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Ministry of Education Minusinsk Pedagogical College

English Grammar VERB VERB - 4

A self- study reference and practice book for students

With tests

T. N. Kaufmann

Minusinsk 2006

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CONTENTS
Grammar guide Past perfect simple Starting activities Past perfect continuous Starting activities Test

Grammar guide
The verb
The verb denotes an action.

MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITON

SIMPLE
Eg. to ask, to build

DERIVATIVES Eg. to criticize


to justify

COMPOUND
Eg. to undertake to overgrow

PHRASAL VERBS
Eg to come in

BASIC VERB FORMS


THE INFINITIVE Eg..to work THE PAST INDEFINITE Eg. worked PARTICIPLE 2 Eg.worked PARTICIPLE 1 Eg.. working

VERBS HAVE GOT 2 GROUPS

REGULAR verbs

IRREGULAR verbs

SYNTACTIC STANDPOINS
Intransitive verbs Transitive verbs

VERBS HAVE GOT 5 CATEGORIES

The category of person. .

The category of number.

The category of tense.

The category of aspect.

The category of perfect.

1 Past perfect simple


Form
We form the past perfect simple with had + past participle. AFFIRMATIVE I had you had he had she had it had worked we had you havd they had Contractions d = had hadnt = had not NEGATIVE I had not you had not he had not she had not it had not worked we had not you had not they had not QUESTION had I had you had he had she had it worked? had we had you had they

Some verbs are regular, other verbs are irregular: - The past participle of regular verbs ends in ed eg work worked; play-played; live-lived. - Irregular verbs have different past participle forms eg come-come; see-seen; go-gone.

USE
When we are talking about the past, we sometimes want to refer back to an earlier past.

Earlier past

Past

Present

(7 oclock) (20 min. past 7) she had gone out When I telephoned Sue e.g. When I telephoned Sue, she had gone out.

We use the past perfect (e.g.she had gone out) to talk about something which had happened before the past time we are thinking about (e.g when I telephoned Sue).

More examples: We arrived at the cinema at 8.00, but the film had started at 7.30. When I spoke to the woman I realized I had met her somewhere before. The past perfect is the past form of the present perfect. Compare: PRESENT PERFECT I havent eaten all day today, so Im very hungry now. PAST PERFECT I hadnt eaten all day yesterday, so I was very hungry when I got home.

Compare the uses of the past perfect and past simple: We got to the station at 8.00, but the train had left at 7.30. When Sue arrived, we had had dinner. (We had dinner, then Sue arrived.) We got to the station at 7.20 and the train left at 7.30. When Sue arrived, we had diner. (Sue arrived, then we had dinner.)

Accuracy Practice
1. Peter arrived late at different places yesterday. What had happened when he arrived at each place? Example: When he arrived at the station, his train had already left. the station his train / already / leave the theatre the play / already / start the post office it / already / close the furniture shop they / sell / the table he wanted his friends house his friend / go out the football stadium the game / nearly / finish 2. Choose the correct answer. We had just started lunch when the telephone had rung / rang. When I opened the safe, the money had disappeared / disappeared. Andrew was late for school yesterday. When he got to the classroom, the lesson had started / started. They waited until everyone was ready and then they had started / started the meeting. 3. Put one verb in each sentence into the past perfect simple and the other verb into the pat simple. Andrew _____ (do) the test before, so he _____ (find) it very easy. I _____ (not/laugh) at the joke because I _____ (hear) it before. We _____ (leave) the restaurant when we _____ (have ) dinner. When I found my wallet I _____ (discover) that somebody _____ (took) the credit cards out of it.

4. Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets. You went to Jills house but she wasnt there. (she / go / out) You went back to your home town after many years. It wasnt the same as before. (it / change / a lot) I invited Rachel to the party but she couldnt come. (she / arrange / to do something else) You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film / already / begin) I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years) I offered Sue something to eat but she wasnt hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast) 5. Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in brackets. Example: The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight. (fly) He had never flown before. or He hadnt flown before. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me. (see) I . before. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasnt very good at it because it was his first game. (play) He Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there. (be) We .

