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# Lecture 3! Chapter 6!

## Force and Motion II"

End of Lecture 2 " Friction" More Circular motion " Apparent Weight " Drag Forces " Numerical integration " Misconceptions "

## NEWTONS THIRD LAW

"

When two bodies interact, the forces on the bodies due to each other are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction."

M"

FME
FEM
E"

! ! FME = ! FEM
Gravitational" Interaction"

2 "

## NEWTONS THIRD LAW

"

When two bodies interact, the forces on the bodies due to each other are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction."

M" T "

FMT

! ! FMT = ! FTM

FTM

## Contact " Interaction" E"

3 "

Rules for drawing free body diagrams. Isolates the forces acting on one body"
1)! Represent the body by a point." 2)! Each force acting on the body is represented by a vector" with tail at the point and the length of vector indicating " the approximate magnitude of the force." 3)! A coordinate system is optional." 4)! If the situation consist of several bodies which are rigidly connected, you can still represent all the bodies by a point and use the total mass. Internal forces are not included."
4 "

What is the free body diagram of the block at rest on the table?"
FMT = N

FME = W

## Free body diagram of object with mass M

N

Table"
W

! ! N = !W W = Mg
5 "

Book leaning against a crate on a table at rest.! What are the action reaction pairs?"

Table T"

6 "

1)! Draw a free body diagram of the forces acting" on the crate"

NT"

B" mg"

7 "

Problem: What is the acceleration of the system of the two blocks and the contact force between the blocks? What is the net force on Block B?"
A" B"
24 kg" 31 kg"

65 N"

A"

B" 65 N"

FAB = FBA
Student Version "

8 "

Problem: What is the acceleration of the system of the two blocks and the contact force between the blocks? What is the net force on Block B?"
A" B"
24 kg" 31 kg"

65 N"

## Student Version "

9 "

Problem: What is the acceleration of the system of the two blocks and the contact force between the blocks? What is the net force on Block B?"

A"

B" 65 N"

! ! FAB = ! FBA

10 "

## Tension" Now lets look at tension in a string"

Tension in the string is equal to the weight = 10 N" The scale reads the tension in the string"
11 "

Is the tension in the string any different when I have weights pulling it down on both sides?"

10N"

10 N"

12 "

Problem"
12 kg" 24 kg" 31 kg" 65 N"

a)! What is the acceleration of the system?" b)! Find T1" c)! Find T2"

a) " T3 = msys a

13 "

Problem"
12 kg" 24 kg" 31 kg" 65 N"

Find T1"

14 "

Problem"
12 kg" 24 kg" 31 kg" 65 N"

Find T2"

15 "

A crate is being pulled by a man as shown in the gure. What is the acceleration of the crate along the x direction? Man does not move."
+y"

N" f"

T"

## x component of forces in " free body diagram"

16 "

What is the normal force assuming there is no " acceleration in the y direction?"

N" f"

T"

W"

## y component of forces in " free body diagram"

17 "

Rev George Atwoods machine 1746 -1807! Find the T and the acceleration a in terms of m, M and g."
Assume left side is moving down in " the negative y direction"

T" T"

a"
Mg" -y"

1" 2"

mg"

## Up is + and down is -"

18 "

Another example. Find T and acceleration a. Draw free body diagrams of each mass."

N
T
T Frictionless pulley

T = Ma

Mg
+x "

T
T y

! Fy = T " mg = " ma

a"

mg
19 "

Friction"
You are standing still, then begin to walk. What was the external forced that caused you to accelerate? Hint: It is very hard to start walking if you are standing on ice. What force causes a car to accelerate when a traffic light turns green?

Frictional Forces"
Friction is an attractive force between two surfaces that is a" result of the vector sum of many electrical forces between" the surface atoms of the two different bodies. " Only about 10-4 of the surface atoms actually contribute."

Model of dry friction 3 or 4 asperites support top block. Temporarily weld together"

The Friction and Lubrication of Solids" F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, Oxford University Press" 1964"

Models of friction" See Chabay and Sherwood" Matter and Ineractions" Volume 1" ISBN 0-471-35491-0"

Friction"

N"
F" mg" fs"

The maximum value equals fs = sN, where N is the normal force. fs = s m g. The coefcient of static friction s ranges from 0 to 1.2" Kinetic Friction: If we increase F until the block starts to move, the friction force decreases to fk= kN and remains constant throughout the motion."

## No motion and no horizontal forces"

No Motion"

No Motion"

Acceleration"

Constant velocity"

Problem Solving with Newtons 2nd Law! involving friction" ! Vector sum of external forces in x direction = max" ! Vector sum of external forces in y direction = may" ! If no acceleration, then set sum equal to 0"

."

Mass on incline plane at rest with impending motion. Find an expression for the coefcient of static friction"

+y" N"
!"

fs
!"
7/9/09"

+x"

d" mg"

h"

."

