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The Concept of Hydrology Discusses the hydrologic cycle, its processes, water balance, precipitation types, estimation of precipitation, and analysis of precipitation data. Also methods of measurement of stream flow, stage discharge relation, unit hydrograph theory, Transposition of Hydrograph, Synthesis of hydrograph from basin characteristics, stream flow routing, flood frequency analysis and attenuation of flood flows. mphasis is gi!en towards the calculation of rain fall data and urban drainage concept in de!eloping new areas. "hat #s Hydrology$

a. The study of water on, under, and over the arths surface, and from its
origins to all its destinations on the earth is called hydrology.

b. The scientific study of water, see%ing to e&plain the water balance equation
in terms of time and space, and assessing the impact of physical and chemical processes and their role in ecosystems. 1/12

Hydrology 'ses of ngineering Hydrology ngineering Hydrology Helps in the following ways(

Hydrology is used to find out ma&imum probable flood at proposed sites e.g. Dams. The !ariation of water production from catchments can be calculated and described by hydrology.

ngineering hydrology enables us to find out the relationship between a catchments surface water and groundwater resources

The e&pected flood flows o!er a spillway, at a highway Cul!ert, or in an urban storm drainage system can be %nown by this !ery sub)ect.

#t helps us to %now the required reser!oir capacity to assure adequate water for irrigation or municipal water supply in droughts condition.

#t tells us what hydrologic hardware *e.g. rain gauges, stream gauges etc+ and software *computer models+ are needed for real,time flood forecasting

'sed in connection with design and operations of hydraulic structure 'sed in prediction of flood o!er a spillway, at highway cul!ert or in urban storm drainage

'sed to assess the reser!oir capacity required to assure adequate water for irrigation or municipal water supply during drought

Hydrology is an indispensable tool in planning and building hydraulic structures.

Hydrology is used for city water supply design which is based on catchments area, amount of rainfall, dry period, storage capacity, runoff e!aporation and transpiration.

-ranches of Hydrology 2/12


Hydrological Cycle

.igure /.0( Hydrologic Cycle 1efer to clause 0.0./, 'rban Stormwater 2anagement 2anual for 2alaysia *2AS2A+ !ol. /( #ntroduction to the 2anual, the hydrologic cycle is the continuous, unsteady circulation of water from the atmosphere to and under the land surface and bac% to the atmosphere by !arious processes. #t is dynamic in that the quantity and quality of water at a particular location may !ary greatly with time. Temporal !ariations may occur in the atmosphere, on land surface, in surface waters, and in the groundwater of an area. "ithin the hydrologic cycle, water may appear in all three of its states3 solid, liquid, and gas. .igure /.0 shows the hydrologic cycle in schematic form. The important processes are described below with emphasis on factors that influence each process and its significance in the planning, design, and operation of stormwater management systems *"alesh, /454+.

How the water cycle wor%s /. Solar energy heats up the oceans water surface, la%e, ri!er etc. 0. The water e!aporates and rises into the air. 3/12

Hydrology 6. The !apor condenses into clouds and turns into rain. 7. 1ain falls bac% to the surface. Some of rain infiltrates in soil. 8. Surface runoff ma%es its way into ri!ers and streams. 9. 1i!ers flow bac% into the ocean due to the force of gra!ity. :. The cycle starts all o!er again. The ;rocess in Hydrological Cycle



b. Condensation c. ;recipitation d. Surface runoff, e. interception f. Transpiration g. #nfiltration h. Sub,surface runoff i. Sublimation
!aporation !aporation is the process by which water is con!erted from its liquid form to its !apor form and thus transferred from land and water masses to the atmosphere. The rate of e!aporation depends upon( "ind speed( the higher the wind speed, the more e!aporation Temperature( the higher the temperature, the more e!aporation Humidity( the lower the humidity, the more e!aporation

Condensation The change of water from its gaseous form *water !apor+ into liquid *water+. Condensation generally occurs in the atmosphere when warm air raises, cools and looses its capacity to hold water !apor. As a result, e&cess water !apor condenses to form cloud droplets. ;recipitation 4/12

Hydrology ;recipitation can occur primarily as rain. Annual amounts of precipitation are unpredictable and !ariable, ranging from appro&imately /8<< mm to 7<<< mm in !arious locations in 2alaysia. #n essence, precipitation is the most important process in the hydrologic cycle because it is the =dri!ing force= pro!iding water that must be accommodated in the urban en!ironment. Surface runoff Sometimes referred to as o!erland flow, is the process whereby water mo!es from the ground surface to a waterway or water body. 'rbanisation usually dramatically increase surface runoff !olume and rates.

