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Microwave Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon Flexuosus (Steud.) Wats.: A Parametric and Comparative Study
Meghal A. Desai & Jigisha Parikh
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Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India Accepted author version posted online: 25 Apr 2012. Version of record first published: 30 Aug 2012

To cite this article: Meghal A. Desai & Jigisha Parikh (2012): Microwave Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon Flexuosus (Steud.) Wats.: A Parametric and Comparative Study, Separation Science and Technology, 47:13, 1963-1970 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2012.659785

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Separation Science and Technology, 47: 19631970, 2012 Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0149-6395 print=1520-5754 online DOI: 10.1080/01496395.2012.659785

Microwave Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil From Cymbopogon Flexuosus (Steud.) Wats.: A Parametric and Comparative Study
Meghal A. Desai and Jigisha Parikh
Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India

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Microwave assisted extraction was employed for efcient and rapid extraction of essential oil from leaves of Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass). Parametric study was carried out to examine the effect of various parameters like solid loading, volume of water, rehydration time, extraction time, and power on yield and composition of essential oil. Hydrodistillation was performed for comparative analysis. Kinetic modelling of experimental data was attempted. Microscopic analysis of treated and untreated leaves was performed to observe the surface morphology. The results obtained can further be utilized for optimization of parameters as well as designing the process. Keywords cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats.; citral; essential oil; microwave assisted extraction; parametric study; yield

INTRODUCTION Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass), commonly known as lemongrass, is a tall, coarse perennial grass containing 12% essential oil on a dry basis extracted from the leaves (1). Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial isomers (Fig. 1), is the major compound found in the lemongrass oil and used in synthesis of ionone, vitamin A, and b-carotene (13). The oil extracted from lemongrass showed promising anticancer activity and caused loss in tumor cell viability (4). Several studies reported that lemongrass oil possesses antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial activity against a diverse range of organisms (3, 57). Also, the essential oil was proved to be a superior fungicide compared to the synthetic one (6) and found to be non-phytotoxic in nature (5). It is possible to treat muscle aches, acne, atulence, Athletes foot, excessive perspiration, scabies, and oily skin using lemongrass oil (3).
Received 14 July 2011; accepted 18 January 2012. Address correspondence to Jigisha Parikh, Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India. Tel.: 91-261-2201689; Fax: 91-261-2201641. E-mail: jk_parikh@yahoo.co.in; or jkp@ ched.svnit.ac.in

Moreover, the oil is useful as an anxiolytic, sedative, or anticonvulsive agent (8) and in inhibiting the activity of b-glucuronidase and some tested human, plant, and animal pathogens (9). Apart from various medicinal applications, essential oil is widely used in perfumery because of easy solubility with other essential oils and blending agents (10). Driven by the potential applications of essential oil extracted from lemongrass, oil was extracted using conventional methods like solvent extraction (11), steam distillation (1113), hydrodistillation (HD) (12, 14), and novel techniques like supercritical uid extraction (11, 12) and extraction using dense carbon dioxide (1). Though the conventional techniques are well established, they are energy intensive and have environmental issues. The elevated temperature for longer extraction time can cause chemical modication of the oil components and a loss of the most volatile compounds in case of steam distillation and hydrodistillation. Besides difculty in having a solvent free product, the solvent extraction process leads to loss of the most volatile compounds. Although supercritical uid extraction is known to be a clean technology giving acceptable yields and purity, its major disadvantage lies in its high operating pressure and cost. These drawbacks have led to search for a green extraction technique in order to have not only an environment friendly but also an energy efcient method. In recent years, microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is used for extraction of various natural products from plant matrices because of large reduction in solvent consumption (15) and extraction time (16,17) with better efciencies compared to conventional techniques. Also, fewer chemical changes of original plant components were observed in case of MAE compared to hydrodistillation (18,19). Essential oil obtained by microwave radiation has higher antimicrobial as well as antioxidant activities compared to the oil obtained by hydrodistillation (20). Major advantages of microwave extraction lie in its ability for volumetric heating (15) and maximum penetration of electromagnetic energy in biological tissues (21). A detailed




FIG. 1.

Structure of citral (a. Neral; b. Geranial).