6. Use the sentences on the left to complete the paragraph on the right. These sentences are in the order in which they happened so (1) happened before (2), (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph begins with the underlined sentence, so sometimes you need the past perfect. (1) Somebody broke into the office during the night. We arrived at work in the morning and (2) We arrived at work in the found that somebody . into the office during the night. So we morning. (3) We called the police. morning. (1) Ann went out. (2) I tried to phone her this I tried to phone Ann this morning but .. no answer. She out. (3) There was no answer. (1) Jim came back from holiday a few days ago. I met Jim a few days ago. He .. just . . He .. . (2) I met him the same day. (3) He looked very well. (1) Kevin wrote to Sally many times. (2) She never replied to his Yesterday Kevin . . He . very surprised. He many (3) Yesterday he had a phone times but she . . 7

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call from her. (4) He was very surprised. 7. Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect or past simple. Was Tom at the party when you arrived? No, he .. (go) home. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. The house was very quite when I got home. Everybody . (go) to bed. Sorry Im late. The car .. (break) down on my way here. We were driving along the road when we .. (see) a car which (break) down, so we . (stop) to see if we could help. 8. A group of students are remembering happy moments in their lives. Complete what Hugo says, using the past perfect, and the ideas given. (I climb a mountain). (The rope doesnt break). . (My girlfriend agrees to marry me). . (A letter comes with good news about my exam). .. (I spend a wonderful holiday in Wales). .. (My favourite team wins the football championship). 9. If a room is noisy, we often have to ask questions about the information we havent heard. What can you ask if you dont hear all of the words Hugo says? Example: climed the mountain in sentence 1, so you ask:

What had you done?


the rope in sentence 2, so you ask: What. marry me in sentence 3, so you ask: What .. good news about my exams in sentence 4, so you ask: What .. Wales in sentence 5, so you ask: Where .. football championship in sentence 6, so you ask: What .

10. Choose verbs from the list to complete the sentences. Use the past perfect. die eat beat stop take I was the one who made the cake and by the time I got home they .. it all. Anne went to Mrs Peters funeral yesterday. Oh dear! I didnt even know that Mrs Peters . Charlie beat Fred at tennis for the first time yesterday. He (not) Fred before. I saw Sophie smoking. I was disappointed. She told me she last year. Im sorry, I didnt know you lent it to Frances. I thought she .. it from your room.

Starting activities
What happened first? What in pairs. Write 1 by the action which happened first and 2 by the action which happened after it. Example: 8

The audience left (2) after the film had finished. (1) a We got married in 1990 just a year after we had fallen in love. b As soon as I got home, I saw that someone had broken into my flat. c When he crashed the car, he had just drunk four glasses of wine. d Unfortunately we arrived at the cinema after the film had started. e By the time I got home they had eaten all the cake.

A thing of two halves Work in pairs, A and B. Without showing B, A writes the first half only of five sentences using a verb in the past perfect each time, like this:As soon as we had finished lunch Start with: when, by the time, as soon as, after. Without looking at what A is writing, B writes the second half of five sentences using past simple verbs, like this: John stayed at home. Put the sentence halves together, changing them until they made sense. Example: As soon as we had finished lunch John went home. Re-write all five sentences putting Bs second halves (with the past simple verbs) first. Example: John went home as soon as we had finished lunch.

2 Past perfect continuous


Form
We form the past perfect continuous with had been + -ing. AFFIRMATIVE
I had been you had been he had been she had been it had been working we had been you had been they had been

NEGATIVE
I had not been you had not been he had not been she had not been it had not been working we had not been you had not been they had not been

QUESTION
had I had you had he had she had it been working? had we had you had they

Contractions d = had

hadnt = had not

USE
When we are talking about the past, we sometimes want to refer back to an earlier past.

Earlier past

Past

Present
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(2 oclock) (3 oclock) Dave had been driving for an hour when his car broke down.

We use the past perfect continuous (e.g. Dave had been driving for an hour) to talk about something which had been in progress up to the past time we are talking about (e.g. when his car broke down). More examples: Id been walking for about half an hour when it suddenly started to rain. Mr Woods had been working for 50 years when he finally retired in 1965. The past perfect continuous is the past form of the present perfect continuous. Compare: PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Ive been working hard all day, so Im very tired now. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Id been working hard all day, so I was very tired last night.

