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Over Six years of experience in Structure field, Design

Over Six years of experience in Structure field, Design different types of Structures Building, BIM Modeling with capability for efficient use of computerized software related to Structure field.

B.Sc., Civil Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt, 2005, M.Sc.In Reinforced Concrete, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University (on going).

Member of the Egyptian Syndicate of Engineers and Member of British institute of civil Engineers.

Structural and BIM Engineer at Dar al-Handasah Company , Approved technical instructor for Revit Structure .

Deputy Project Manager/technical manager of University To Work initiative at ECG, (This initiative aims to produce world class skilled students among Egyptian universities and qualified them by developing their technical and soft skills and molding their character to comply with market needs).


The future of the design and construction industry is going to be driven by the use of technology and for Today's challenges for the industry “Complex projects, tighter budgets and deadlines, Internal and external collaboration, Information overload and Project risks “. The best example emerging today is the use of three-dimensional, intelligent design information, commonly referred to as Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM is expected to drive the construction industry towards a “Model Based” process and gradually move the industry away from a “2D Based” process, This “Model Based” process where buildings will be built virtually before they get built out in the field is also referred to as Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). This guide is for contractors who recognize this future is coming and are looking for a way to start preparing themselves so that when the future arrives, they will be ready. This guide is intended to help contractors understand how to get started.

Definition of BIM

Unfortunately, there is currently no industry standard agreed

definition of BIM , the definition of

Graphisoft, which describes BIM as three separate but linked activities:

BIM is best described by

Building Information MODELLING

Is a business process that allows all stakeholders to have access to the same information at the same time through seamless interoperability between technology platforms.

Building Information MODEL

Is the output of the business process, a virtual computer model of a project that holds selected data (e.g. design, quantity, time, cost, asset etc).

Building Information MANAGEMENT

Provides the benefits that can be divided from The Building Information Model. These include centralized and visual communication, sustainability, efficient design integration of other disciplines, site control, as built documentation etc.

 The "I" in BIM is sometimes even more compelling in BIM, think about cost
 The "I" in BIM is sometimes even more compelling in BIM, think about cost

The "I" in BIM is sometimes even more compelling in BIM, think about cost estimating test, think about specification writing, think about energy load analysis, think about heating and cooling, think about structural loads, all this things require data, we have this data instead of manually computing all of this various things that we need to get a paper design, why not let the computer do while computer do best?, so this is what BIM is all about, again let's focus just in "M", let us also think about the "I" and if we have got the two together and fully coordinate the package in a way that Revit would give us, then what we have got is a fully implemented BIM solution Buildings are more complex than ever before. Documentation sets span all disciplines, and are hundreds of pages long. The numbers of people that will touch a set of drawingsto produce them, evaluate them, or use them to build the buildinghave become huge. Integrated building systems continue to expand with the growth of technology. Today, we have more security, electrical,

data, telecom, HVAC, and energy requirement than ever before.

data, telecom, HVAC, and energy requirement than ever before.  Building Information Modeling or “BIM” brings

Building Information Modeling or “BIM” brings with it many advantages for the digital design of buildings. Yet with BIM comes issues and risks that a design professional must consider. Enhanced usage of electronic design and construction processes holds promises for saving Time and money, reducing claims and increasing the quality of performance, especially on complex projects. One must consider and recognize however the individual risks associated with this new process. Building information modeling supports the

continuous and immediate availability of project design scope, schedule, and cost information that is high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated.

high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated.  A brief history of BIM 1970 BIM term

A brief history of BIM


BIM term first used


First version of AutoCAD released and Graphisoft



First version of AutoCAD for Windows released


Bentley founded

1987 First version of Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD released


Revit founded, First version of IFC released


Revit first released


Revit bought by Autodesk


Stage 0 – 2D Documents 0A Manual drafting 0B CAD 2D drafting Stage 1 –

Stage 0 2D Documents

0A Manual drafting 0B CAD 2D drafting

Stage 1 Modeling

1A 3D CAD modeling 1B intelligent 3D modeling

Stage 2 Collaboration

2A One-way collaboration 2B Two-way collaboration

Stage 3 Integration

3A Local server 3B Web-based server

Building Information Modeling Benefits:

 Building Information Modeling Benefits: Building information modeling supports the continuous and immediate

Building information modeling supports the continuous and immediate availability of project design scope, schedule, and cost information that is high quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated. Among the many competitive advantages it confers are:

Increased speed of delivery (time saved).


fully coordinated. Among the many competitive advantages it confers are:  Increased speed of delivery (time

Better coordination (fewer errors).

 Better coordination (fewer errors). Clash Detection enables effective identification, inspection, and reporting of

Clash Detection enables effective identification, inspection, and reporting of interference clash in a 3D project model between various 3D solid objects. Using Clash Detection can help you to reduce the risk of human error during model inspections.

Decreased costs (money saved)

Detection can help you to reduce the risk of human error during model inspections.  Decreased

BIM makes it easier to estimate quantities of materials needed for a project which reduces waste and saves money. Material waste in the construction industry has been studied by the Construction Industry Institute and Lean Construction Institute who have found that waste accounts for 57% of money lost in the construction industry and 26% in the manufacturing sector. This 2008 data shows that there was a $400 billion aggregate loss resulting from such factors as miscommunication among project partners and informational inaccuracies which BIM can catch and prevent.1 Thus the construction industry is starting to implement BIM and building owners as well can reap the benefits.

Greater productivity.

as well can reap the benefits.  Greater productivity. BIM assists to incorporate facility performance with

BIM assists to incorporate facility performance with user assessments. The results from user assessment studies

and instrument measures of the physical condition of the building can easily be allotted on floor plans utilizing geographic information systems. The construction firms may link these data to their geographic information systems for future planning and design purposes.

Higher-quality work.

planning and design purposes.  Higher-quality work . BIM provides object-oriented models with rich semantics and

BIM provides object-oriented models with rich semantics and relationships encoded, supporting the automated analysis of the performance of building products and designs. This basically leads to improved design, implementation and management at all stages of the building’s life cycle.

BIM afford manufacturers, designers and integrators advantages in design efficiency and quality control. A single, connected model improves communication within the design and construction teams and the parametric elements of the model create a robust database. The Building owner and facility manager can utilize the data within the model during the Occupation of the building. Harvesting the information in that database can help everyone be more efficient and also create new opportunities for revenue expansion.

in that database can help everyone be more efficient and also create new opportunities for revenue

Benefits to clients & contractors:

How can we persuade clients that BIM is worthwhile?

How can we persuade clients that BIM is worthwhile? BIM Benefits are :  improved design

BIM Benefits are :

improved design reliability

reduced design risk

reduced waste

enhanced co-ordination

fewer errors

improved decision making

greater productivity

better quality of output

supports sustainability

improved safety

quantity takeoffs

enhanced communication

effective resource utilization and co-ordination of activities

potential for downstream uses for facilities management

understanding of design intent

improved spatial co-ordination

improved client engagement

better visualizations

ability to provide software free walk rounds to others

more reliable and consistent schedules

ability to identify clash detections more easily

greater team ethic

improved environmental analysis earlier in the design

ability to export to other software to review

program against model less time documenting and more time designing

less surprises

better and more well considered designs

more time to get the design right

easier understanding for lay persons

better outputs including three dimensional


earlier problem resolution

better calculations at all stages of the project

improved delivery of client vision

creation of better environments

reduced litigation

ability to deliver more complex solutions in less time

forecasting for the whole life of the project

easier to carry out design reviews

What Technologies Can Be Used to Implement Building Information Modeling?

Although building information modeling is an approach and

not a technology, it does require suitable technology to be implemented effectively. Examples of some of these technologies, in increasing order of effectiveness, include


Object CAD

Parametric building modeling

The figure preceding shows the overall effectiveness or benefit level of each of these three

The figure preceding shows the overall effectiveness or benefit level of each of these three different technologies (vertical axis) measured against the effort required to achieve those benefits (horizontal axis). In addition, the horizontal dashed line represents the minimum degree of effectiveness that can be properly characterized as building information modeling. Below this building information modeling threshold are existing, traditional industry processes that are well- supported by traditional drafting and task automation. Above this line are increasing degrees of building information modeling effectiveness. The three solid lines show the effectiveness achievable at a given level of effort using these three different technologies.

CAD Technology

The gray line in the chart represents CAD-based software; that is, software that is based on the familiar geometry-based CAD technology used in the industry for several decades. This technology supports drafting automation very effectively and with little effortbetter than any other technology, in fact. However, to achieve increasing levels of efficiency, this technology requires greater and greater levels of effort. Higher levels of administrative and management overhead are introduced, layer and naming standards must be maintained and Enforced, and the quality of the information coming from the CAD-based files depends heavily on the discipline and reliability of the users entering the data. Very high levels of effort, including programming and partner product development, can achieve effectiveness in the building information modeling range. However, the level of effort required is so high that CAD-based technology is rarely used at this level.