#nterception #nterception is the amount of precipitation that wets and adheres to abo!eground ob)ects *primarily !egetation+ until it is e!aporated bac% into the atmosphere. The annual amount of interception in a particular area is affected by factors such as the amount and type of precipitation, the e&tent and type of !egetation, and winds. #nterception is not li%ely to be an important process in urban stormwater management programs. Transpiration Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of lea!es, where it changes to !apor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially e!aporation of water from plant lea!es. Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water in liquid form from the unin)ured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water stomata. n!ironmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration /. >ight ;lants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dar%. This is largely because light stimulates the opening of the stomata *mechanism+. >ight also speeds up transpiration by warming the leaf. 5/12

Hydrology 0. Temperature ;lants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water e!aporates more rapidly as the temperature rises. At 6<?C, a leaf may transpire three times as fast as it does at 0<?C. 6. Humidity The rate of diffusion of any substance increases as the difference in concentration of the substances in the two regions increases."hen the surrounding air is dry, diffusion of water out of the leaf goes on more rapidly. 7. "ind "hen there is no bree@e, the air surrounding a leaf becomes increasingly humid thus reducing the rate of transpiration. "hen a bree@e is present, the humid air is carried away and replaced by drier air. 8. Soil water A plant cannot continue to transpire rapidly if its water loss is not made up by replacement from the soil. "hen absorption of water by the roots fails to %eep up with the rate of transpiration, loss of turgor occurs, and the stomata close. This immediately reduces the rate of transpiration *as well as of photosynthesis+. #f the loss of turgor e&tends to the rest of the leaf and stem, the plant wilts.

#nfiltration #nfiltration is defined as the passage of water through the air,soil interface. #nfiltration rates are affected by factors such as time since the rainfall e!ent started, soil porosity and permeability, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and presence of !egetation. #nfiltration is a !ery important process in urban stormwater management 6/12

Hydrology and, therefore, essentially all hydrologic methods e&plicitly account for infiltration. 'rbanisation usually decreases infiltration with a resulting increase in runoff !olume and discharge.

Sub,surface runoff. #nterflow, sometimes referred to as subsurface stormflow, is the process whereby water mo!es laterally beneath the land surface, but abo!e the groundwater table. #nterflow occurs until water enters a waterway or water body, or is e!apotranspired. #nterflow is affected by the same factors as those for surface runoff. #nterflow is rarely e&plicitly analyses3 it is usually considered part of the surface runoff. Surface runoff, interflow, and precipitation falling directly on water bodies are sometimes lumped together and called direct runoff. The ffect of Soils 'se Toward Hydrological Cycle. "hen de!elopment occurs, the resultant alterations to the land can lead to dramatics changes to the hydrology or the way water is transported and stored, #mper!ious man,made surfaces *asphalt, concrete, rooftops+ and compacted earth associated with de!elopment create a barrier to percolation of rainfall into the soil, increasing surface runoff and decreasing ground water infiltration.

Effects of Urbanization on Stor !ater "#inistr$ of En%iron ent& '(()*



If over 10% of a watershed is convered by impervious surfaces ,stream quality may be moderately impacted

Watersheds with over 25% impervious surfaces have severely impacted streams

Fi+,re 1-. / Re0ations1i2s bet!een i 2er%io,s co%er an3 s,rface r,noff


Hydrology This disruption of the natural water cycle leads to a number of changes, including( a+ #ncreased !olume and !elocity of runoff b+ #ncreased frequency and se!erity of flooding c+ ;ea% *storm+ flows many times greater than in natural basins d+ >oss of natural runoff storage capacity in !egetation, wetlands and soil e+ 1educed groundwater recharge f+ Decreased base flow *the ground water contribution to stream flow+. This can result in stream becoming intermittent or dry and also affects water temperature. The Hydrology Continuity quation In2,ts can include(

;recipitation , rain3 Aroundwater influ& from an ad)acent aquifer or a transboundary *trans,ri!er basin+ aquifer3 Snow melt3 and #nter,basin transfer ,*water transferred into the basin from an ad)acent ri!er basin+.

E4tractions include(

!aporation3 Transpiration3 &traction for consumpti!e use from streams and ri!ers , water for industrial or domestic use and irrigation3 &traction for consumpti!e use from groundwater aquifers3 and #nter,basin transfer *water transferred out of the basin to ad)acent ri!er basin+.