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review of MAE for natural products and its comparison with various conventional as well as novel techniques were given by Desai et al. (22). The comparison showed that microwave yields better extraction with reduced extraction time. Also, novel techniques like supercritical uid extraction and pressurized uid extraction involve high operating pressure creating safety concern and need higher capital as well operating costs compared to the moderate expenditures incurred in MAE. The extraction of essential oil from Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass) using MAE has not yet been reported. In the present study, microwave radiation is employed to accelerate the extraction of essential oil from lemongrass. The effects of solid loading, volume of water, rehydration time, extraction time, and irradiation power on yield and composition of essential oil are studied in depth. The experimental data were tted with two different kinetic models for prediction of extraction rates. Comparative evaluation between MAE and traditional HD is attempted to highlight the benets of the novel method. Structural changes of lemongrass leaf after extraction are compared with the leaf before extraction. The results of this study will provide the basis for optimizing the operating conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Leaves of Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass) were collected from Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari, Gujarat, India. The leaves were dried at room temperature under shed for 48 h and stored in a moisture free environment at room temperature. In our previous study (14), it was observed that grinding of leaves had an adverse effect on the yield of the essential oil, hence, leaves of size 2.5 cm were selected for the present study. Methods Microwave Assisted Extraction A MAE unit (M=s Falcon Microwave Technology, Mumbai, India) as shown in Fig. 2, equipped with two magnetrons, 850 W each, was used for the extraction

FIG. 2. Microwave assisted extraction unit (a) schematic diagram; (b) photograph. (Color gure available online)

purpose. The rehydrated raw material was kept in a ask of 2 L capacity along with water. The absorbed water molecules residing in the glands of leaves get vaporized because of microwave irradiation which in turn causes rupture of the cell walls. During this process, essential oil gets vaporized and carried along with water vapor towards the condenser, mounted over the microwave cavity. The condensed essential oil and water are then decanted and separated. The oil thus collected was dehydrated and stored at 2 C until used. The maximum temperature of the system was the boiling point of water and the system was operated at atmospheric pressure. Detailed investigations were performed to study the effect of major parameters like solid loading, volume of water, rehydration of raw material, extraction time and power which affect the extraction yield (Percentage yield volume of oil collected, mL 100= mass of raw material, g) and composition of essential oil. Hydrodistillation Extraction of essential oil using HD was performed at optimized conditions determined in our previous study (14). Fifty grams of plant materials were submitted to hydrodistillation unit (2 L capacity) and extracted with 500 mL of water for 90 min. The essential oil was collected, dehydrated, and stored at 2 C until used. GC=MS Analysis The essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS (Clarus 600 GC-MS, Perkin Elmer) using Rxi-5Sil-MS column having arylene stabilized equivalent of 5% diphenyl (30 m 0.25 mm 0.25 mm lm thickness). The conditions maintained for obtaining GC-MS spectra were: Carrier gas He with a ow rate of 0.7 mL. min1; split 1:50; injection volume 0.1 ml; injection temperature 250 C; oven temperature



progress from 60 to 200 C at 5 C. min1 and from 200 to 290 C at 20 C. min1; the ionization mode used was electronic impact at 70 eV. Identication of components was carried out by comparison of the mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those stored in MS database (National Institute of Standards and Technology). SEM Analysis Surface morphology of lemongrass leaves, before extraction and after extraction, was studied using SEM (ESEM EDAX XL-30, Philips). The examination was carried under vacuum (0.8 torr) and accelerating voltage of 30 V.

where P is the power absorbed per unit volume; P0 is the transmitted power ux; b is the attenuation constant; and z is distance from the sample surface. Equation (1) predicts exponential decay of absorbed power as a function of depth into the sample. This results in non uniform heating of the material. Hence, longer extraction time may require for achieving same level of extraction for increased solid loading. Similar results were reported for extraction of piperine (17), curcuminoids (24), and red pigments (25) when solid loading was increased. Effect of Volume of Water The volume of water was varied from 0-1000 mL. As shown in Fig. 3, with an increase in volume, a decrease in yield as well as citral was observed after 500 mL. Low water content resulted in instantaneous heating, which leads to loss of volatile compounds or extraction of compounds which are otherwise difcult to get extracted. Water, having a polar nature, absorbs a signicant portion of microwaves which decreases the penetration depth for microwave radiation. Moreover, rise in temperature with respect to time interval relating to power dissipation can be presented by (26): DT=Dt p=qcp 2

