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Windows 2000 Professional

Windows 2000 Professional is the successor to Widows NT workstation 4 and look much like Windows 98. you can run Windows 2000 Professional on a standalone machine , on a small netwok or on a lar e cor!orate network. " features include a new , sim!lified #eskto!, "nternet $%!lorer &, ti ht security o!tions, Plu -and-Play su!!ort for hardware,and easy-to-use Wi'ard. (i . ).) shows the #eskto! in Windows 2000 Professional.

The new features in windows 2000 *er+er includes the followin ,! raded user account and system mana ement -cti+e #irectory "nternet and intranet su!!ort .!eratin sta/ility Prossin !ower "nternet *ecurity 0er/eros authentication *u!!ort for a ma%imum of fout !rocessors

Comparing Windows 2000 Professional and other Windows Operating System


1ou can u! system2 rade to Windows 2000 Professional from the followin o!eratin Windows 3.) .*42 Windows 9& windows 98 Windows NT 3.&) Workstation Windows NT Workstation 4

Applications and Windows 2000 Professional


1ou can , howe+er , do your own com!ati/ility testin if you want . 5ere are thr ste!s 2 ). "nstall and o!en the a!!lication . 2. 6erify that the followin functions work 2 !rintin sa+in files 7ustomi'in menus $%!ortin data 7uttin and !astin throu h the cli!/oard 3. 8un routine tasks to +erify that their sta/ility has not /een affected. 9efore !roceedin with your installation, your to-do list needs to include the followin 2 :ake sure your hardware meets the minimum re;uirements for Windows 2000 Professional. 7ollect network, work rou! and domain information from your system administrator if you will /e the !art of a network. 9ack u! your current files /efore u! radin , in case you need to restore your current o!eratin system. Turn off or uninstall your +irus-!rotectin software. Po!ular anti+irus !ro rams such as :c- free anti+irus +ersion 3 for Windows NT and "9:<s -nti+irus are not com!ati/le with Windows 2000 Professional. #ecide /etween u! radin your current o!eratin system and makin a com!letely new installation of Windows 2000 Professional. 7hoose the file system you want to use.

8ead the 8ead)st.t%t file on the Windows 2000 Professional 7#. This file contains late-/reakin information that may affect your installation.

Windows 2000 Professional Hardware Requirements


9efore you install Windows 2000 Professional, make sure your com!uter meets these minimum hardware re;uirements2 - )== :5' Pentium micro!rocessor. This is an a/solute re;uirement> we su est a 300 :5' Pentium "" for a deskto! P7 and a 233 :5 ' Processor in a note /ook com!uter . -t least 32 :9 of 8-:> =4:9 is recommended, and 4?9 is the ma%imum. -t least a 2?9 hard disk with a minimum of =&0 :9 of free s!ace. - 6?- or hi her-resolution monitor. 0ey/oard. :ouse or com!ati/le !ointin de+ice. 7#-8.: dri+e. 5i h-density 3.&-inch flo!!y disk, unless your 7#-8.: dri+e is /oota/le and su!!orts startin the *etu! !ro ram from a 7#. (or a network installation, you will also need a com!ati/le network ada!ter card, a connection to the network, and access to the network share that contains the *etu! files.

Performin a New "nstallation


"f your current o!eratin system is not su!!orted, if you want to install Windows 2000 Professional in a dual-/oot confi uration, or if your com!uter has a /lank hard disk, you need to start your com!uter usin either. The *etu! /oot flo!!y disks. The Window 2000 Professional 7#- if your 7#-8om dri+e is /oota/le. 7ertain 7#- 8.: dri+es can /oot from the 7# and automatically launch *etu!.

To start a new installation usin the *etu! /oot flo!!y disks, follow these ste!s2 ). With your com!uter turned off, insert the Window 2000 *etu! /oot #isk ) into your flo!!y disk dri+e. 2. *tart your com!uter. The *etu! !ro ram starts automatically. 3. (ollow the instruction on the screen.