Autodesk CAD Technology

AutoCAD® software is an example of a product based on CAD technology. With enough discipline and some programming effort, it can be used to deliver some of the benefits of building information modeling. Few examples of this kind of use exist, but certainly the third-party scheduling, facility management, cost estimating, structural design, and

similar applications that have been built on the AutoCAD platform are examples of building information modeling applied to specific slices of the building industry.

Object CAD Technology

The blue line on the chart represents software based on object CAD technology. Object CAD seeks to simulate building components in a CAD-based environment, focusing on the 3D geometry of the building, the generation of 2D documentation from that 3D geometry, and the extraction of object data from the building components to provide information about quantities and object properties. This technology has been applied in both multiple-file-based and single-file-based implementations, and is sometimes referred to as a “single building model” or some type of “virtual model.” This technology can be applied very effectively to help coordinate the various representations of the building in documentation, and because it carries rich data about the building in the object structure, it can also be extended into building information modeling. This technology is well-established in design and documentation software today, and all but one of the building information modeling implementations in the industry to date have been based on this technology. Object CAD technology also allows for great variety in levels of use, and because it is based on CAD, it can be particularly easy to implementand often yields immediate benefitswith little or no process change. However its effectiveness remains contingent on user discipline and reliability, and it cannot ensure the presence of

the high-quality, reliable, integrated, and fully coordinated information required for the highest levels of building information modeling benefits.

Autodesk Object CAD Technology

Autodesk® Architectural Desktop and Autodesk® Building Systems are examples of software built on object CAD technology, adding intelligent architectural and engineering objects to the familiar AutoCAD platform. These products can be used to deliver building information modeling benefits with significantly less effort than AutoCAD. Since they are built on AutoCAD, however, they can also be used very productively as design and documentation tools for CAD- based processes unrelated to building information modeling, and that is how many of our customers use them.

Parametric Building Modeling Technology

The orange line on the chart represents parametric building modeling technology. Parametric building modeling is analogous to the decision support systems used in the financial community. These systems combine a data model (geometry and data) with a behavioral model (change management) that gives meaning to the data through relationships. This provides an integrated system that can be used to simulate the behavior of a real-world systemin this case, a building. Examples of the most advanced features of this kind of system are real-time self-coordination of the information in every view, and the assurance of the quality of

the information coming from the system. Some other important characteristics of software based on parametric building modeling technology include:

• Information about the entire building and a complete set of

design documents are stored in an integrated database. All of the information is parametric and therefore completely


• Any change to the relationships among objects is always

instantly reflected throughout the rest of the projectin all representations of the project.

• All relationships within the model are available for user definitionnot just relationships (such as a window hosted by

a wall) that have been preprogrammed by the developers. This includes graphical definition by the end user of

parametric objects. Just as a spreadsheet is a tool for thinking about numbers, software built on parametric building modeling technology is a tool for thinking about buildings. And just as a change made anywhere in a spreadsheet is expected to update everywhere with no further intervention from the user, so a change made anywhere in a parametric building modeler is immediately reflected everywhere. Current file-based CAD and object CAD tools may be used to some degree to support building information modeling, but require myriad supporting technologies and the aggregation of information across diverse, independent applications. Only

a purpose-built integrated data architecture built around a

parametric building model can provide the immediate and fully coordinated representation of a project across all views,

drawing sheets and schedules that is necessary to eliminate errors and provide clarity and confidence in decision making. Autodesk offers products based on all three building design and documentation technologies, and fully understands the pros and cons of each. As shown on the chart, parametric building modeling technology is uniquely suited to supporting the highest level of building information modeling effectiveness at the lowest level of effort. Parametric building modeling uniquely offers the concurrent and immediate availability of all of the important information about the building that results in higher quality work, greater speed and productivity, and decreased costs. However, as also shown on the chart, this technology requires the wholesale adoption of building information modeling to put it to use. There is no way to use this technology in a traditional, non-building information modeling environment. Using this technology can deliver tremendous business benefits, but doing so requires a departure from traditional ways of working. Moving from CAD-based technology to object CAD technology can be an incremental or evolutionary change, but moving to parametric building modeling technology for building information modeling requires a new way of working.

Autodesk Parametric Building Modeling Technology

Autodesk® Revit® software is an example of parametric building technology. It is purpose built for building industry professionals ready for a new way of working and the correspondingly high level of building information modeling benefits that go with it. Unlike the evolutionary path of Autodesk Architectural Desktop, Revit is inherently a building information modeler, and there is no effective way to use Revit in any other way. It delivers only a fully integrated, self-coordinating building information model. Because the building industry relies heavily on graphical information, some aspects of these three technologies appear similar at the presentation level. All of them capably represent building plans, sections, and elevations for example. But the underlying capabilities are Entirely different, in the same way that the presentation of data on an interactive report form driven by a database can look similar to a word-processing document .What is driving each presentation, however, is fundamentally different.

The Power of BIM

Parametric Change Management

The Parametric flexibility offered in Revit is compelling. During the design process, Revit Architecture’s parametric change management automatically keep the architectural 2D drawings updated with the integral 3D model, resulting in early phase collision detection and generating high-quality, photo-realistic design visualizations.

3D Environment

3D models provide far more effective communication of design intent than 2D apps. Unlike 2D application, 3D model provides high resolution view. When you encounter a design conflict that requires complex resolution, you can zoom the critical parts including facade, joint sections, supporting structure, etc. and have a closer look all around.

Compatibility of File Import-export

Revit can import, export and link varied types of files

including DWG, DGN, etc.

Automated 2D Floor Planning Tools

Floor planning is the pivotal component in a construction document set. Revit's smart building components and 3D symbol expedite floor planning and schedules. A typical CAD program can't match the quality and speed of Revit's floor planning tools.

Automatic Sheet Set Management

Revit automatically scales dimensions, text, annotation tags, line types and hatch patterns based on the viewport's scale. As sections, elevations, details are placed on a sheet they are automatically numbered and their reference labels are updated in the plans, sections or elevations that reference them.

Optimization of Schedule and Cost

Once the developer obtains a Bill of Quantities (BOQ) either using quantity takeoff or from a standard library, Revit enables them to prepare accurate project estimates with a detailed rate analysis process, manage tenders, administer the contract, manage formal change orders, conduct field inspections and finally closely track construction to determine whether it is on schedule and adheres to budgets.

Building Information Modeling or BIM creates flawless integration between design, engineering, analysis, construction, and operations for the complete lifecycle of facilities. Architects and Designers get unrestricted freedom to discover more design options for producing more improved & informed design decisions, and to forecast costs and performance. With the help of BIM technology the computer tells the designer when he has placed a wall in the middle of a window as the pieces used to assemble the building model- the floors, walls, roofs, doors, windows, and other components-have been programmed to "know" what they are. BIM can be used to express the quantity of the building materials and their costs after the final design is completed. BIM can mechanically coordinate all design and construction documents and this leads to eliminate errors and omissions. The architectural and AE firms are well positioned to deliver better buildings in scheduled time and within budget to get more revenue. The architects can visualize complex derivatives and geometry of entire scheme as BIM creates complex and integrated models easily. BIM, maintains co- ordination and consistency all through the design development phase and any alteration within the project will consequence updating of related drawings and documents. All Meta data (non-geometric information) like list of materials used, Bill of quantities, doors and windows

schedule , etc, are automatically generated from a BIM model. These Meta data are utilized directly for reports devoid of cross-verification. Engineering firm utilize BIM to analyze late changes smoothly and rapidly return the data to the architect for examination.

BIM can easily explore & examine all the structural design alternatives with flexible interdisciplinary coordination. The structural engineers can easily accommodate with a late change and reduce the disruption of frequent or late changes in the project. Building information model provides the functional relationships among building elements and systems that range from walls, beams, ducts, pipes, distribution panels etc.

By applying BIM in their project structural professionals can coordinate design intent, structural performance and execution and build high performance building. BIM with its parametric change management eliminates errors and at the same time automate the communication of changes between the partners in the AEC process. A change occurred to any parameter or element in the design is immediately replicated in every representation of that element in the design along with the right technology, bi-lateral links with obtainable

specialized tools for analysis. Any other parameters that are linked to the change are also changed suitably. This result in improving quality as not engineers can rely on the results as well as design team partners also count on the information supplied to them to be the best possible quality.

BIM models can be utilized for multiple third-party analysis and this will lead to greater gains in documentation, drawing production and co-ordination, and integration of design changes.

