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Reasoning Number Series

Number Series
A number series is a set of numbers which are arranged according to a particular pattern or rule. The relation of any number with the one preceding it would be the same. In an entrance exam, given the set of numbers you have to identify the pattern which governs the given numbers and calculate the required term. There is no specific rule which is always followed. Given below are some general patterns which can appear in entrance exams. Addition Series: As the name itself suggests, the numbers follow a pattern where adding a common term gives the next term. E.g. The series 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17 is a (+3) series. We add 3 to a given number to get the next one. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, is a simple (+2) series 97, 93, 89, 85, 81, 77 is a simple (-4) series 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 15, 21 is a series where we add the terms (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) to each term and get the next number. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34 is a series where the third term is the sum of the first two, the fourth term is the sum of the second and the third and so on. (This is also called the Fibonacci series) Multiplication Series: Here, a term is multiplied with the given number to get the next one. E.g. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 is a (x2) series 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 is a (x3) series 1, 1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720 is a series where we multiply the terms with (1, 2, 3, 4) to get the next one. 2, 3, 6, 18,108 is a series where the third term is a product of the previous two terms.

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Reasoning Number Series


Grouped Series: The given terms have to be taken in groups to understand the logic. E.g. The series 2, 6, 3, 3, 12, 4, 4, 20, 5, 5, 30, 6 is to be taken in groups of three. So taking the triplet 2, 6, 3, we can identify that the first and last terms are multiplied to get the middle term. Similarly, in 3, 12, 4, the middle term is the product of the first and the last term. We can also observe that the first term of every triplet is 1 greater than the corresponding term of the previous triplet and the last term of any triplet is 1 more than the first term of the same triplet. In the series, 3, 5, 10, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 10, 15, 17, 10 the term 10 is placed in every third spot. If we remove the term 10, we get a simple (+2) addition series. Alternate Series: 2, 2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 28, 30, 60 is a series where the terms are alternatively added and multiplied by 2 to get the next term. 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17 is a series where the terms are alternatively added with (+3) and (+1) to get the next term. Miscellaneous 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 is a series of perfect squares 8, 27, 64, 125, 216 is a series of perfect cubes 2, 3, 5, 7, 1, 13, 17, 19, 23 is a series of consecutive prime numbers 3, 4, 5, 9, 17, 26, 53 is a series where we alternatively add the square and cube of consecutive numbers to continue the sequence. i.e. 1 + 12 = 4, 4 + 13 = 5, 5 + 22 = 9, 9 + 23 = 17

iQue ideas / 2013 / Reasoning

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Reasoning Number Series

Practice Problems
Find the missing number in the series 1. 4 2. 2 3. 17 4. 6 5. 2 6. 45 7. 3 8. 5 9. 8 10. 16 11. 2 12. 2 13. 121 14. 6 15. 4 16. 83 17. 77 18. 6 19. 5 20. 4 7 6 7 126 --54 128 7 4 22 3 9 112 9 7 82 78 7 7 8 11 12 24 --8 47 6 11 12 34 5 23 --15 12 81 77 9 --12 18 20 19 9 16 --64 19 6 58 9 3 97 27 ----81 13 9 24 29 --9 108 32 49 9 35 18 106 17 8 91 --28 69 73 21 7 36 47 42 28 12 64 56 --67 ----33 25 86 99 39 60 ----11 72 8 --13 33 55 --56 --7 128 51 12 --27 394 --4 --27 123 72 8 133 256 57 16 259 53 15 8 199 90 31 19 27 12 10 72 37 6

iQue ideas / 2013 / Reasoning

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Reasoning Number Series

Hints and Solutions


1. Third number is the sum of the first and second, fourth number is the sum of second and third, fifth number is the sum of third and fourth and so on. Hence, missing umber will be 29 + 47 = 76 2. series moves the increasing difference by 2 missing number is 30 3. each third number is the sum of preceding two numbers 17 + 7 = 24, 19 + 9 = 28, 23 + 8 = 31 4. number between first and third, fourth and sixth, seventh and ninth is the product of adjacent number answer is 126/6 =21 5. each number of the series is the double of the preceding number 6. There are two alternate series in the single series. One of them moves with the difference of one umber starting with 45 and another is a consecutive series starting with 54 7. There are two alternate series, one -3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and another 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 .. answer is 32 8. series moves with a difference of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 554, answer = 131 9. 3rd, 5th and 7th number is the sum of preceding two numbers answer = 18 + 9 = 27 10. series moves with a difference of 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 therefore the missing number is 202 11. series moves with a difference of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. Missing number is 65 12. there are three alternative series 2, 3, 4, . 9, 8, 7, . 23, 25, 27.. answer is 7 13. series is written in descending order with a difference 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, answer is 104 14. series proceeds with difference of 3, 6, 12, 2,4 48. Missing number is 51 15. series proceeds with difference of 3, 5, 7, 9, 11.answer = 19 16. series has been written in reverse order with a difference of 12, 13, 22, 23, 32, 33 17. series increases and decreases alternatively with a difference of +12, -(13), +(2)2, -(2)3, (+32), -(33) 18. series moves with a difference of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 answer is 37 19. there are two alternate series 5, 6, 7, 8, and 7, 9, 11, 13 answer is 6 20. series proceeds with a difference of 4, 4, 12, 12, 36, 36, answer is 108

iQue ideas / 2013 / Reasoning

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