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Effect of Solid Loading In this study solid loading was varied in the range of 1030% (w=v) (Fig. 3). For lower solid loading, the yield was found to be constant. However, citral content increased which might be due to either decrease in loss of volatiles or less extraction of higher molecular weight compounds. The decrease in yield as well as citral content was observed after 20% of solid loading. With an increase in solid loading, distribution of microwave radiation per particle decreases at a xed applied power which in turn results in low dielectric heating and, consequently, a reduced effect of microwave radiation. Also, the material near the surface of the vessel will have a higher absorption of microwaves compared the material residing in the interior part of the vessel. Microwave power absorbed per unit volume is given by Lamberts law (23): P 2bP0 exp2bz 1

where 4T is the rise in temperature; 4t is the time interval; p is the power dissipation per volume; q is the density; and cp is the specic heat. As seen from Eq. (2), with an increase in water content, power dissipation per volume decreases, leading to lower temperature rise. Due to this, higher water amount will lead to incomplete extraction of essential oil and lesser amount of citral since more amount of heat is required to reach the boiling point of water. A similar observation was reported during the extraction of triterpenoid saponins from Ganoderma atrum (27). Effect of Rehydration Time Since the maximum absorption of the microwave is possible with polar compounds, experiments were carried out with water soaked leaves for different rehydration time (0-24 h). The water soaked raw material was kept for a few minutes to drain excess water. The amount of water uptake for 50 g raw material at different rehydration time is given in Table 1. Water uptake was almost constant after 3 h.

FIG. 3. Effect of various parameters on yield and citral content (Extraction conditions for solid loading: volume of water: 500 mL, rehydration time: 1 h, power applied: 850 W, extraction time: 45 min, 1: 10%, 2: 15%, 3: 20%, 4: 25%, 5: 30%; Extraction conditions for volume of water: solid loading: 20%, rehydration time: 1 h, power applied: 850 W, extraction time: 45 min, 1: 0 mL, 2: 250 mL, 3: 500 mL, 4: 750 mL, 5: 1000 mL; Extraction condition for rehydration time: solid loading: 20%, volume of water: 500 mL, power applied: 850 W, 1: 0 h, 2: 1 h, 3: 2 h, 4: 3 h, 5: 4 h, 6: 24 h).

TABLE 1 Amount of water uptake at different rehydration time Rehydration time, h Amount of water uptake, mL 1 2 3 4 24








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Though the yield of essential oil almost remained constant with an increase in rehydration time (Fig. 3), a major reduction in extraction time from 60 min to 35 min was noticed. However, the extraction time was found to be constant for rehydration time of 3 h and onwards. The absorbed water molecule gets heated very rapidly on exposure to microwave radiation which, in turn, vaporizes and ruptures the cell. With increase in rehydration time, the amount of water molecules absorbed also increased leading to generation of more vapor. The higher vapor formation caused increased internal pressure. Internal pressure is one of the reasons for generation of primary stress on the wall, acting over a full cross section of the cell. The magnitude of primary stress is proportional to the internal pressure and the material failure occurs on exceeding the yield strength of the material (28). The faster the yield strength achieved, the lesser will be the amount of time required for the collapse of the material. Citral content was found to be almost constant over entire range of study except 24 h. The rehydration caused improvement in extraction efciency of various natural products (17, 24, 29, 30). Effect of Extraction Time The extraction time was varied to observe the effect of radiation on essential oil yield and citral content. As shown in Fig. 4, the yield increased with increase in extraction time. The rate of extraction was very fast, upto 35 min, and then it decreased for the rest of extraction. However, the yield was found to be constant after 45 min of extraction indicating the end of extraction. Citral content was found to increase with increase in extraction time and then a fall was observed which might be due to dilution effect, that is, extraction of compounds which require more time to get vaporized. A similar trend was observed for extraction of triterpenoid saponins (27) and glycyrrhizic acid (31) where no further extraction or degradation was observed after some time.