To start a new installation from the 7#, follow these ste!s2 ). 2. *tart your com!uter /y runnin your current o!eratin system, and then insert the Window 2000 Professional 7# into 7#-8.: dri+e. "f Window automatically detects the 7#, click "nstall Windows 2000. The *etu! !ro ram then starts. "f Window does not automatically detect the 7#, start *etu! from the 8un command. "n Window 9&, Window 98, or Windows NT 4, click *tart, and then click 8un. "n Window NT 3.&) or Window 3.), in Pro ram :ana er, click (ile, and then click 8un. -t the !rom!t, ty!e the followin command, re!lacin the letter d with the letter of your 7#-8.: dri+e2 d !i"#$winnt"2%e&e "f you are usin 3.), ty!e the followin command at the !rom!t, re!alacin the letter d with the letter of your 7#-8.: dri+e. d !i"#$!winnt%e&e 3. Press the $nter key and follow the instructions on the screen.

NT(*
NT(* is the file system recommended for use with Window 2000 Professional. NT(* is a hi h-!erformin file system that !ro+ides the followin ad+anta es o+er the (-T and (-T* file system2 "ncreased file security controls. 9etter disk com!ression. (ile encry!tion. *u!!ort for lar e hard of u! to 2 tera/ytes @T9A, and, as dri+e si'e increases, !erformance does not de rade as it does with (-T. 9etter !rotection from +iruses. :ost +iruses are written to attack (-T and (-T*32 file system and don<t know what do when they encounter NT(*. Bon filenames. NT(* creates /acku! records of the :aster (ile Ta/le @:(TACthe N(T* +ersion of the (-T file allocation ta/leCso, if the /oot sector of your hard disk is dama ed /y accident, the information can /e re!laced fron one of the /acku! records. This means you are much less likely to lose data due to disk !ro/lem.

:*-#.*, Window 3.%, Window 9&,and Window 98 do not understand NT(*, so if you are usin a dual-/oot confi uration with Window2000 Professional and one of these o!eratin systems, you won<t /e a/le to read the files in the NT(* Partition frin the other o!eratin system on your com!uter.

'A( and 'A( "2


(-T 32 is an enhanced +ersion of the (-T file system and is used on dri+e from &)2 :9 to 2 T9 in si'e. (-T and (-T*32 offer /ackward com!ati/ility with o!eratin systems other than Windows 2000 Professional. "f you are settin u! a dual-/oot confi uration and it is im!ortant that you /e a/le to access from :*#.*, Window 3.%, Windows 9& or Windows98 the files you create with Windows with Windows 2000 Professional, you should consider usin (-T or (-T*32. ,se (-T if the Dade disk !artition you want to use with Windows 2000 Professional is smaller than 2?9, and choose (-T*32 if the !artition is 2?9 or lar er. "n fact, if you choose (-T in the *etu! !ro ram and t he !artition is lar er than 2?9> *etu! automatically formats the !artition as (-T*32. #e!endin on your e%istin hard confi uration, you ha+e se+eral !artitionin o!tions when installin Windows2000 Professional2 "f your hard disk is un!artitioned, you can create and si'e the Windows 2000 Professional !artition. "f the e%istin !artition is lar e enou h, you can install Windows2000 Professional in that !artition "f the e%istin !artition is too small /ut you ha+e enou h un!artitioned s!ace, you can create a new Windows2000 Professional !artition in that s!ace. "f the hard disk has an e%istin !artition, you can delete it to create more un!artitioned disk s!ace for the Windows2000 !rofessional !artition. #eletin an e%istin !artition also erases any data on that !artition.

What is Internet?
Internet is a global collection of computers connected to one other. This global network links thousand of computers at universities, research institutions, government agencies and business houses throughout the world.

Scope of Internet
Electronic Mail (E-mail)
Electronic mail is fast, easy and economical way to send messages to anyone having an Internet account. Through this most widely used feature on the internet you can e change messages with your family, friends and business associates around the world. !long with the messages, one can also send pictures, audio and animation.

Information storehouse
"ou can easily access information from Internet regarding any sub#ect. internet is very much like a library with enormous information on any sub#ect.

Software and Programs


There are thousands of free programs and software available on Internet. "ou can transfer them to them to your hard disk through a process called $ile Transfer %rotocol.

Entertainment
&undreds of simple games are available for free internet, like chess, football etc. Internet also allows you to review the current movies as well as indulge in interactive conversation with people around the world.

Online Shopping / Electronic commerce


'nline shopping means buying or selling on the net. "ou can order goods and services on the Internet such as computers, softwares, dress, vegetables etc.