The structural engineers can save a huge time over a 2D workflow as BIM can automate and coordinate the formation of construction documentation across a project. The construction documentation can be customized without any difficulty allowing for incorporation of standards.

BIM creates virtual structural model which can be applied for coordination with architects, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineers, and civil engineers. That same digital model is incorporated with analysis, design, and construction documentation, and is utilized as the basis for digital design- to-fabrication strategies and construction. With BIM, structural engineers are able to track material quantities and search design options that leads to a more sustainable design.

BIM empower structural engineers to examine building design options for long term application and future flexibility,

maximizing design competence and minimizing waste and overall embodied energy. BIM generates rich intelligent information that can be utilized for simulation and analysis. This facilitates structural engineers to provide informed decisions and optimize the structure for stability, flexibility and long term use.

Creation of Virtual Intelligent 3D Model

We generate 3D Model which proficiently and flawlessly unites the geographic information, 3D geometry, spatial relationships and characteristics for demonstration of HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing layout and connections inside the buildings.


We show the scheduling of various activities of HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing services along with their criticality and slack periods. Most design parameters for MEP systems are available for scheduling. Create multiple types of customized schedules (for example, lighting schedules, and mechanical and electrical equipment schedules) that are linked to your BIM Models Systems model.

Mechanical HVAC Space Design

Create room color-fill plans by using design parameters to communicate design intent. Visually to quickly facilitate design reviews and present your design criteria to clients for review and validation.

Mechanical Duct and Pipe System Modeling

Mechanical functionality offers 3D modeling for ductwork and piping to create HVAC systems. Intuitive layout tools make 3D modeling fast and easy for even the first-time user to master. Easily modify the model by dragging design elements to move or change them on the screen, in almost any view. All model views and sheets update automatically whenever a change is made anywhere for accurate and coordinated designs and documents at all times.

Plumbing System Modeling

Gain full 3D parametric modeling of plumbing system layout with BIM Models MEP. The software automatically places all risers and drops as you design your plumbing system. Intuitive layout tools make 3D modeling fast and easy. Modify your design by simply dragging design elements to move or change them on the screen, in almost any view. All model views and sheets update automatically whenever a change is made in any view for accurate and coordinated designs and documents at all times.

Sloped Pipe and Invert Elevations

Model sloped piping for all plumbing systems according to industry code. Simply define the rise over run and lay out your plumbing design.

Electrical Panel Schedules

Automatically create panel schedules as you lay out your design. Balance the loads or change circuits for a device directly through the panel schedule. Easily edit the panel circuits through a built-in panel circuit editor.

Interference Checking

Use this tool during the design process to coordinate major building elements and systems, helping to prevent collisions between elements and reducing the risk of construction cost overruns.

Clash Detection and Risk Mitigation

While starting construction work internal conflicts between various components is occurred. In order to resolve and eliminate these we offer cost effective design coordination by performing clash detection between various components and activities before starting of construction activities. Hence, this serves as a very effective tool for Risk Mitigation of construction activities.

Construction Documentation

We can easily extract HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing 2D drawings of high quality from the 3D Model. Automatically generate plan, section, elevation, detail, and schedule views that accurately capture the design information in your design model. All views of the model are synchronized at all times from a common database where changes made to any one view propagate to all views simultaneously. Coordination is managed by change propagation within the model.

Parametric Components

Parametric components are the basis for all building components designed in BIM Models MEP. They offer an open, graphical system for design thinking as well as an opportunity to express design intent at increasingly detailed levels. Use parametric components for even the most elaborate assemblies for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering systems. Best of all, no programming language or coding is required.

Extraction of Project Information

We remove Material Specifications and Quantities, Time schedules showing the sequence of activities, Cost Estimation and Area charts to make easy Building Lifecycle management.

Creation of Libraries

We have expertise in creating Intelligent Libraries may be called as parametric families of various MEP components of Building. They contain a centralized library of components such as ducts, electrical symbols, piping etc as per the design and specifications provided which can be used across many projects.

Energy Simulation

We give assistance for analyzing design alternatives to improve the energy efficiency without effecting the cost effectiveness and thermal comfort of the buildings. We also help in evaluating the lighting effects visually and quantitatively for any given design. We can specify the lighting intensity.

High Quality Construction Documents

We are capable of easily take out high quality HVAC, Electrical and Plumbing 2D drawings from the 3D Model.

With its 3D modeling capabilities, BIM streamlines the HVAC building design and delivery process for HVAC / Mechanical Contractor. BIM generates a complete set of high quality detail, shop, coordination or as-built drawings of a complete HVAC model. The shop drawing is utilized for heating system design, cooling system design and ventilation system design. The shop drawings are very useful for operating a well-organized project from starting with the submittal drawings to the project closeout documents. As BIM generates of parametric, or intelligent, 3D models and any change made to the model is reflected all through the entire drawing. BIM shop drawing can be imported into Navisworks for collision detection with HVAC trade. There are various types of BIM software like AutoCAD MEP, AutoCAD Revit MEP, PractiCAD, CADPipe HVAC and AutoCAD, CAD Duct etc. useful for generating shop drawings for HVAC and MEP trade.

BIM For Electrical

BIM is applied as a common documentation storehouse for electrical trade that can coordinate electrical trades, develop prefabrication openings, reduce rework, raise productivity, decrease labor costs, and get better consistency of the work product.

BIM will integrate all the electrical parts in a single respiratory model for efficient electrical building design. The complete

building model along with mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems, will be transferred to an integrated database in which everything is interrelated. This database presents authentic, coordinated and consistent design information and documentation that differentiates BIM. As for illustration an electrical engineer prefers to observe the architectural workset frequently but clasp the perceptibility of the structural workset on or off to go with the design requirements. Application of BIM for electrical project can improve constructability and speed up the schedule, save time and money for the owner including the project team. BIM creates a collaborative environment among the team members. The general contractor (GC) will be involved in designing and executing the BIM execution plan to find out what will be modeled and at what level of detail. It will help to generate effective electrical coordination. BIM mechanically coordinates all design documentation. Electrical documentation, for example, electrical plans and panel schedules become reliable as all the drawing sheets, views, schedules, reports and so forth are existing in the same underlying database. BIM generates a virtual model of all the electrical systems in 3D and allocate that information with the whole project team. The drawings, specifications, and construction details are integral to the model, which includes building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantity properties of building components. Therefore, any design issues/construction clashes among the electrical trade can be identified, manipulated, analyzed and resolved in a virtual surroundings well before the commencement of the actual construction. BIM offers data-

centric approach with a comprehensive view of the building model and systems. The electrical engineer can evaluate the electrical requirements on mechanical equipment contained in the design and apply BIM to mechanically configure voltage and power load requirements to dynamically revise in panel schedules and mechanical equipment specifications. The intelligent property database corresponds to the “I” in BIM can be dug out from the model to schedule and annotate the drawings for the application of electrical engineering, take-off, and prefabrication. As for instance, by utilizing intelligent property data to conduit and parts, the electrical engineer is able to instantly execute a take-off of the conduit to verify the number of linear feet or quantity of hangers. The method drags live data from the actual model components in the drawing by annotating all of the conduit elevations. BIM

creates realistic lighting visualizations for electrical engineers

to study lighting levels and design directly in the system. BIM

creates electrical system modeling with electrical devices and

equipment such as lighting fixtures, transformers, generators,

panel boxes, etc. Electrical engineers will be in a position to model the power and lighting circuitry of the building spaces. At the time of electrical system modeling, the electrical engineers arrange the light fixtures, power devices and equipment in the model and then forms a circuit connected to

a distribution panel. The electrical engineers can easily

characterizes wire types, voltage ranges, distribution systems and demand factors to guarantee the compatibility of

electrical connections in the design and check for overloads and mismatched voltages. Electrical circuit model generated from BIM facilitate electrical engineers to work out the

estimated demand loads on feeders and panels. These loads are being utilized to effectively size equipment in the design environment. Load balancing becomes simple while managing circuits. BIM Systems can estimate lighting levels in rooms mechanically depending on the lights set in the space. The electrical engineer can just describe the reflectivity values of the room surfaces, connect industry-standard IES data files to lighting, describe the calculation work plane height and the average estimated illumination value for the room will be automatically calculated. The electrical engineers may keep calculated illumination in a report for the purpose of the design document.

What is Revit ?

Revit is Building Information Modeling software developed by Autodesk. It allows the user to design with both parametric 3D modeling and 2D drafting elements. Building Information Modeling is a Computer Aided Design (CAD) paradigm that employs intelligent 3D objects to represent real physical building components such as walls and doors. In addition, Revit's database for a project can contain information about a project at various stages in the building's lifecycle, from concept to construction to decommissioning. This is sometimes called 4D CAD where time is the fourth dimension.