Accuracy Practice
1. Complete the sentences using the past continuous of the verbs in brackets. Marias sister .. (study) at university for eight years before she finally passed her exams. Im really sorry I was so late last night. Thats OK. We .. (not / wait) long. The strange thing was that we .. (just / talk) about ghosts when we heard the noise upstairs. Robert moved from Manchester to London in 1988. How long .. (he / live) in Manchester? 2. Join each idea in A with an idea from B. Make sentences using the past perfect continuous of the verbs in brackets. A B I felt very cold because they were lost I (play) tennis they were very tired The childrens hair was wet because I finally went to see the doctor I (not/feel) well for weeks before I (stand) outside for over two hours They (travel) all day so they (swim) in the sea They (drive) for about half an hour I was feeling hot and sticky when they realized

3. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. I was very tired when I arrived home. (I / work / hard all day) .. The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired. (they / play / football) . There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes. (somebody / smoke / in the room) ... 10

Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She w as frightened and didnt know where she was. (she / dream) . When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off. (he / watch / TV) ..

4. Read the situations and complete the sentences. We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain. We when . I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realized that I was in the wrong restaurant. I.. for 20 minutes when I .. . Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down. At the time the factory .., Sarah .. for five years. I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience suddenly began shouting. The orchestra . when . 5. The government of Pacifica started an investigation into its security after several of its secret agents went over to its enemy, Arctica. Complete the sentences from the investigators report, using the verbs in brackets. Use a negative where the meaning of the sentence requires it. Some of our agents (work) for the enemy for several years. We (give away) secrets to the enemy over a long period. The departments in our security services (cooperate) well with each other. Our most trusted agent in Arctica (have) .. problems in her marriage. The enemy (listen) to conversations between our agents, using secret listening devices. Our agents (receive) enough money to carry out their operations. We ought to have guessed that something was wrong; over a period of several months we (get) .. any useful information out of Arctica. The enemy (feed) . us false information. For several weeks, one of our agents in Arctica (send) . , messages in the wrong code. We should have realized that he had been captured. The conclusion: our security service (carry out) .. their duties efficiently. 6. Choose verbs from the list to complete the sentences. Use the past perfect progressive. smoke play visit read steal When I went into the room I could smell cigarette smoke. Obviously, somebody in there. As soon as they caught him, he told them everything. He .. money from the company and using it to pay for his holidays. By the time the match had finished they .. for two hours. By the time she got better I .. her in hospital for six months. By the end of May I still hadnt finished the book and I .. it for six months.

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Starting activities
A good party Work in pairs. Imagine that the class had a party last week (where?) but something delayed you on your way there (what?). Decide what people in the class had been doing at the party (and for how long?) before you arrived. Use the past perfect progressive, like this: By the time we arrived at the party, Maria had been dancing for two hours.

Practice Activities
An insurance claim Work in pairs, A and B. Last year A went on holiday. It was the worst holiday of As life. As wife/husband got food poisoning and had to go to hospital. A also had a car crash. And while A was on the beach, having a good time, somebody broke into the hotel room and stole some clothes, a radio and some jewellery. Fortunately, A had taken out holiday insurance. A is now at the insurance office, making an insurance claim. B is the insurance officer. Person A B does not want to pay you any money on your insurance claim. Persuade her/him. Be ready to answer these questions. The food poisoning (day two of the holiday) In the evening your wife/husband was ill. You had both had lunch at a nice little restaurant, near the beach. What had you both eaten? Had you been eating shellfish on holiday? Had you been drinking the local wine? After you had eaten the meal, how long was it before your wife/husband began to feel ill? The car crash (day three of the holiday) You crashed the car on a pretty mountain road. How long had you been driving before the crash? Had you had anything at all to drink? Had you ever driven this make of car before? (Which make was it? A Ford? A Volkswagen? A Citron?) The robbery from the hotel room (day four of the holiday) During the day your hotel room was robbed. Had you locked the door when you went out? Had you handed the key in at reception? Had you been sunbathing on the beach for long? B will start when you are ready. Person B

