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LECTURE 5 NARROWBAND ANGLE MODULATION

A/Prof Zhuquan Zang and Dr. Narottam Das Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering Curtin University Perth, Western Australia

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

LECTURE 5: ANGLE MODULATION


In angle modulation, the carrier amplitude remains constant and the angle c (t) of the carrier wave is varied according to the baseband modulating signal m(t). An important feature of angle modulation is that it can provide better discrimination against noise and interference than amplitude modulation.Two examples of angle modulation will be discussed in this lecture: 1. Phase modulation (PM) 2. Frequency modulation (FM). The main dierence between PM and FM is in how c (t) is responding to the modulating signal m(t). The general angle-modulated sinusoid can be expressed as c(t) = Ac cos[c (t)] = Ac cos[c t + c (t) + 0 ] where Ac is the constant carrier amplitude, c is the angular carrier frequency, c (t) is the time varying phase angle, and 0 is the carrier phase angle at t = 0.

Instantaneous frequency (rate of change of phase): The slope i (t) of c (t) at any instant of time t is dened as the instantaneous frequency of an angle-modulated signal, i.e.,
Semester 2, 2012

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

i (t) =

d[c (t)] d[c (t)] = c + dt dt

For example, from the gure we can see that at instant A, i = c for the angle modulated carrier. Note that c (t) = frequency and phase. Phase Modulation (PM) With phase modulation, the phase term c (t) of the carrier varies in proportion to the modulating signal m(t), such that
t

i ( )d , i.e., a xed relation exists between

c (t) = kp m(t) where kp is the phase modulator constant in units of rad/volt. Therefore, the phase modulated (PM) carrier becomes cp (t) = Ac cos[c t + kp m(t)]. Note that o is assumed zero without loss of generality. For phase modulation, the instantaneous frequency is given by i (t) = d[c (t)] d[c t + kp m(t)] d[m(t)] = = c + kp dt dt dt

i.e., i (t) varies linearly with the derivative of the modulating signal m(t ). Frequency Modulation (FM) In frequency modulation, it is the instantaneous frequency i (t ) that is varying linearly with the modulating signal m(t ), such that i (t ) = c + kf m(t ) where kf is the frequency modulator constant expressed in units of rad/sec/volt. Upon integration, the total phase angle becomes
t

c (t) = c t + kf

m( )d.

Semester 2, 2012

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

Again, the constant o term is assumed zero without loss of generality. Therefore, the frequency modulated (FM) carrier becomes
t

cf (t) = Ac cos[c t + kf

m( )d ].

Note: PM and FM are very similar, and it is not possible to dierentiate them by just looking at an angle-modulated carrier waveform. For example, an FM wave corresponding to m(t ) is the PM wave corresponding to
t 0

m( )d.

A PM wave corresponding to m(t ) is the FM wave corresponding to

d[m(t)] . dt

In reality, FM and PM can be considered as special cases of exponential modulation for which the modulated wave EM (t) is
t

EM (t) = Ac cos c t + k

m( )h(t )d

where k is a constant and h(t) is the unit impulse response of a linear time-invariant system. If h(t) = (t), we have PM, and if h(t) = u(t), we have FM. There is no reason to restrict ourselves to these two cases only. We shall see later, that in general,
Semester 2, 2012

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

for optimum performance, h(t) is neither (t) (PM) nor u(t) (FM) but is something else, depending on the modulating signal spectrum and the channel characteristic.

Why do we employ angle-modulation? Main Reason: Its immunity to channel and circuit nonlinearities. Since information is conveyed in the zero crossings of the modulated carrier and not in the envelope, any amplitude distortion introduced by channel and/or circuit nonlinearities, which would seriously corrupt an amplitude modulated wave, has no eect on the detectability of an angle modulated wave. The main source of circuit nonlinearity is in the output power amplifying stage of a transmitter. However, the improved transmission quality is achieved by trading bandwidth for noise immunity. Note: Being a constant envelope signal, the average power of an angle-modulated wave is not aected by the modulating signal.

Bandwidth of angle-modulated waves


An angle modulated wave is expressed as c(t) = cos[c t + c (t)] = Re{exp[j (c t + c (t)]} = Re{exp[jc (t)] exp[jc t]} From the relationship exp(x) = 1 + x +
2 c (t) 2!

x2 x3 + + ..., 2! 3! + ...] exp(jc t)} .


