ease.
Diaphragms are hand fitted to center them to the rotating
element.
It is important for the horizontal joint to match well, to keep
the joint leakage to a minimum
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Diaphragms
On barrel compressors, the
diaphragm assembly makes
up an inner barrel.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Diaphragms
The assembly and rotor are
removed from the barrel
casing as a unit using a
special fixture. The
diaphragm assembly is split
to permit the removal of the
rotor and the diaphragms are
generally constructed the
same as those of the
horizontally split compressor.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Casing Connections
Casing inlet and outlet nozzles are normally flanged.
Most of the auxiliary connections on these machines will
be screwed fittings.
It is desirable to use standard flanges throughout the
connections on the casing. However, for space reasons,
on rare occasions, a nonstandard flange arrangement
may become necessary.
It is quite important to have the equipment vender furnish
all mating flanges and associated hardware.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Impellers
The impeller is the most highly stressed compressor
component .
Impellers are made of low alloy steel for most
compressors in process service, either chrome-moly or
chrom-moly-nickel.
Because of the high strength to weight ratio, many of the
high head, integrally geared units use aluminum.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Impellers
Austenitic stainless, Monel and titanium are some of the
other materials used for impellers in certain special
applications, generally with corrosive gases involved.
Although not universal, on most multistage compressors,
the impellers are axially located by shaft sleeves.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Shafts
Shafts are made of material ranging from medium carbon
to low alloy steel and are usually heat-treated.
Shafts require the good finish achieved by grinding or
honing.
The shaft is the foundation for good mechanical
performance to keep the rotor dynamics in control and
maintain good balance.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Shafts
The requirements are that the shaft must be round and all
turns must be concentric to the journals.
The tighter the tolerance, the closer to perfection, the
more expensive that particular manufacturing step.
However, some added expense at this point will save time
in subsequent rotor balancing providing the user with a
rotor, which can be more easily maintained.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
Radial bearings or journal bearings are usually pressure
lubricated.
Most compressors use two
bearings on opposite ends of the
rotor assembly.
Or on the overhung design,
located adjacent to each other
between the drive coupling and
the impeller.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
Radial bearings or journal bearings are usually pressure
lubricated.
On centrifugal compressors the bearings size is not a
function of the load but rather it is dictated by critical
speed considerations.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
Straight cylindrical bearings are the most simple in
concept.

Because of low resistance to bearing induced problems,


this bearing is limited to centrifugal compressors.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
It is found normally in very
large compressors with
relatively heavy rotors and
low operating speeds.

They are also used in the fluorocarbon refrigerant


compressors, where speeds are low because of high
molecular weight and where relatively short rotors are
used.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
As a minimum, most
compressors with sleeve
bearings use a modified sleeve
bearing, such as the dam type
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Radial Bearings
The tilting pad bearings is the bearing most often found in
centrifugal compressors, which is inherently stable. The
bearing also known as the tilting shoe bearing.
DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal compressor
:Construction Thrust Bearings
Centrifugal compressor impellers, with the exception of
the open impeller, are thrust unbalanced.
The machine also has a requirement for a location device
to maintain axial clearance.
For these reasons, all centrifugal compressors use some
form of thrust bearing.
API 617 recognizes the need for the compressor thrust
design to take into account peripheral factors such as the
coupling.