E(uipments )e(uired for an Internet *onnection


$or using Internet, you need the following e(uipments+

Computer
!ny good I,- compatible, -acintosh or ./I0 computer that has good memory 123, or more4, at least 56 -, )!- or more and 277 -&8 %rocessor.

Modem
-odem is a device that is used to transmit data over the network. "our computer sends data in binary code to your modem which converts the binary coded data to an analogue signal. This data then travels along the telephone network. When data reaches the destination computer, the modem connected to that computer converts the analogue signal back to binary coded data which can be read by your computer. Thus the modem transmits data over the network. There are two types of modems+ E ternal modem and Internal modem. The E ternal modem has to connect to your computer and your telephone line with cables and electric socket while the Internal modem is already built inside your computer.

We !rowser
The software used to navigate through the web is known as a browser. The most popular browser types today are /etscape /avigator and -icrosoft Internet E plorer 9.7:9.9.

"elephone #ine
It is essential to have telephone connection to get connected to Internet. !ll the data and information pass through the telephone line as analogue signal, if you use the ;call waiting< facility.

Internet Ser$ice Pro$ider (ISP)


If you have the computer with a web browser, a modem and a telephone line connected to your computer, you now need an Internet connection. "ou can get Internet connection from various Internet Service %rovider 1IS%s 4. Earlier, in India, Internet connection was only available through =S/> 1=idesh Sanchar /igam >imited4. /ow, you can choose your IS% from among 527 companies which have been granted IS% licenses. !mong the most popular IS%s are =S/>, -T/> and -antra 'nline.

)*R+S,S
*-(RO.+C(*O$%ecuta/le o/Dects , initially created /y a !ro rammer , ha+in the ca!a/ility to hide 4 re!licate themsel+es in some other e%ecuta/le o/Dects, and o!tionally ha+in the ca!a/ility to destruction are referred to as +iruses.

(/P,S O' )*R+S,S


9asically , +iruses can /e di+ided accordin to their host. 0% 1oot Sector )iruses21S)s 3 4 6iruses which infect #98 @#os 9oot 8ecord49oot *ectorA 4 :98 @:aster /oot 8ecord4 Partition Ta/le A are referred to 9oot *ector 6iruses. These +iruses take controls of the system /efore o!eratin system loadin and hence are more !owerful. 2% 'ile )iruses 4 6iruses which infect e%ecuta/le files are referred to as file +iruses.(ile +iruses can /e classified accordin to their tar et of infection as follows 2 i. .7.: (ile "nfectors ii. .$E$ file infectors iii. ,ser interface @7.::-N# .7.:A infectors i+. $%ecuta/le file infectors +. *oftware /ased infectors "% 5ultipurpose )iruses 4 :ulti!ur!ose +iruses are ad+anced technolo y +iruses which are ca!a/le of infectin #98 and 4or :98 as well as e%ecuta/le file@sAand hence these +iruses s!read ra!idly. These +iruses are also called as dual action +iruses. -n $%am!le F Paralysis To understand the function of multi!ur!ose infectors " ha+e desi ned a sam!le +irus named Paralysis> it is the 4th +ersion of it which acts as :ulti!ur!ose infector. Summary and Program 6isting of Paralysis )ersion 7 Name 2 P-8-B1*"* .ri in 2 Nasik, )994 Ty!e 2 7.:,$E$ ,*tealth *elf *ecured :98,(98 "nfector *tealth Techni;ue 2 shows ori inal sector instead of the infected one.

Infection -ethod

+ !s a ,S= , Shift :)eplace , as a file virus ,8e!lacement . *hift the ori inal sector and re!lace it /y itself in case of :984 (98. .+erwrites first &)2 /ytes of .$E$, .7.: files. 2 Partial "ndirect 2 &)2 9ytes 2 40 2 To! of the 8-:.

"nfection -cti+ity 6irus 7ode *i'e :emory *i'e @8-:A :emory location

)*R+S S/5P(O5S 0% .is8 1ased Symptoms


i% .is8 Space Reduction The disk space reduces suddenly without any cause or reduction in disk space continues when the disk is being accessed .this is because the virus creates multiple copies of itself , every time the disk is accessed ,to achieve replication i.e. the virus increases the file si8e of the infected file to store its own code . ii% &irector' Structure &amage ( Some viruses destruct directory structure intentionally to achieve replication :data loss.