Why Should You Revit Your Firm?

“Revit allows for a higher degree of collaboration and communication, and vastly improves a team's ability to be better coordinated”, "The in-built flexible features and parametric facilities in Revit offer the project team greater agility and help them make informed decisions, synchronized design, and accurate construction documents. A successful BIM implementation results in well-managed, accurate quantities, change management (automatic changes), earlier visualization, detection of potential spatial conflict before construction, better project planning using 4D and 5D techniques, improved energy analysis and collaboration with different project disciplines.

Parametric Family

Revit is the best 3D Parametric Modeling Software. The parametric components carry information about their relationships to other objects in the building in contrast to the blocks and solids used in AutoCAD. AutoCAD dimensions only display the distance between two entities. But in case of Revit, when the dimension value is changed the objects associated to the dimension are moved.

Revit Family vs. AutoCAD Block

AutoCAD enables users to store symbols as blocks in individual DWG files. Revit stores similar parametric components with varied styles in family, allowing quick organization and data sharing.

Work-sharing of Projects

Revit allows multiple users to work on the same project file and merge their changes with every save.

Access to Single File

AutoCAD enables designers to store and retrieve project data from multiple files. In case of Revit, all project data is stored in the single environment (Revit project file).

Multiple Design View

Autodesk Revit makes extensive use of various views of the parametric building model. Autodesk Revit allows the designer to work with components in any view, be it plan, elevation, section, perspective or from within a schedule

No Command Line or Layers

Unlike AutoCAD’s Freeze/Thaw/On/Off by view point feature, Revit has the Category Visibility features. Even color and line type are also controlled by category.







Building Performance

Applying Revit to designing a building can deliver a plethora of economic, environmental, and societal benefits that go far beyond the advantages of AutoCAD. Revit Architecture has many benefits over AutoCAD:


Identify Ways to Reduce Field Cycle Time


Greater Coordination and Collaboration


Short Turn Around Time (TAT)


Waste Minimization


Increase on-site Renewable Opportunities


Detects Errors and Mitigate Risks


Increase the public's confidence in Stewardship

o Increase Employee Productivity

o Increase Employee Productivity 42
o Increase Employee Productivity 42

Early Collaboration

BIM fosters collaboration in the early phases of a project between team members through the use of consistent and more complete information more effectively than do traditional approaches. This allows design decisions to be made that optimize the whole building at a stage when they are far less expensive to analyze, rather than the traditional approach of optimizing individual components. This should minimize the need to make changes later in the design or during the construction process when even small changes can have enormous effects on both the construction cost and life- cycle cost of the building. Figure 1 illustrates this concept.

enormous effects on both the construction cost and life- cycle cost of the building. Figure 1

The building process

 The building process 44
 The building process 44

It is built based on information coming from the documented information exchanges that naturally occur as a facility evolves through time…

that naturally occur as a facility evolves through time… That there is an information backbone that

That there is an information backbone that allows information to be collected once and reused many times because it is interoperable.

In the end you don’t just end up with a facility, you end up with

In the end you don’t just end up with a facility, you end up with a completely documented facility. It is not unlike getting software with documentation or a car with an owners repair manual.

Considerations and Limitations of BIM

BIM has the potential to improve the communication and coordination between the different stakeholders of a project. BIM’s benefits range from simple improvements in efficiency and coordination to greater client satisfaction. With all of the perceived benefits of BIM, AV professionals should also be aware that there are a number of considerations and current limitations that must be taken into account.

Cost of Software and Hardware

Every organization currently utilizing 2D or 3D CAD drafting software can attribute a cost element against purchasing, maintaining and upgrading software licenses to keep a competitive market advantage. Current trends show that the cost of BIM software packages tends to be more expensive than CAD software packages available on the market. With the introduction of BIM software, the requirements on hardware have increased significantly. Currently, CAD software can be operated (with limitations) on a vast majority of professional laptops. Yet with the introduction of BIM software, dedicated high-specification workstations, equivalent to those required by advanced modeling and rendering software, are required. Software and program requirements are ahead of hardware availability. With BIM software, it is essential to know exactly what parameters of the hardware improve performance and what elements have no major effect at all. More details on the hardware requirements for BIM software may be found in the Getting Started section.

Cost of Training

With new software, there is a great demand to train staff quickly so that the investment can be justified. It is not realistic to assume professionals with CAD proficiency will be able to learn new BIM software quickly or without specialized training. Given the fundamental differences between BIM and

CAD, training should be considered a requirement for all professionals involved with designing and producing documentation. BIM provides the ability for every member of the team to be involved in the design and modeling process, giving them complete control of the end product. Investment in training for early adopters provides them a competitive edge with projects that have clearly specified requirements to be documented utilizing BIM.

Transition from Drafting to Modeling

When moving from a CAD-based drafting environment to a BIM-based modeling environment, a change in the workflow will surround what used to be simple drafting tasks such as copying markups or picking up redlines. These tasks now require a higher-level skilled design drafter who has an understanding of the project and the materials used. The costs associated with training and maintaining a skilled design modeler are higher than a draftsman with no knowledge of the trade. Some companies may even be compelled to stay out of the BIM world altogether due to the time- and knowledge- intensive nature of BIM. The transition from traditional CAD will also place an increased level of responsibility on the designer to ensure that all system components are coordinated with the other design professionals such as architecture and engineering services and that site issues are reduced to a minimum. Companies have a few different business models to consider when thinking about staff training with respect to BIM.

The first option involves the training of current

designers to undertake all of their design work in the

BIM environment.

The second involves up-skilling all of their drafting staff

to a higher technical level to undertake design


The third is a combination of the first two where there is

a specific set of rules and guidelines for mark-ups so

that design mark-ups can be translated into the model

clearly and efficiently. In any case, the BIM process

allows for coordinated delivery earlier in the design

process so that potential double handling or redesign is

avoided. This benefit outweighs the cost of any

additional training to up-skill staff no matter what

business model for the delivery of BIM projects.

Compatibility Between Software Platforms

One of the biggest issues with early adaptors of BIM is the issue of inter-product compatibility. Due to the relatively new nature of the market, every software manufacturer is doing something different with its software. This interoperability challenge can make it difficult for projects to function if

different team members own different software packages. This interoperability issue is not limited to different software platforms; due to the rapid development of the BIM software industry newer versions of programs within the same platform can have interoperability issues. One alternative to the current product-specific models is a vendor-independent, neutral-file format. One such file format is the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format which captures both geometry and properties of intelligent building objects (objects with associated usable metadata) and their relationships within Building Information Models, thus facilitating the sharing of information across otherwise incompatible applications.

Changes to the Delivery Process

The delivery process is the method by which a project is taken from initial, conceptual programming, through design and construction to the delivery of a completed facility to the owner. Prior to the introduction of BIM for design and documentation, traditional project delivery methods such as Design-Bid-Build (also called Design-Award-Build) dominated the construction industry. While these traditional methods are still very much in use, there has been a strong movement toward more streamlined processes to reduce construction times and enhance collaboration of team

members. The Design-Build delivery method is one example of this streamlining. By taking the competitive bid phase out of the middle of the delivery process and placing the entire design contract under the scope of the general contractor, there is no longer a procedural or contractual separation between the design and construction of the project. The owner only has to carry one contract for both design and construction services. This allows for the construction to begin well in advance of the completion of all design documentation as the design documentation is produced in concert with the construction almost on an as-needed basis. While the Design- Build methodology is perhaps more efficient than Design-Bid- Build, these “traditional” methods both share some fundamental flaws which the newest delivery method, Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), is capable of eliminating. Because IPD is so new there is no official definition, however the California chapter of the AIA offers this working definition:

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to reduce waste and optimize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication and construction. Integrated Project Delivery principles can be applied to a variety of contractual arrangements and Integrated Project Delivery teams will usually include

members well beyond the basic triad of owner, architect and contractor. At a minimum, though, an Integrated Project includes tight collaboration between the owner, the architect, and the general contractor ultimately responsible for construction of the project, from early design through project handover.

of the project, from early design through project handover. While IPD is seen as the possible