Effect of Microwave Power With an increase in power applied, microwave absorption by polar compounds gets faster, enhancing the heating rate and ultimately the rate of extraction. The extraction was carried out at 850 W and 1700 W. In both the cases, the yield and the citral content were almost constant and the extraction time reduced from 45 min to 35 min by increasing power from 850 W to 1700 W. In case of piperine (17) and curcuminoids (24) extraction, higher yield was achieved with a decreased purity due to the extraction of other impurities at higher power. Composition of Essential Oil The total ion chromatogram of essential oil is given in Fig. 5. Compositions of essential oil obtained for different experimental condition are provided in Table 2. Figure 6 shows the variation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with respect to different experimental conditions. As seen from the Table 2 and Fig. 6, oxygenated compounds dominated the composition contributing above 90% of total composition. Oxygenated compounds are found to be odoriferous and responsible for the characteristic aroma of essential oil (32). Among oxygenated compounds, citral was the major compound present, ranging from 7180%. Citral is the mixture of acyclic monoterpene aldehydes, neral and geranial. The percentage contribution of geranial (5260%) was found to be higher compared to that of neral (4048%) in citral. It is difcult to identify a clear trend which indicates the variation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with change in experimental conditions. However, oxygenated compounds were present in higher amount (approx. 9798%) in case of higher solid loading (experiment 5), solvent free extraction (experiment 6), extraction of non-rehydrated leaves (experiment 10) and higher extraction time (experiment 18). The presence of caryophyllene oxide has affected the percentage of citral content by inducing dilution effect. At lower solid loading, lower volume of water, higher rehydration time, higher extraction

FIG. 4. Effect of extraction time (Extraction conditions: solid loading: 20%, volume of water: 500 mL, rehydration time: 1 h, power applied: 850 W).

FIG. 5. Total ion chromatogram (by GC-MS) of the essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. at Extraction conditions: solid loading: 20%, volume of water: 500 mL, rehydration time: 1 h, power applied: 850 W, extraction time: 45 min (1: 6-Methyl-5-hepten2-one, 2: trans 4,5- Epoxy careen, 3: Neral, 4: Nerol, 5: Geranial, 6: Neryl acetate, 7: Caryophyllene oxide).

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TABLE 2 Chemical composition of lemongrass oil obtained at different operating conditions

Peak area % Exp 2 Volume of waterb, mL 0 250 750 1000 0 2 3 4 24 15 25 35 55 60 Rehydration timec, h Extraction timed, min Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 Exp 6 Exp 7 Exp 8 Exp 9 Exp 10 Exp 11 Exp 12 Exp 13 Exp 14 Exp 15 Exp 16 Exp 17 Exp 18 Exp 19 HD

Exp 1

Weight of raw materiala, g 75 100 125 150


Exp 20 Powere, W 1750

Compounds 0.46 0.67 0.52 5.19 2.01 5.25 0.47 13.74 2.56 11.26 10.44 1.98 1.99 1.07 1.78 0.35 0.77 3.11 0.65 0.94 1.04 1.36 2.28 0.52 4.17 0.38 0.29 0.35 0.25 1.31 0.92 0.72 1.05 0.52 0.29 0.63 0.81 0.61 1.03 0.27 0.80 0.24 2.36 0.41 0.41 0.79 0.50 0.23 2.66 0.73 2.41 0.40 0.64 0.42 1.21 5.24 0.38 0.79 0.48 0.36 0.28 0.61 0.21 0.28 0.20 0.33 0.22 0.22 2.41

Myrcene 3-Undecyne Caryophyllene

0.38 0.83


Hydrocarbon 0.54 0.71 0.53 5.72 0.32 0.94 0.93 1.21 0.40 0.18 0.23 Oxygenated Compound 2.28 1.07 1.24 0.47 0.42