2 c (t) 2!

c(t) = Re{[1 + jc (t)

= Re{exp(jc t) + jc (t) exp(jc t) ...} = cos(c t) c (t) sin(c t) cos(c t) + ...

The angle-modulated wave consists of an unmodulated carrier (see the rst term in the above expansion) plus various amplitude modulated terms, such as c (t) sin(c t),
Semester 2, 2012

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

2 c (t) cos(c t), . . . . Hence, the spectrum of an angle-modulated wave consists of an


n unmodulated carrier c , plus spectra of c (t ), 2 c (t ), . . . ,c (t ) centered at c .

It can be easily veried that, if c (t ) is bandlimited to B Hz, then n c (t ) will be bandlimited to nB Hz. Theoretically, the number of terms n in the series tends to innity, so that the resultant spectrum of the angle modulated wave has innite bandwidth. However, it will be shown later that signicant power of an angle-modulated signal tends to reside in a nite bandwidth. In practice, angle-modulated waves are classied in two distinct groups: 1. Narrowband 2. Wideband.

Narrowband angle-modulated wave


If|c (t )|<<1, then the angle-modulated wave can be approximated by the rst two terms of the innite series, such that c(t) = cos(c t) c (t) sin(c t). Note: This expression is similar to that of the amplitude modulation (AM ), so that the bandwidth of a narrowband angle-modulated wave is approximately equal to that of an AM wave. For example, if c (t ) is bandlimited to B Hz, then the bandwidth of a narrowband angle-modulated wave is approximately 2B Hz.

Narrowband FM (NBFM )
With FM, c (t) = kf
t 0 t 0

m( )d. For |c (t)| << 1, this means that either kf or

m( )d , or both these terms are very small.

In this case, an NBFM wave is approximated by cf (t) = cos(c t) c (t) sin(c t) = cos(c t) [kf
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t 0

m( )d ] sin(c t). 6

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor: If m(t) = Am cos(2fm t), i.e., a single tone, we have

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

cf (t) cos(c t) sin(2fm t) sin(c t) where =


k f Am . m

The above expression is used to generate an NBFM wave. This method of NBFM signal generation is called the Armstrong method.

Narrowband PM (NBPM )
With PM, c (t) = kp m(t). For NBPM, |c (t)| << 1, then cp (t) = cos(c t) c (t) sin(c t) = cos(c t) [kp m(t)] sin(c t). In this case, either kp or the amplitude of m(t ), or both of them are very small. The above expression is also used to realise an NBPM signal.

Comparison of NBFM, NBPM, and DSB-AM


Similarity: Modulated wave consists of an unmodulated carrier, and sidebands centered at c . The bandwidth of the modulated wave is twice that of the baseband modulating signal.

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CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

Dierence: The sidebands for NBFM and NBPM are phase shifted by 90o with respect to the carrier, whereas the sidebands of the DSB-AM are in phase with the carrier. For NBFM and NBPM, the envelope of the modulated wave is constant, and the instantaneous frequency varies with time. For DSB-AM, the instantaneous frequency is constant, and the envelope of the modulated signal varies with time.

Distortion caused by truncation in narrowband angle-modulated waves


An ideal angle-modulated wave is a constant envelope signal represented by c(t) = cos[c t + c (t)]. Now, a practical angle-modulated wave is generated based on the approximate expression, such that c (t) = cos(c t) c (t) sin(c t) with |c (t)| << 1. To analysis the distortion caused by the approximation, we rewrite the above expression into the following form (natural envelope and phase)
Semester 2, 2012

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor: c (t) = e(t) cos[c t + (t)] where e(t) =

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

1 1 + 2 c (t), (t) = tan (c (t)).

Comparing with the ideal c (t ), the approximate c (t ) suers from two forms of distortions: 1. Amplitude distortion 2. Phase/frequency distortion. Amplitude distortion It occurs because the envelope of the resultant narrowband angle-modulated signal is not constant but suers from amplitude variation, as represented by the term e (t ). In practice, this amplitude variation is removed by passing c (t ) through a hard-limiter before the demodulator. Phase/frequency distortion Ideally, the phase (t) of c (t ) should be equal to c (t) of c (t ) for no distortion. However, because of the approximation used in the signal generation (t) = tan1 [c (t)] = c (t) for |c (t)| << 1. For NBPM, the phase distortion is not severe as long as |c (t)| << 1, so that (t) = c (t) = kp m(t). For NBFM, the frequency distortion occurs because the instantaneous frequency of the approximate c (t ) diers from that of the ideal c (t ), which is given by i (t) = d[c (t)] = kf m(t). dt

3 5 (t) 7 (t) c (t) + c c + ... 3 5 7

For c (t), the instantaneous frequency is


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CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor: i (t) =

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

d[(t)] dt

= Using the binomial series expansion


1 1+x

d[tan1 (c (t))] dt kf m(t) d[c (t)] 1 = 1+ . 1+2 dt 2 c (t) c (t)

= 1 x + x2 x3 + ..., for |x| 1,

the instantaneous frequency i (t) becomes


4 i (t) = kf m(t)[1 2 c (t) + c (t) ...].