While IPD is seen as the possible future of project delivery that is being fueled by BIM, it is still the exception and not the rule. Before IPD becomes commonplace on all projects, a transitional period will ensue during which delivery requirements will begin to change as well as the relationships and expectations of the owner, designer, integrator and

manufacturer. Owners will become more involved in all aspects of the project simply because the model will provide them immediate and vast information. Rather than having to try to interpret a stack of 2D plans, owners now have access to an immense amount of information which can be formatted to meet their needs. This includes virtual walkthroughs, detailed equipment lists and accurate cost estimates. BIM allows for the building to be built in a virtual environment before being actually built. With this change, designers will become more involved in decisions which might previously have been considered “means and methods” and left to the contractor to figure out during the installation. Some examples include more detailed routing of infrastructure and placing devices in their exact location. BIM acts as a central database for the project and as such it is regularly evolving. Due to this constant state of flux, expectations must be set and agreed to among team members regarding the expected level of completion at various points during the project. Most projects consist of multiple models which are linked together. These models are typically exchanged between team members on a regular schedule whether it be weekly or daily. These exchanges are independent of the major scheduled deliverables of the project such as 50% Design Development or 90% Construction Documents. When these models are shared, they are usually not in a completed state; therefore, there must be an understanding between parties about the

level of completion and coordination expected for model exchanges between the deliverables established by contract. The entire project team will have increased communication and will begin to work as one entity rather than separate team members who only exchange documents at predetermined milestones. The model will become a consolidated design document which evolves on a constant basis during design, through construction and into the management of the facility. This consolidation requires a tighter and more constant information exchange which sometimes takes place via co- locating of team members either physically or virtually. In contrast to traditional CAD-based design, BIM is a front- loaded process with substantial benefits reaped toward the end of the process which consist of manipulation of the database’s data points. It should be noted that this requires substantial effort up front to not only put information into the database but to also collect more data from the very start. If the data is not available at a given time, there should be an effort made to analyze what data might or will be required so that the correct pigeon hole can be created in the database from the very beginning. The model is only as good as the data set that goes in. Traditional delivery methods invoke inefficiencies because participants are contractually placed into silos of scope. These silos have a two-fold detriment to the efficiency of a project. First, when any knowledge needs to transfer from one team member to another, such as from the

design team to the contractor, there is inefficiency created when the contractor has to take the time to get up to speed on the design documents to be able to move forward with the scope of work. Secondly, a team member’s success is only tied to the success of the individual silo rather than the overall success of the project.


4D BIM Modeling: A New Perspective in the AEC Industry

1910! A solid 102 years to the present, Henry Laurence Gantt, an American mechanical engineer designed a chart popularly called Gantt chart, named after him, to monitor progress of the project against time constraint. It has long been a popular technique for project planning. But it lacks something to be desired when it comes to visualizing a project timeline. 4D model is the solution to it. 4D model is a 3D CAD model attached to the fourth dimension of time via a schedule. Though the concept of 4D scheduling has been around over 20 years, it has not been popular due to some technical challenges associated with it. The continuous advancement in technology and the emergence of Building Information Modeling (BIM) have removed all challenges associated with 4D scheduling. With the increasing success of BIM in the realm of designs, the adoption of 4D modeling is becoming the norm today. Rich with information, BIM modeling services deliver architects a wealth of design-centric tasks and home builders a number of significant benefits including increased coordination, constructability analysis, BOQ, quantification, and cost estimation and so on. One of the most important developments in building applications for BIM is the project planning where design and construction come together. At the core of a project planning, there lies building

design, the backbone of a project planning. 4D scheduling plays an important role in project planning. It includes vital data such as start and finish date of each component and their criticality. 4D model delivers minute details to the project team. It works as a platform for project team and other non- technical stakeholders to visualize the assembling of a building over time. With 4D construction simulation process, architects can evaluate various options and choose the best alternative at project design phase.









4D model is a further development over 3D model. It challenges and changes many of the practices of conventional scheduling. Some of the significant considerations are as follows:

Visualization of the Project: 4D model enables the scheduler to view the entire construction site in a nutshell. The scheduler is able to move around, look outside, inside and under the building and verify the progress of project. It helps the scheduler to detect inconsistency and avoid visual incongruities in the representation. Better Integration and Cost Estimation: Integrating human resources, equipment and material resources with the BIM model, 4D scheduling helps to better schedule and cost estimate of the project. 4D BIM also monitors procurement status of project materials.

Conflict Detection and Resolution: During design and construction phase, potential spatial conflicts may arise between building components. It is not easy to identify or predict these conflicts using 2D or 3D layouts. But, 4D model identifies various issues related to space, schedule and sequencing, and resolve them ahead of the construction process. Improved Time Management: Integrated with BIM modeling, 4D scheduling helps the owner as well as project team to easily visualize time constraints and opportunities of improvement and investment in the project. Maximization of Critical Resources: 4D model allows the project team to evaluate various alternatives resources and scopes of work over a period of time to optimize the resources and labor accordingly.

4D Project Planning with BIM

By adding the schedule date to the model components, project team improves the plan and integrates the communication among various divisions. With the progress of time, project team programmatically links schedule to BIM model to evaluate various construction options to make the optimum decision. There are two methods for linking a BIM model to a project plan-

1. Direct link between Revit and MS project, and

2. Exporting a Revit BIM and displaying it in 4D

First Method: Direct Link between Revit and MS Project.

Autodesk has developed a software tool which establishes a bidirectional link between Revit and MS project to track the progress of the project against pre-set deadline. The particular software tool contains a new Revit function called Export to MS Project which exports presorted (by level and category) building components to a MS Project and keeps the project update for quick scheduling. Similarly, another Revit function categorized as Import from MS Project, imports the attributes of affected Revit components with start and finish dates to keep BIM (a Revit platform) up to date. Thus, changes are incorporated and updated in either way. Project team member can view the planning information in Revit and can show it to the concerned home owners or building developers or stakeholders. With the help of Revit, users can view the progress of the project against time line set previously and what are the buildings components are scheduled in the coming months. This information helps the project team to analyze whether there are any lackadaisical responses. Each building block can be assigned to a phase and updated from the MS project automatically. Users can view the progress of a particular building component or all components in all phases as desired. The progress of a component is passed to MS

Project during the Export to MS Project process, and the BIM becomes updated during Import from MS Project.

Second Method: 4D Visualization


has developed a 4D

planning and constructability analysis tool called Visual Simulation 3.0 which integrates Revit/BIM with the MS Project and presents 4D visualizations of the building objects. With the Revit API function, it exports the Revit model to the Innovaya file format. The model later is imported into Visual Simulation. The tool includes a standard 3D/4D environment for both standard model navigation as well as 4D visualization. With Revit, project planning is developed and construction tasks based on building hierarchy are created in Visual Simulation. These tasks are automatically linked with the BIM objects. As the project progresses and the need for a detailed project planning is felt, the tool establishes a link to MS Project with import, export and synchronize functions. When a project plan is established, users can visually link model objects and scheduling tasks, thus optimizing task sequences and resulting in project time savings. Users can play what-if scenarios in traditional Gantt chart and view the ripple effect in the 4D model. Thus, 4D environment compactly featured with a variety of time/schedule filters 4D












environment allows users to visually associate building model objects and tasks.

Innovaya has developed another tool called Visual Estimating 9.4 - the BIM-based estimating solution to integrate AutoCAD and all Revit applications with MC2 ICE and Sage Timberline Estimating.

estimating solution to integrate AutoCAD and all Revit applications with MC2 ICE and Sage Timberline Estimating.

5D Modeling

A fifth dimension is introduced when the concept of cost over time is added to the 4D model. 5D allows you to explore what the budget/estimated cost of a project might be at any given point in time during the project.

Clients are interested in workflow and how it can help in completing a project successfully. Many presentations use the model as a technical tool to "wow" the client. That's not enough anymore. With 5D BIM your firm can demonstrate the integrated workflow during the interview that will illustrate the approach to the project much more transparently. Your team can "talk to the model" and communicate to the client the schedule and opportunities for saving the client money.

Plan - Pricing and Schedule

Price - the lowest reasonable price by a qualified GC is often the strongest factor. But Owners are getting wise and identify contractors who lowbid with the intention of using change orders to recover. With conceptual estimates, GCs hone in on a true cost based on quantities, locations, and past subcontractor efficiency rates. And it's exactly this formula (quantities, locations, production rates), that lead to better subcontractor negotiations. Subcontractors can be more accurate when bidding if the GC is willing to share model data with them. This allows the subcontractor to reduce their

contingency and thus reduce their overall price. And when subcontractors work together with the GC to resolve constructability issues during virtual construction, instead of onsite, there's less need for contingency. This leads directly to increased efficiency in labor production. With more efficient schedules and better logistics, there's no need for stops and starts and last minute rush towards completion. And when your firm applies production control, you are able to track the target cost versus the actual cost much more frequently. This identifies budget overruns early and encourages a thoughtful resolution.