2.66 0.38 3.81 4.13 1.72 0.29 3.31 5.08 1.30 0.20 4.23 5.61 6.66 3.36 1.85 5.65 2.51 0.45 1.21 1.55 0.65 0.86 3.39 1.33 3.14 3.84 4.25 3.52 9.35 4.36 4.19 3.09 2.97 9.01 3.93 4.54 10.23 4.67 3.58 3.56 4.17 0.30 0.42 0.30 0.42 0.37 0.34 0.44 0.62 0.48 0.30 0.91 0.68 1.95 0.51 0.27 0.44 0.39 31.37 31.13 34.71 34.95 32.42 29.59 36.19 33.54 30.76 33.26 34.17 35.29 34.85 35.02 30.24 32.13 30.72 34.20 33.46 42.00 46.01 45.30 44.66 43.39 43.27 39.76 40.57 40.42 46.20 46.04 42.82 43.18 37.31 41.78 43.71 44.56 43.74 41.48 1.69 1.48 0.75 2.70 1.13 4.06 5.57 6.43 5.86 4.56 6.10 5.64 5.20 3.13 4.12 2.91 2.01 1.31 1.58 2.55 3.34 3.72 4.92 2.71 2.60 3.38 4.43

2.72 3.40 35.08 45.09 1.04 3.44 96.12 1.1 95.02 80.17

6.29 3.33 29.32 42.68 2.14 4.33 100.00 1.81 98.19 72.00

6-Methyl-5hepten-2-one trans 4,5-Epoxy carene Linalool Tagetone Citrol Citronellol Citronelyl formate Neral Geranial Geranic acid Neryl acetate Caryophyllene oxide TOTAL Hydrocarbons Oxygenated Compounds Citral

97.24 97.28 97.43 97.45 98.79 98.73 96.67 96.96 97.07 98.11 98.24 97.04 97.35 98.03 94.72 98.80 94.12 98.96 97.29 1.21 1.65 0.89 2.95 1.86 1.44 1.64 1.88 0.71 0.71 6.88 1.53 1.31 3.18 1.52 3.39 2.81 1.06 1.17 96.03 95.63 96.54 94.5 96.93 97.29 95.03 95.08 96.36 97.4 91.36 95.51 96.04 94.85 93.2 95.41 91.31 97.9 96.12

73.37 77.14 80.01 79.61 75.81 72.86 75.95 74.11 71.18 79.46 80.21 78.11 78.03 72.33 72.02 75.84 75.28 77.94 74.94

Extraction conditions: Volume of water: 500 mL; Rehydration time: 1 h; Power applied: 850 W; Extraction time: 45 min. Extraction conditions: Solid loading: 20%; Rehydration time: 1 h; Power applied: 850 W; Extraction time: 45 min. c Extraction condition: Solid loading: 20%; Volume of water: 500 mL; Power applied: 850 W. d Extraction conditions: Solid loading: 20%; Volume of water: 500 mL; Rehydration time: 1 h; Power applied: 850 W. e Extraction conditions: Solid loading: 20%; Volume of water: 500 mL; Rehydration time: 1 h; Extraction time: 45 min.



Assuming microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil from leaves of lemongrass is a rate process, both the models can be represented by Eq. (3) and (4) (33). ut 1 ekt 3

where u(t) is fraction of oil extracted after time t, k is the rst order rate constant describing the extraction (min1). k k ut 1 Fe 1 F e 4 1t 2t
FIG. 6. Distribution of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds for different operating conditions.

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time, and higher power, percentage of caryophyllene oxide increased and vice versa. As the power applied is constant, effective absorption of power by the raw material is inversely proportional to the solid loading, hence, ineffective heating. Also, with increase in water volume, incomplete extraction was observed. In case of higher extraction time, enough time was provided for the extraction of compounds which were difcult to get extracted otherwise. Higher rehydration time provided better permeability of microwaves into cell leading to complete extraction. With higher applied power, rapid volatilization of essential oil along with water takes place giving complete extraction in lesser time. Kinetic Modelling Data were collected for extraction of essential oil from lemongrass at 20% solid loading (w=v), 500 mL water, 1 h rehydration time and 850 W power to test desorption kinetic models viz. one-site kinetic model and two-site kinetic model. No attempts have been reported yet to apply kinetic models in case of MAE. Here, an attempt has been made to t the experimental data with the models.