+y"

## Free Body Diagram"

Apply Newton's 2nd law in the x directions and using fs = s N"

x direction"

Physics 631 "

7/9/09"

."

+y"

## Free Body Diagram"

Apply Newton's 2nd law in the y direction"

N" ! fs ! mg"

+x"

7/9/09"

## Physics 631 "

Suppose you increase the angle of the inclined plane to some new angle so that the block accelerates down the inclined plate. Find the acceleration"
x direction"

## fs ! mg sin " = 0 s N ! mg sin " = 0

Equilibrium condition"

fk ! mg sin " = ma

## k N ! mg sin " = ma 1 a = ( k N ! mg sin " ) m

Acceleration condition"

."

How big does the mass M have to be to just start the block accelerating up the plane?"
x direction"

## T ! fs ! mg sin " = ma T ! s N ! mg sin " = ma

+y" N"
!"

T ! Mg = ! Ma T = M (g ! a)

fs
!"
7/9/09"

T"
!

+x"

d" mg"

h"

M"

## Physics 631 "

Free Body Diagram of an accelerating system: Atwoods machine with friction.! Find a and T."

Frictionless pulley T

f k"
T

-----"

## Problem 13 Chapter 6 edition 6 and 7"

Question: What is the minimum magnitude force required to start the crate moving?" +y" N" T" +x" y components"

#" Tcos!"

## fs " mg" x components"

Problem 13 continued"
Question: What is the initial acceleration if k=0.35? " +y" N"

m = 68 kg ! = 15degrees

s = 0.35
\$"

T" +x"

Tcos \$"

mg"

y components"

## Inertial Drag Force and Terminal Velocity"

Drag force: Whenever you have a body like a ball moving through a medium that behaves like a uid, there will be a drag force opposing the motion. " 1 D = C ! Av 2 2 Imagine a falling ball slowed down due to elastic collisions" with air molecules. Simply pushing the air out of the way." Hand waving argument"

dp d ( mv) dv dm F= = =m +v dt dt dt dt dm = ! Ady dm dy = ! A = ! Av dt dt F = v! Av = ! Av 2

v"

."

dy"

air molecules"

Inertial drag"

## Terminal speeds in air"

Using Newtons 2nd law,"
1 F = ma = mg ! C " Av 2 2
where m is the mass of the falling ball"

1 mg ! C " Av0 2 = 0 2
Solve for v0 "

2 mg v0 = C!A

## TERMINAL SPEEDS IN AIR"

Object ` Feather Snowflake BB Mouse Tennis ball Baseball Sky diver Cannonball Speed (m/s) Speed (mph) 0.4 1 9 13 31 42 60 -120 250 0.9 2.2 20 29 66 86 134 -268 560

## How to solve this equation?! Two ways"

1 F = Mg ! C " Av 2 2 F = Mg ! bv 2 1 where b = C " A 2

## Use Newtons 2nd Law"

Initial component of momentum: " Initial force on ball:" Using 2nd Law"

p1 = Mv1
F = Mg ! bv12

dp !p p2 " p1 F= = = dt !t !t

p2 ! p1 = F "t
p2 = p1 + F !t

## Use Newtons 2nd Law"

Initial velocity"

v1
F = mg ! bv12

## Find new v2"

m(v2 ! v1 ) = F "t
v2 = v1 + F !t / m

substitute in for F

## Newtons 2nd Law"

b 2 v2 = v1 + [ g ! ( )v1 ]"t m

v1 + v2 x2 = x1 + v2 !t = x1 + ( )!t 2

## Go to Excel Spread Sheet"

delta_t= g= m_1= b_1= v_init= time 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.05 10 0.75 0.25 0 gravity mass drag coefficient initial downward velocity velocity 0 0.5 0.995833 1.479305 1.942833 2.379923 2.785522 3.156203 3.490176 3.787154 4.048112 distance 0 0.0125 0.049896 0.111774 0.197328 0.305397 0.434533 0.583076 0.749235 0.931169 1.12705

## b _1 " 2% vi = vi !1 + \$ g ! ( )vi !1 ' (t m _1 # & vi !1 + vi xi = xi !1 + ( )(t 2

New velocity = C17=C16+(g-(b_1/m_1)*C16*C16)*delta_t

10 9 8
Velocity (m/s)

30

Displacement (m)