The fastest reliable schedule is often the second most important factor in a bid. And in some cases, it is the most critical factor. But GCs can have difficulty explaining their schedules to a layperson, especially if they can't express it in an easytounderstand graphical presentation.

There are many benefits to utilizing a 4D schedule in a bid. The combination of flow line theory and production control allows a smaller, more efficient team to stream through the site. And with more accurate planning, GCs can remove the typical stops and starts that simply waste labor.


Team - Owners know that a topnotch team will deliver the best results. They look specifically for teams they want to work with - a team who communicates well and is trustworthy. Owners can quickly identify a poorly-structured or overlycomplicated presentation. They need to hear that a proposal is feasible and can be delivered as stated.

With a 5D BIM model driving your presentation, team members are able to more clearly illustrate the key points in the language that a layperson will understand. Even more compelling, though, is the ability to show the Owner exactly what is meant. Showing a 5D model to an Owner follows the old adage, "a picture is worth a thousand words."

In the words of a Northeast GC, "The 5D model made it possible to take what I saw so clearly in my head and let the Owner see it, too. This is one of the first benefits of BIM."


Owners need to understand how the project will be planned and managed. This is so much easier to express with a 5D model, especially when the Owner is a layperson. Too often, construction companies try to communicate the building methodology with nonintegrated, a nonvisual technique, which only muddies the water.


6D Facilities & Asset Management

Reliable, Real-time Facilities Data all in One Location

The Space Management Module of FM Interact is a comprehensive system for centralizing and storing real-time information about the buildings and space you manage along with the groups and people that occupy them. Instead of walking the hallways and floors to double check your data or see where people sit, you can work with departmental liaisons to keep your space and occupancy data accurate and up-to- date. The CAD and BIM integration features take spatial information directly from drawings or BIM models so you always have real-time data. And because FM: Interact easily integrates with other systems already in use in your organization, such as your HR database, occupancy information is quickly updated too. This dramatically reduces the efforts needed to manually pull it from spreadsheets while

greatly increasing data accuracy. The FM: Interact floor plan viewer makes it easy to view and share this information in a Web-browser, enabling you to get an overall look into your entire portfolio and giving access to critical facilities data enterprise-wide. So the next time your executive team needs space and occupancy reports for a meeting in ten minutes you have all the tools you need right in front of you to get it to them.

Information typically tracked with the Space Management Module includes:

o Gross, rentable, usable, and assignable areas by space, floor, building and site


Space types


Space standards


Building codes


Building addresses


Employee contact and location information

Having access to real-time facts and figures about your facilities enables you to compare floors and buildings by key metrics, find space inefficiencies and confidently make critical portfolio decisions. Centralizing the information makes it easy to maintain with quick access for everyone that needs it.

Manage Space Allocation and Chargebacks

Using your detailed space inventory, you can allocate spaces to various departments to manage space across the various departments in your organization. Because many groups split spaces and share common areas such as conference rooms and hallways, calculating accurate chargebacks used to be time- consuming and error prone. With FM: Interact, you can split individual spaces across multiple groups to get a more detailed view of space use. Also, the system automatically prorates common areas, like conference rooms and secondary circulation, for chargebacks, eliminating the manual calculation of rentable space which greatly improves report accuracy and reduces the burden of preparing chargeback reports.

Track all Employees and Accurately Assign Workspace

Know where everyone is in an instant! Now you can track important contact and location information for all employees and contractors such as email addresses, phone and room numbers with the occupancy management capabilities of the Space Management Module. The robust search capabilities make this an ideal employee look-up system. Workers may also be directly linked to the specific space they inhabit, enabling accurate occupancy reporting. And because it’s so important to assign the appropriate amount of work space based on job level, you can categorize space based on job codes. This helps improve forecasting and ensures everyone has the room they need to perform their appropriate job function.

Manage Your Portfolio Enterprise-wide

Because the Space Management Module centralizes all space and occupancy information, it’s easy to view, maintain and manage your portfolio across multiple spaces, buildings and locations no matter where you are. You can also grant access to appropriately share information with the executives, facilities professionals and departmental liaisons that need it. Gaining more visibility into your space portfolio decreases costs, improves customer service and increases workplace productivity for your entire organization.

The FM Interact Workplace Management Suite

Because the Space Management Module centralizes all space and occupancy information, it’s easy to view, maintain and manage your portfolio across multiple spaces, buildings and locations no matter where you are. You can also grant access to appropriately share information with the executives, facilities professionals and departmental liaisons that need it. Gaining more visibility into your

space portfolio decreases costs, improves customer service and increases workplace productivity for your entire organization.


reduced occupancy costs by 15%


reduced churn rate from 225% to 120%


reduced annual move spend by 88%


increased onboarding capacity by 60%


enterprise productivity savings of $1.5 million per year


increased customer satisfaction rate to 97%

Previously a manual process managed with spreadsheets and paper drawings, the Space Management Module of FM: Interact enables an enterprise-wide space management system the you can access right from your workspace. Need to have your entire space portfolio at your fingertips? The Space Management Module of FM:

Interact can help. Learn to manage your space and occupancy enterprise-wide from your computer with the FM: Interact Space Management Module.

The FM Interact Strategic Planning Module

Planning an organization’s real estate portfolio is one of the most challenging tasks facilities and real estate professionals face. Global expansions, workforce reductions and remote and contract workers are just a few of the situations you might have to anticipate. Short of a crystal ball, how can you predict if you will have to build a new building or exercise an upcoming break option for a lease? The FM: Interact

you predict if you will have to build a new building or exercise an upcoming break

Strategic Planning Module can help. By entering estimates such as headcount and space needs, the Strategic Planning Module lets you create multiple “what if” scenarios and get a visual depiction of what your space and occupancy might look like years into the

future. Not only does it take the pain out of planning, but it

helps you align your space portfolio with the business requirements of your organization.

With the Strategic Planning Module you can:

Align real estate and facilities plans with business operations by analyzing space requirements and forecasting future space needs.

Create multiple “what if” scenarios and interactive stacking plans to uncover opportunities for portfolio savings.

Gather and forecast space needs by growth criteria (headcount, staff detail, area, percentage growth) Run reports on space and occupancy projections .

The FM: Interact Asset Management Module

projections . The FM: Interact Asset Management Module While seemingly small individually, together your

While seemingly small individually, together your organization’s assets make up a large and costly financial investment. Do you have the tools to track them effectively? The FM: Interact Asset Management Module enables you to track multiple classes of assets office equipment, furniture, lab equipment, or even corporate

artwork. You can link assets to CAD symbols on floor plans for easy location, ownership, and access to product information,

greatly improving efficiencies in maintenance and personnel move processes. Graphical queries let you search for and visually display your assets on floor plans. The Asset Management Module can also be integrated with other systems, such as bar-codes or enterprise resource planning (ERP)

systems, making asset tracking efforts more robust.

Not much gets

done when employees don’t have the tools they need, and your organization’s assets are much too costly to misplace. Let the Asset Management Module help.

With the FM: Interact Asset Management Module, you can:

Track and then easily locate on floor plans corporate assets such as furniture, equipment, computers, life safety systems, building systems and artwork Track asset depreciation for financial reporting and compliance Track ownership and product information such as serial numbers and installation dates Fully integrate asset ownership and redeploy into the Move Management Module Track data jacks in database and graphically Track building equipment and any user required assets Interface with barcode system

The FM Interact Facility Maintenance Management Module

How much of

your day do you spend logging, dispatching,

tracking and reporting on service requests? Keep this part of your job manageable with the FM: Interact Facility Maintenance Module. Empowering users to electronically submit service requests and then check their status via the intranet eliminates the need for you

to return countless phone calls. Once in the system, work orders are forwarded to the appropriate facilities staff for approval, assigned to technicians or vendors, and closed out automatically giving you the day back to focus on more strategic efforts for the organization. Have to be out of the office for the day? No problem you can access maintenance requests and work orders on your PDA. With the FM: Interact Facility Maintenance Module you can:

Effortlessly coordinate supervisors, technicians, workshops outside vendors to complete facilities maintenance tasks

Automate e-mail and Web messages to ensure deadlines aren’t forgotten and ensure quality control for the facilities maintenance process

Track and report on critical data associated with service requests, such as repair costs, response time, and work history.

Provide self-service request forms and work order status views for internal customers.

Stay up to date, even while out of the office, on all the progress of all maintenance requests.