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You are an insurance officer. Here are some questions for A and some things to say to her/him. You do not want to pay As insurance claim. Tell A why not. The food poisoning (day two of the holiday) The representative had warned Mr and Mrs A not to eat at the little restaurants near the beach. They are lucky to be alive. If Mr and Mrs A had been eating shellfish it is not surprising that one of them was ill. Had they been eating shellfish? Had they been drinking wine with the meal? When had As wife/husband started to feel ill? The car crash (day three of the holiday) The police said A had been drinking before the car crash. Had A been drinking? Had A ever driven this make of car before? How long had A been driving before the crash? The robbery from the hotel room (day four of the holiday) The hotel receptionist had told Mr and Mrs A, several times, not to go out without locking the room door. Mr and Mrs A had never handed their key in at reception, not once. Mr and Mrs A had lost their room key twice during the first two days of the holiday. How long had they been sunbathing on the beach? You start when you and A are ready.

The trial of Sammy Banks Sammy Banks had been playing cards with some friends. The friends say he had been drinking. He then drove home, late at night, which was wrong of him. He had been driving for half an hour when he hit a pedestrian, who had been walking along a narrow country road. Sammy drove on. When a policeman stopped him Sammy said he was going to report the accident when he got home. This is Sammys trial. Work in pairs (A and B) or in groups of four. In pairs, A is Sammy and B is the lawyer asking questions. In groups of four there is a prosecution and a defence lawyer, both asking questions, Sammy and a judge. The judge controls the activity. Use past perfect, past simple and past perfect progressive questions and answers where you can. Use the ideas below to help you. Ideas Exactly how much had Sammy drunk at the card game? Had Sammy been driving too fast when she/he hit the pedestrian? Did Sammy stop when she/he hit the pedestrian, or just drive on? What was the pedestrian wearing? Dark or light clothes? Work as a class. The judges from some of the pairs or groups sum up the trial. Make separate lists of past perfect, past progressive and past simple sentences from the trial.

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Test# 1

1. Put the verb into the most suitable form, past continuous, past perfect or past perfect continuous. It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours were having.. (have) a party. We were good friends. We had been knowing.. (know) each other for a long time. John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he was walking .. (walk) so fast. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She had run.. (run). When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They were eating.. (eat). When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty but their stomachs were full. They had eaten.. (eat). Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He was looking.. (look) for his contact lens. When I arrived, Kate had waited .. (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I was late and she had been waiting.. (wait) for a very long time. I was sad when I sold my car. I had been having.. (have) it for a very long time. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We .had been travelling. (travel) for more than 24 hours. 2. Complete the newspaper report below using a suitable form of the verb in brackets. Maria Campos (1 become) had become. a rising star in the Progressive Party. She (2 begin) had begun. her political career while she (3 study)was studing . at Woodsville University. When she first (4 stand) had stood. as a candidate for Woodsville, she (5 not win)had not won . many votes Woodsville is a traditional town, and no woman (6 ever be) had ever been. a candidate there before. They (7 elect) had elected. the same man, year after year, she told me, and they (8 just laugh) were loughing. at me when I (9 get up) had got up. to speak. But she was the winning candidate in the next election, and since then she (10 show ) had been showing. herself to be a hardhitting speaker who (11 never be)had never been . afraid to say what she thinks. In recent months she (12 fight) had fought. hard to improve the position of women. She told me the reason. I began this campaign because women (13 continually write) had been writing . to me, complaining of how their husbands (14 treat) had treated. them. Sometimes their husbands (15 throw them out) had throwed . of the family home and left them without any possessions. The law (16 always take) had took. the husbands side in each cases. When I (17 interview) had interviewed. Maria Campos last week, she (18 plan) was planing. a new campaign on this question. She (19 already persuade) had persuaded. some of the countrys most important legal experts to support her. The law must be changed, she (20 tell) had told me. 14