A simple approach to a water balance equation could be considered as *"anielista et al. /44:+( P 5 R 5 B 6 F 6 E 6T 7 8S Abbre!iations( 9/12

Hydrology ; B ;recipitation 1 B 1unoff or e&cess rainfall - B Subsurface flow . B #nfiltration B !apotranspiration T B Transpiration S B Change in storage in the saturated @one , soil or groundwater

#nflow C Dutflow #CD #CD P 9 DRO 9 E 9 T6G G P 9 " R 5 ET 5 G* &ample3 /+

B B B 7 7

Change in Storage dsEdt FS :S :S

Helantan=s ri!er catchment=s e&pected to accept rain as much as 68< mm from the beginning Dctober 0<<6 to December 0<<6. !aporation and infiltration respecti!ely was estimated at 68 mm and 08 mm in that time period. The catchments area was 4< %m0. There is a reser!oir in these catchments. stimate runoff !olume in m6 if le!el of reser!oir unchanged.

Solution ( Ai!en3 ; B 68< mm , B 68mm, # B 08mm , A B 4<%m0

Hydrology equation balance( #nflow C Dutflow dsEdt ;C* * # C D+ I # I D1D + D1D B B B B B Change in Storage Change in Storage < < 04< mm G <.04mm

68< C * 68 I 08 I D1D+



Jolume of direct runoff, D1D B

<.04m & B

* 4<%m0 & */<<<m +0 */%m+0


')-1 4 1()

&ercise( /+ #n 9 month period, Sungai >ui catchments were estimated will get rain as much as 68< mm. !aporation were estimated as much as /<< mm and infiltration to subsurface were estimated at the 7< mm. stimated the !olume of runoff in cubic meters *m6+ that will be storage in reser!oir if area for catchment was 58 %m0. Hydrology record for a catchment=s as wide as 8<< %m 0 show e&cess rainfall annual and a!erage the surface runoff annual respecti!ely was 4< cm and 66 cm. Dne reser!oir as wide /:<< %m0 had planned the construction in the outlet part of catchment area. The annual e!aporation a!erage to that reser!oir was e&pected as much as /8< mm. Determine storage !alues that occur in that reser!oir. #n a year, a wide rain catchment area is /<6 %m0 accept rain as much as /<<< mmE year. Annual discharge of the ri!er is /4 m 6Es. stimated e!apotranspiration to the catchment area. #n period three months, Hetereh district are e&pected to recei!e rain as much as 078 mm. e!apotranspiration were estimate as 5< mm and diffusion to sub surface as much as 0< mm. "ide of basin was 69 %m0. stimate ( C &cess rain depth C calculate direct runoff !olume #f direct runoff may be stored in a reser!oir, determine population of people which can accept water supply for now if per,capita daily utili@ability was 0<< liters. A storage pool has as much as water total sa!ing 0< & /< 6 m6, in times that been ta%en. "here discharge reading inflow and outflow is /< m 6E s and /8 m6E s. After an hour later flow reading in and out change to /8 m 6E s and /9 m6 E s. Calculate water reser!e change and water total sa!ing that new after / hours. A catchment area as wide as 0.8 %m 0 accepts rainfall intensity /<< mmE hour for 9 hours. 1un !olume of water that noted in this period is :0<,<<< m 6. Aet rate of water loss from rain 9 hours. 11/12







Hydrology Dne reser!oir 7<< hectare e&panse, produce e!aporation as much as 8< cm in 07 hours. &pansion due to hea!y rain into reser!oir was in !alue 98 m 6E s. Determine hectare,meter deep water=s !olume that seeping reser!oir policy on that day if unchanged water le!el. Catchment area in Huala Hrai has area /:0< %m 0. Annual a!erage rainfall data is 60<< mm. There are two ri!ers which flowed to that catchment area, namely Sungai Huala Kal and Sungai Hrai. Discharge from Sungai Huala Kal is 06m 6Es while data from Sungai Hrai not obtained. 1ecord that made to show loss result condensation process and bypass is /0L from a!erage annual rainfall. Calculate discharge !alue for Sungai Hrai.


1eferences /. http(EEwww.aboutci!il.comEuses,of,engineering,hydrology.html 0. http(EEmsmam.comEmsmamEchapter0ECh0, n!ironmental;rocesses.html 6. http(EEtechali!e.mtu.eduEmeecEmodule</E !aporationandTranspiration.htm 7. http(EEwww.poweredbymothernature.comEwhat,is,hydropower 8. http(EEwww.%unenera%.comEenEri!erEhydrologyEprinciplesIofIhydrologyEwaterIbala nce.asp&