Preventive Maintenance

Extend the life of valuable equipment and get hours back in your day by automating preventive maintenance scheduling and work orders. The Facility Maintenance Module enables you to keep an inventory and detailed history of your building equipment and related maintenance requirements. Receive e-mail reminders for

routine tasks such as six month checkups on air conditioning units and copiers, and automatically creates a maintenance ticket in the system. All you have to do is dispatch. With the FM Interact Facility Maintenance Module you can:

Maintain an inventory of building equipment with maintenance and cost history

•Schedule e-mail reminders for yourself and your vendors for


•Create maintenance tickets automatically for scheduled maintenance jobs

maintenance tasks

•Route work orders to internal staff and vendors

•Run reports on various vendors and equipment to analyze costs

The FM Interact Sustainability Module

“Going green” is all the buzz right now. You know you need to do more to make your buildings and organization more

environmentally friendly but where do you start?

elements should you consider? How can you track the results of your projects? And how much is creating a more sustainable workplace going to cost?

The FM Interact Sustainability Module helps facilities and real estate professionals answer all these questions by bringing environmental and financial impacts into balance. From a standard Web browser you can manage critical information on energy performance or water usage, and sustainability projects like energy retrofits. Easy-to-read dashboards let you assess projects in a


glance, and built-in certification standards for numerous programs help you plot your own green course. And because you have all the benefits of FM: Interact, it’s easy to run cost analysis reports for your sustainability projects, or see which buildings are affected and which ones to target next.

The FM Interact Sustainability Module enables users to:

Analyze building environmental impacts (energy, water, greenhouse gas emissions, recycling, waste and others)

Integrate with EPA’s Automated Benchmarking System to calculate a buildings’ ENERGY STAR ratings, carbon footprint and more

Forecast sustainability projects’ financial impacts (net present value, internal rate of return, ROI, payback period) and environmental impacts

Manage building assessments and certifications using rating systems like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Globes, or BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)

Engage occupants and management with enterprise access to sustainability information and dashboards.

Key Steps to Successful BIM Implementation

BIM implementation requires proper planning, patience and full commitment from all levels of the organization. When introducing BIM to an organization, proceeding with only a minimum amount of knowledge is a common mistake and can be costly.

Develop a BIM Action Plan

Developing a solid BIM action plan should be the first step toward getting your organization up and running in a BIM environment. Without this plan in place it is easy to lose track of what information is required to be successful. The plan should consist of two major sections: analysis and implementation.


A majority of the plan should be focused on information gathering about current methods, procedures and business strategy. The transition to a BIM workflow is a major shift for any organization

on all levels; as such, it is an excellent time to look deep into your workflow to find any inefficiency that can be fixed. The analysis portion of a BIM action plan should include:

Existing Processes Identification and Analysis

It is important to conduct a detailed analysis of existing internal and external business processes to help establish a base line for where to start to achieve the goals established later in the plan. This analysis should include a detailed review of how projects are currently being processed through the organization from initial marketing through completion.

Technology Analysis

A detailed technology analysis identifies existing hardware and

software technologies and their associated costs utilized by the

organization. A review of current document and data management should also be included in the analysis.

Personnel Analysis

A detailed review of personnel should be conducted to help

establish a few key pieces of information by providing answers to

the following:

What are the current roles of your project teams?

Who will need to be trained with the new software?

What level of training will each type of employee require?

How will the new requirements of a BIM-based project modify the current make-up of your teams?

Do you still require pure drafters?

Can your current drafters become junior-level designers?

Cost Analysis

The transition from a CAD-based organization to a BIM-based organization carries a significant cost impact on three major fronts:

Hardware: Current BIM software requires a higher-performance workstation when compared to a CAD software on a comparable- sized project. This BIM implementation may require a significant upgrade of current systems to ensure efficient workflow.

Software: BIM software will need to be purchased. The best resource for information regarding the best version of software and support to purchase are the many resellers out there. With resellers you can discuss the details of your needs and business plan to help identify the correct route to take whether it is a single license or a full blown subscription with technical support.

Personnel: Educating and training employees to use BIM software and the new associated delivery processes costs money. This cost will most directly be related to training but there will also be a temporary loss of productivity while existing processes are transitioned to a new methodology.

Training Plan

Training on a BIM platform is best completed using a “Just in Time” method. A lot of the concepts involved with BIM are very different when compared with a traditional CAD workflow and therefore are best learned working on an actual project. A proven method of success is to have multiple training days consisting of half a day for classroom instruction followed by half a day of actual project work with the instructor available for hands-on teaching. Training should start with only a small group of employees on a single project so that they can help streamline the BIM workflow prior to getting the entire organization up to speed.

It is also advantageous for at least a single employee to receive in- depth training and then act as the BIM manager for the company. This person can then be the “go-to person” for help and can lead the establishment of standards.

Case Study

Case Study This case study discusses the experiences of consultants and contractor as they undertake their

This case study discusses the experiences of consultants and contractor as they undertake their first multidisciplinary Building Information Modeling (BIM) project. The project is a premium CBD high-rise office building located in a top location in Sydney.

Project overview

1 Bligh Street is a 30story, premium CBD high-rise office building, located in a prominent location in Sydney. On completion, 1 Bligh Street will be a 42,000 m2 development, with an estimated cost of AUD$230 million. The building has

the potential to achieve a 5-star ABGR (Australian Building Greenhouse Rating) and 6-star Green Star Rating without sacrificing indoor environment quality. 1 Bligh Street is one of the first commercial projects in Australia to implement multidisciplinary BIM collaboration. BIM played an important role in the documentation and simulation of the project, which contributed to its distinctive design and ambitious performance. The use of BIM was set as a client requirement, and was included in the contract. Ultimately, the client plans to use the as-built BIM model for facility management purposes. 1 Bligh Street is located at the ‘valley’ created by the Macquarie Street ridge and the tall buildings in and around George Street. The site context and its potentially wide range of far-reaching views were an important factor determining the elliptical shape of the building and its orientation.

the elliptical shape of the building and its orientation . In this case study, 10 participants

In this case study, 10 participants were interviewed across four companies. The interviews took place between June

and July 2008, in Sydney and Melbourne. The interviews were concerned with a variety of topics within the process, technology and policy areas surrounding BIM. The interviews focused on the architects as the consultants leading BIM in this project. Nevertheless, the consulting team and the contractor were also interviewed to document and analyses their experiences while collaborating with BIM.

and analyses their experiences while collaborating with BIM. The transition from CAD to BIM Although Architectus

The transition from CAD to BIM

Although Architectus had a heavily customized CAD platform (still used in some projects), containing tens of thousands of lines of customized code, it was looking for a process to better document its

projects and saw BIM as a way to achieve it. The architects tried several applications, and even ran an entire project in Autodesk® Architectural Desktop® (ADT). While ADT was not regarded as proper BIM software by the design technology director, it was considered an evolutionary path into BIM. At the time, it was believed that a good (low risk) way to move from CAD to BIM was to adopt the CAD approach offered by ADT, and benefit from its already developed skills as high-end users of AutoCAD®. However, as commented by the design technology director: ‘BIM requires a revolution, you cannot do it with evolution and if you attempt to incrementally adopt BIM in small steps you will not succeed in implementing it. Ultimately, BIM is a disruptive technology and you have to take the pain of the disruption at some point’. Once the decision was made to go straight into BIM, the transition proved to be ‘surprisingly easy’ and smoother than an incremental transition through ADT. Flexibility (being able to leave things behind), together with choosing the right staff and project, were identified as key to a successful BIM implementation.

BIM training

The architects training approach is that ‘you cannot learn Revit®, you need to experience it, you need to live with Revit®’. Architects favors on-the-job learning over sending staff to training courses. The best training is the one that gives you answers to questions you have right now on current projects. Also, the best person to assist you is the one sitting next to you provided

he or she can help. It’s a much better solution to rely on someone who knows the project and knows the deadline instead of sending someone to a (training) course. Given that this training strategy requires a balance between people with good Revit® experience and less experienced staff (at the modeling level), Architects’ strategy has an impact on how project teams are put together. The design technology director also stressed that BIM oriented training is considered differently and handled differently to CAD training: ‘With CAD you learn lines, arcs, circles; very simple; and everything else is built from it. In Revit®, you model components that behave differently, as their real world analogues do’. Thus, an understanding of how all the disparate building elements are put together is integral to learning BIM. As a consequence, training is not only limited to the use of the software, but to the understanding of building components. As declared by the leading modeler of 1 Bligh Street: ‘[With BIM] I have to constantly think about how things are being built, so I’m not just drawing some lines in 2D. I really understand the way that the building has to work, so from an understanding point of view [BIM] is incredibly more beneficial than drawing in 2D’.