where u(t) is a fraction of the oil extracted after time t, k1 is the rst-order rate constant describing the quickly released fraction, that is, F (min1) and k2 is the rst-order rate constant describing the slowly released fraction, that is, (1-F) (min1). Using the MATLAB program, the rate constants were determined by tting experimental data with one-site as well as two-site kinetic models by minimizing the error between the experimental and predicted values. Figure 7 shows the kinetic model t for the extraction of lemongrass oil. Rate constant for one-site kinetic model was found to be 0.0751 min1 with an error of 6.33% between experimental and predicted values indicating a good t. In case of a two-site kinetic model, the rate constants (k1 and k2) were found to be 0.0649 min1 and 0.1406 min1, respectively, with an error of 7.34% demonstrating ne agreement. Hence, both the models can be used to describe the behavior of MAE of essential oil from lemongrass. However, a detailed study at different operating conditions is required for precise simulation and scale up. Surface Morphology of Leaves Adaxial side of lemongrass leaf was examined by SEM. The comparison of micrographs of leaf before extraction

FIG. 7. Kinetic model t for MAE of essential oil from lemongrass.



In both the cases, oxygenated compounds are present in a higher amount. Citral is the main component found in essential oil extracted by either technique. A higher amount of citral (80.01%) is present in oil extracted by MAE compared to that by HD (72%) while the percentage of linalool is high (6.29%) in hydrodistilled essential oil. A higher quality of essential oil can be obtained by employing MAE.
FIG. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of lemongrass leaves, a. Before microwave radiation; b. After microwave radiation. A. non photosynthetic tissue B. cells containing essential oil.

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(Fig. 8a) and post extraction (Fig. 8b) shows that the microwave radiation caused physical changes in the structure of leaves. The cells containing essential oil were found to be present adjacent to non-photosynthetic tissues (34). After microwave extraction, the cells were empty while the non-photosynthetic tissues were only dried. Since the polar compounds have absorbed the microwave radiation efciently, instantaneous energy transfer and vaporization of the compounds occurred which led to rupture of cell walls. This phenomenon caused the release of volatiles from the cell wall, thus, emptying the cells. Similar morphological changes were also observed by Riela et al. (18) and Ferhat et al. (32). Comparison of Different Techniques Better quality was obtained for the essential oil extracted by MAE under the conditions of 20% solid loading (w=v), 500 mL water, 1 h rehydration time, 45 min extraction time, and 850 W power; hence, the results obtained for this experiment were used for comparison purpose. Yield of essential oil was found to be the same (1.04%) for HD and MAE (exp 3). HD required 90 min to treat 50 g of plant material with an energy consumption of 0.75 kWh while MAE was complete in 45 min by treating 100 g of plant material and using 0.6375 kWh. Thus, reduction in time and energy is possible by employing MAE of essential oil from lemongrass which may further be translated in terms of cost of extraction. Regarding environmental impact, the calculated quantity of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere is higher in case of HD (1153.85 g.mL1 of essential oil) compared to MAE (490.38 g.mL1 of essential oil). The calculations were based on the consideration that 800 g of carbon dioxide will be emitted while combusting coal to obtain 1 kWh (32). Thus, with reduced energy consumption and carbon footprints, MAE can be considered a potential green method for extracting essential oil from the leaves of lemongrass. The essential oils extracted either by MAE or HD has almost similar chemical constituents; however, the percentage varies with respect to the technique employed.

CONCLUSIONS Microwave assisted extraction was employed for rapid and efcient extraction of essential oil from Cymbopogon exuosus (Steud.) Wats. (lemongrass) for the rst time. The study showed that the various parameters viz. solid loading, volume of water, rehydration time, extraction time, and applied power have signicant inuence on the yield and composition of essential oil. Essential oil was found to be rich in oxygenated compounds (>90%), mainly citral. The citral content varied from 7180% with change in operating conditions. A comparison with the conventional method revealed MAE to be superior in terms of better extraction efciency with reduction in time and energy consumption. The low carbon footprints of MAE highlight its environment friendliness. Moreover, a good t for one-site (k 0.0751 min1) and two site (k1 0.0649 min1 and k2 0.1406 min1) kinetic models was observed. The results obtained can be further utilized for optimization of parameters in order to maximize the yield and citral content as well as for designing of the process. REFERENCES
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