20

## Displacement w/ drag Displacement w/out drag

10

mass reduced by 4

## 0 0 0.5 1 Time (s) 1.5 2

We can also solve the equation to get the velocity as a function of time before it reaches terminal velocity. Let b = 1/2C%A&

dv 2 F = ma = m = mg ! bv dt dv m = mg ! bv 2 dt m dv mg 2 = !v b dt b
let v0 =
mg b

m dv 2 = v0 ! v2 b dt 1 b dv = dt 2 2 v0 ! v m

## Solving equation continued"

1 b dv = dt 2 2 v0 ! v m 1 1 1 1 =( 0 + 0 ) 2 2 v0 ! v v ! v v + v 2 v0

dv dv 2v 0b + = dt v0 ! v v0 + v m
v v t

## dv dv 2 v0b + = dt " " " v0 ! v 0 v0 + v m 0 0

"
0

dv + v0 ! v

"

dv 2v 0b = v0 + v m

" dt
0

This can be integrated, and xing the constant of integration by the requirement that the velocity be zero at t = 0 , which is the case for free fall we nd:"
2v b " ! 0 t % \$1 ! e m ' v = v 0\$ 2v0b ' ! t \$ m ' #1 + e &

Now show comparison of this solution with numerical integration with Excel.

Comparison"
True Terminal Velocity Function
60 50

Velocity (m/s)

## 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 Time (s) 15 20 TRUE Velocity Squared

The curve modeled by velocity squared for terminal velocity" Differs from the true equation due to a large delta t." When delta t becomes small enough the two curves are " Indistinguishable."

## Water Resistance and Drag Forces"

Whenever you have a body moving through a liquid there will be a drag force opposing the motion. Here the drag force is proportional to - kv. Viscous drag." Stokes Law: terminal velocity is proportional to mass" A 1000 km boat in the water shuts off its engine " at 90 km/hr. Find the time required to" slow down to 45 km/hr due to a water" drag force equal to -70v, where v is " the speed of the boat. Let k = 70." ma = - kv v/v0 = 45/90 =1/2" t = m/k ln 2=1000/70 ln 2 = 9.9 s"

## dv = ! kv dt mdv = ! kvdt dv k = ! dt v m v dv k t " v = ! m " dt v0 0 m ln v v = ln v ! ln v0

0

v k ln = ! t v0 m k v !m t =e v0

## Uniform circular motion"

T = Mac v ac = R
2

Centripetal force is really not a new force like gravity, tension, friction." Motion of earth around sun centripetal force is a result of gravity" Rock whirled around on a string centripetal force is a result of tension " Sometimes it is a result of friction or the normal force"

See notes on vertical circular motion" Leads to apparent weight and ctitious forces"

## VERTICAL CIRCULAR MOTION"

Down is negative, Up is positive"

## mv 2 ! mg At the top: Apparent weight= N = r

r" Minimum v for N = 0: (apparent weightlessness)

mv = mg r

v = rg

## What do we mean by Fictitious Forces!

Ff = - ma (the ctitious force always acts in the opposite direction of acceleration)

"

!"
ma

T mg

Ff "
mg !" T

ma tan ! = mg a = g tan !

## Example of ctitious force (Ff = - ma)"

In a vertically accelerated reference frame, eg. an elevator, what is your apparent weight? Apparent weight = N
Upwards is positive" Downwards is negative Upward acceleration

N ! mg = ma N = mg + ma

Downward acceleration

N ! mg = ! ma N = mg ! ma

## Free fall a = g N = 0 Weightless condition

Tug-of-war demo illustrates how a small sideways force can produce a large horizontal force"
Problem 13-10" Suppose two guys in the tug of war are at 4.5 meters" apart and I pull the rope out 0.15 meters. Then ! = 4 degrees."

T
2.25 m"

T
Therefore,"
T=

## 0.15 tan ! = 2.25 ! = 4o

F F = = 7F o 2 sin(4 ) (2)(0.07)

T
!

F sin ! = 2T F T= 2 sin !

## ConcepTest 4.6 Force and Two Masses

!
A force F acts on mass m1 giving acceleration a1. The same force acts on a different mass m2 giving acceleration a2 = 2a1. If m1 and m2 are glued together and the same force F acts on this combination, what is the resulting acceleration?

"

m1

a1 a2 = 2a1

m2

m2 m1

a3

## ConcepTest 4.8a Bowling vs. Ping-Pong I

In outer space, a bowling ball and a ping-pong ball attract each other due to gravitational forces. How do the magnitudes of these attractive forces compare?"

"

"

## ConcepTest 5.3b Tension II

!
Two tug-of-war opponents each pull with a force of 100 N on opposite ends of a rope. What is the tension in the rope?!

"

## ConcepTest 5.4 Three Blocks

!
Three blocks of mass 3m, 2m, and m are connected by strings and pulled with constant acceleration a. What is the relationship between the tension in each of the strings?

"

a 3m T3 T2 T1

2m

## ConcepTest 5.5 Over the Edge

In which case does block m experience a larger acceleration? In (1) there is a 10 kg mass hanging from a rope and falling. In (2) a hand is providing a constant downward force of 98 N. Assume massless ropes.!

"

m
10kg

m a F = 98 N

Case (1)

Case (2)