For NBFM (that is, when |c (t)| << 1), we have the following approximation
i (t) = kf m(t)[1 2 c (t)]

where c (t) = kf

t 0

m( )d.

Note: i (t) contains odd harmonic components of m(t). 4 2n Since 2 c (t), c (t), . . . , c (t) contain even harmonic terms, so that their products

with m(t ) will contain odd harmonics of m(t ).

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CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

Supplementary Reading: Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter Basically, there are two ways of generating FM waves: indirect generation and direct generation. The indirect method of Armstrong. In this method, NBFM is generated by integrating m(t) and using it to phase modulate a carrier. The NBFM is then converted to WBFM by using frequency multiplier. A frequency multiplier is just a nonlinear device. A simple square-law device, for example, can multiply the frequency of a factor of 2. For a square-law device, the input ei (t) and the output e0 (t) are related by e0 (t) = [ei (t)]2 . For example, if
t

ei (t) = F M (t) = cos c t + kf

m( )d

then e0 (t) = cos2 c t + kf =


t

m( )d
t

1 1 + cos 2c t + 2kf 2 2

m( )d

Figure 1: Armstrong indirect FM transmitter The dc term is ltered out to give the output, whose carrier frequency as well as frequency deviation are multiplied by two. Any nonlinear device, such as a diode or a transistor, can be used for this purpose. These device have the characteristic
n e0 (t) = a0 + a1 ei (t) + a2 e2 i (t) + + an ei (t)

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CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor:

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

Hence, the output will have spectra at c , 2c , , nc , with frequency deviations f, 2f, , nf , respectively. We then use the appropriate lter to choose the desired multiplier value. A simplied diagram of a commericial FM transmitter using Armstrongs method is shown in Figure ??. The nal output is reuqired to have a carrier frequency of 91.2 MHz and f = 75kHz . We begin with NBFM with a carrier frequency fc1 = 200 kHz generated by a crystal oscillator. This frequency is chosenbecause it is easy to construct stable crystal oscillators as well as balanced modulators at this frequency. The deviation f is chosen to be 25 Hz in order to maintain 1, as required in NBPM. For tone modulation =
f . fm

The base band spectrum (required for high

delity purposes) ranges from 50 Hzto 15 kHz. The choice of f = 25 is reasonable because it gives = 0.5 for the worst possible cans (fm = 50). In order to achieve f = 75 kHz, we need a multiplication of
75000 25

= 3000. This can

be done by two multiplier stages, of 64 and 48, as shown in Figure ??. This givews a total multiplication of 64 48 = 3072, and f = 76.8 kHz. The multiplication is eected by using frequency doublers and triplers in cascade, as needed. Thus, a multiplication of 64 can be obtained by six doublers in cascade, and a multiplication of 48 can be obtained by four doublers and a tripler in cascade. Multiplication of fc = 200 kHz by 3072, however, would yield a nal carrier of about 600 MHz. This diculty is avoided by using a frequency translation, or conversion, after the rst multiplier. the frequency converter shifts the entire spectrumm without altering f . Hence, we have fc3 = 1.9 MHz and f3 = 1.6 KHz. Further multiplication, by 48, yields fc4 = 91.4 MHz and f = 76.8 kHz. This scheme has an advantage of frequency stability, but it suers from inherent noise caused by excessive multiplication and distortion at lower modulating frequencies, where
f fm

is not small enough.

Example 5.1. Discuss the nature of distortion inherent in the Armstrong indirect FM generator. Solution: Two kinds of distortion arise in this scheme: amplitude distortion and fre-

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CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Lecturer & Tutor: quency distortion. The NBFM wave is given

Narottam.Das@curtin.edu.au

F M (t) = A[cos(c t) kf a(t) sin(c t) = AE (t) cos[c t + (t)] where E (t) =


2 2 1 + kf a (t)

(t) = tan1 (kf a(t))

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