BIM manual

The design technology director has documented most of the office Revit® procedures, and has composed an extensive manual (370 pages) in PDF format which is accessible via the internal network. However, it is not expected that everyone reads this extensive manual. The architects consider the manual far from

being a mere set of instructions put together to achieve something. It is considered an encyclopedia which gathers know-how and solutions to previously encountered problems. People are encouraged to refer to the manual first when a problem arises. As acknowledged by its author, the manual, despite its length, does not cover everything. According to the design technology director, the challenge of producing a good comprehensive manual is that BIM is non-linear and one thing relates to many others: ‘If you start to write about something it goes all over the place. You can’t consider areas without thinking about schedules, area plans, color schemes, etc. But color schemes could be related to views, not areas and so on’. Even though the manual is regarded as a good starting point to troubleshoot problems, it is not considered a requirement for a successful implementation.

Technical support

When a Revit®-related problem arises in the office, staff first try to resolve it within their team by asking more experienced users or by consulting the manual. If still unresolved, the problem then goes to the design technology director. If he cannot resolve it, he contacts the Autodesk® reseller (AEC Systems10). This approach, complemented by online forums (e.g.RevitCity11), has allowed the company to resolve most, if not all, of its Revit® problems.

Project teams

Architects forms its project teams primarily based on the specific staff experience with the type of project. BIM knowledge, and more specifically Revit® experience, is considered a factor (especially with junior staff), but not a decider in who is in a specific project team. Senior members of the team are selected based on their project capabilities. Junior staff have a mixed level of experience so that they can learn from each other, as previously explained in the training section. The 1 Bligh Street team is composed of senior staff with sufficient project-specific experience, one Revit® leader (who learnt the software in the office), and a few other members with different Revit® experience so that the team’s skill level could improve together. The overall BIM approach is supervised by the design technology director.

The model

One of the major problems that the architects had on the 1 Bligh Street model was to define its level of detail, as stated by the project architect: ‘You need to choose your level of Detail very carefully, and it is not prescribed. It is trial and Error’. Still, Architects has identified three factors that help Define the level of detail required in the model:

• the information that is expected to be taken out of the model

• the purpose of the model

• how the model will evolve.

Putting aside the redundant amount of work that unnecessary Detailing creates, over detailing can also unnecessarily increase the file size of the model which, among other problems, can (as experienced by the project architect) ‘slow down the model to the point that you cannot use it efficiently’. The design technology director is optimistic that the performance of the BIM system will increase when running on a 64-bit platform. The big file size of 1 Bligh Street (300 MB at the time of the Interviews) created problems for the design team: ‘It takes 10 minutes for the file to boot up and appear on the screen’. It made navigating and doing changes to the model a slow process, and sometimes even hindered it: ‘Right now we want to rotate the building and we can’t do that because of the file size and all that is linked to it’, said the project architect. Architects has implemented

three strategies to balance the size of the model without compromising the required level of detail. First, only typical floors are detailed. Second, it relies on 2D line work for detailing anything over 1:20 scale drawings. Finally, it creates different models for different purposes. Although this last approach contradicts the principle of BIM (a single model/database), this ‘hybrid’ approach allowed it to produce different models with different level of detailing depending on their use. Thus, it had a main model, used for documentation and collaboration with other consultants, and other models for high-end rendering.

Multidisciplinary BIM collaboration

As mentioned earlier in this case study, multidisciplinary collaboration using the BIM model only occurred between the architect and the structural engineer. For this, both parties benefited from using the same suite of Revit® solutions (Architecture and Structure). As further explained in the structural engineers section, importing and exporting between the two disciplines was seamless, and did not require the use of Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs see Glossary). In an attempt to achieve the highest level of interoperability between packages (outside the Autodesk® products), a BIM consultant on behalf of the client suggested the use of IFCs on 1 Bligh Street. Thus, an IFC approach, together with the implementation of a centralized IFC server, was proposed early in the project. However, Architects considered that an IFC server would require additional resources not included within the scope of the project (e.g. dedicated server and additional software licenses). Furthermore, in-house ‘IFC round-trip’

experiments done by Architects using the 1 Bligh Street model highlighted the current limitations of this technology. One of the first problems identified in these experiments was the large file size that IFCs generate. Given that IFC models are uncompressed and not optimized files (usually four times the original file size), they are difficult and slow to manage. This proved troublesome for a file that was already considered too big, even in its native format. There was also a considerable amount of extra time required to generate an IFC file. As revealed by the design technology director:

‘The time that this process takes [using IFCs] is at least three hours

between transfers, three hours compared to nothing [when transferring from Revit® Architecture to Revit® Structure]’. The architects also experienced data degradation when exporting to IFCs. They attributed this to the fact that Revit® has more categories than IFC classes, creating data loss in the process. For example, in the experiments done on 1 Bligh Street, curtain wall mullions were fused with glass in the model. Architects considered that in a project like 1 Bligh Street, where it feels that technology is being pushed to the very limits of its current capabilities, it could not afford to add a developing process to its workflow. It considered it too risky to introduce IFCs in a commercial project. In addition to these issues, IFC as a term (let alone the technology) is not widely understood in the industry. When the architects offered to export the model in an IFC format, people did not understand what they were talking about: ‘[When we said to people] “We can export to IFC”, [they replied] “Into what?! What is an IFC? How can we use it?” No one understood that’, said the project architect.

Structural engineers

While Instruct had used Revit® Structures to document projects in the past, the models were only used internally (BIM Stage 1), and the functionality offered by the system was not fully incorporated. 1 Bligh Street was Instructs first multidisciplinary BIM collaboration project. BIM benefits The first reported BIM benefit experienced by Instruct was an increase of productivity, stemming from being able to generate multiple views (e.g. floor plans, elevations, sections) from a 3D model. This benefit soon translated into an embedded quality assurance process, because all the views

are coordinated by the system rather than manually generated in accordance with, but independent from, each other. 3D visualization also allowed Instruct to better understand structures, as noted by the company director: ‘Being able to look at something in 3D gives you a far better understanding of what is going on, rather than an old-fashioned 2D plan’.

The structural BIM model

than an old- fashioned 2D plan’. The structural BIM model The involvement of Instruct as structural
than an old- fashioned 2D plan’. The structural BIM model The involvement of Instruct as structural

The involvement of Instruct as structural engineers on 1 Bligh Street started with Stage 1 DA (development application) and continued through design competition, lodging of Stage 2 DA and preparation of the tender documentation. The engineers were then engaged by the contractor to take the design through to construction and completion. Instruct is responsible for the entire superstructure building including floor plates, columns, basic structure and foundations. The engineers estimated that their

involvement in the project will be between five to seven years in total.

BIM background

Before 1 Bligh Street, the engineers were using and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of structural packages offered by Bentley®12 and Autodesk®. As a result of their review process, they considered that Autodesk® Revit® Structure13 would allow them to comply with the BIM requirements set by the client for 1 Bligh Street, as well as their overall BIM strategy.

Services engineers, Mechanical services

BIM strategy. Services engineers, Mechanical services Arup are the services engineers of 1 Bligh Street project

Arup are the services engineers of 1 Bligh Street project responsible for the mechanical, electrical and fire services, as well as being the façade design consultants. While the engineers used Revit® MEP (services) to model a typical floor, it was not used to produce the documentation.

Services documentation was done in AutoCAD® and AutoCAD® MEP®.19 As recognized by the services engineers and the rest of the 1 Bligh Street team, mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) services were not part of the BIM model. Arup’s project director identified the tight program and the complexities of producing services documentation using BIM as the two main reasons that prevented MEP services being included in the BIM model.

that prevented MEP services being included in the BIM model. 1 Bligh Street was t he

1 Bligh Street was the services engineers team’s first BIM project, and at the time it lacked the content (families) required for the model. As opposed to the view of the architects, the services engineers felt that the out-of-the-box content included was poor, and developing it would take a considerable amount of time with an already tight deadline.

content included was poor, and developing it would take a considerable amount of time with an

Nevertheless, Arup did some isolated simulations, including

a thermal simulation, to calculate the sizing of the air

Conditioning equipment. In parallel, the project director is also concerned that BIM could be perceived as a potential threat for MEP subcontractors. As described, one of the advantages for MEP subcontractors is that, when they receive a design from

a consultant, they can increase their profit by modifying what the consultant has proposed in a way that achieves the same performance, but in a more economical way. Therefore, the more documentation that is given to the subcontractors, the less room there is for them to modify the design.

the less room there is for them to modify the design. Moreover, as noted by the

Moreover, as noted by the contractor’s (Grocon’s) design

manager, in a design and construct project like 1 Bligh Street,

it is the contractor through its subcontractors that

produces the services documentation for the design. Thus,

it will ultimately be up to the subcontractors to develop the

services BIM model.

up to the subcontractors to develop the services BIM model. It is expected that 1 Bligh

It is expected that 1 Bligh Street will have a complete BIM model once the subcontractors model the services.


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