3. Wendy is telling Jo about some of the difficulties she had on her wedding day. Write the verbs in italics in a suitable form. WENDY: Well, first of all, I couldnt get my wedding dress to fit. The dressmaker 1 had made a mistake in the measurements. JO: 2Had You tried it on in the dressmakers before that? WENDY: 3Id had a first fitting two weeks before, but 4I had not tried on the final version. There hadnt been time. 5 I had made so many other arrangements for the wedding. Anyway, after my sister 6 had altered the dress with her sewing machine, Dave phoned to say he couldnt go ahead with the wedding. He said he wasnt well. 7 Hed been sick that morning. JO: 8 Had He celebrated the night before? WENDY: Oh yes. 9 He had had a good time with some of the man from his work. And I suppose with all the excitement 10 he had slept well. But I thought he had other reasons. Anyway, I was so angry 11 Id almost decided to call the whole thing off. But then he phoned again. 12 He had talked to his father JO: 13 Was His father giving him a few words of fatherly advice? WENDY: Yes, I suppose that was it. Anyway, 14 hed calmed down, and he wanted to go ahead. And we did. And weve been happy ever since. 4. What could you say in these situations? Write your own ideas. Use the tense in brackets. Make the verb negative if necessary. The police ask you about your activities at the time a crime was committed. Answer the question. I _was calling to_my mother and couldnt see anything______________________________ (past progressive) You are a teacher. You see that the homework you expected from one pupil is missing. What do you ask? Why ___havent you done the homework?____________________ (present perfect) You are surprised that a friend doesnt know what happened at a meeting. Is it possible that she wasnt at the meeting? Ask your friend a question. ___________________________Did you be at_______ the meeting? (past simple) Someone asks you your reason for not coming to your teams football practice. Answer the question. The reason was that I felt very bad__________________ (past simple) You are sorry about a friends recent illness. What do you tell your friend? I am sorry that _you have got a cold_____________________ (present perfect) You remember on occasion when you were punished as a child. Say what led up to it. I __broke a cup_______________________ (past prfect) Some students are discussing why Pacifica went to war with Arctica fifty years ago. You give your opinion. I think it was because ___they had had bad__relationship_________________ (past perfect) A friend tells you that he has passed his driving test. You wonder if this was expected. Ask a question. ____Was it difficult?____________________________ (past simple) You hear that your friend Ann has been in a car accident. You wonder if she was the driver. Ask a question. ___Was you looking out?_________________________________ (past progressive) 5. Past perfect or past simple? Put in the right form of the verb in brackets. When Sarah got off the bus it was raining heavily; she _went ____ (go) into a shop to buy a new umbrella because she ___had left___ (leave) her old umbrella at home.

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He ____retired_ (retire) from work early, but he _had worked____ (work) hard all his life. As soon as he __saw___ (see) her, he just _had lauhged____ (laugh). As soon as he __had visited___ (visit) her in hospital and knew she was all right, he _caught____ (catch) the next bus home.

6. Past perfect or past perfect progressive. Put in the correct form of the verb in brackets. PLAYER: My best moment in the match was when I realized the game 1_was finishing____ (finish) and I 2 _am becoming____ (become) a tennis champion. I 3 _had won____ (win)! At that moment I 4 __had become___ (become) the best tennis player in the world. REPORTER: And when you won, how long 5 _have you been playing____ (you / play) tennis? PLAYER: I started just before I finished school. That means I 6have been plaing _____ (play) for about six years when I won Wimbledon. REPORTER: You 7 _had bit____ (beat) some good players before you won that tournament. PLAYER: Yes. Ever since I started as a tennis professional I 8 __have been winning___ (win) games regularly, until my injury. REPORTER: Yes. What did you do to hurt your shoulder so badly? PLAYER: I 9 ___had not hit__ (not / hit) the ball weel for some time, so I practiced a lot. Then one day I realized I 10 _was damaging____ (damage) my shoulder by trying too hard. I had to give up playing tennis because of it.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Adamson, D. Practise your Tenses. Longman, 2001. 2. Beaumont, D., Granger, C. English Grammar. Heinemann, 2004. 3. Dean, M. English Grammar Lessons. O.U.P., 2004. 4. Dooley, J., Evans, V. Grammarway 3. Express Publishing, 2004. 5. Dooley, J., Evans, V. Grammarway 4. Express Publishing, 2004. 6. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use. C.U.P., 2001.

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