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LECTURE 10 DIGITAL CARRIER MODULATON I

A/Prof Dr Zhuquan Zang and Prof. Sven Nordholm Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering Curtin University Perth, Western Australia

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

LECTURE 10: DIGITAL CARRIER MODULATION I


The input signal to a binary carrier system is a binary digit stream of a given bit rate fb bits/second. As in analog carrier systems, this baseband bit stream is translated to the desired frequency location by modulating a sinusoidal carrier. Either the amplitude, or phase, or frequency, (or a combination of these parameters) of the carrier can be varied in response to the digit bit stream. In binary communication systems, this corresponds to switching between either of two possible values of the amplitude, or phase, or frequency of the carrier. Such binary carrier systems are commonly referred to as: 1. Binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK ) carrier amplitude switches between two predetermined levels. 2. Binary phase-shift keying (BP SK ) the phase of the carrier switches by radians or 180o . 3. Binary frequency-shift keying (BF SK ) the carrier frequency switches between two predetermined frequencies. Amplitude-shift keying (ASK ) A generalized ASK signal can be expressed as si (t) = A [1 + m di (t)] cos(c t) 2

where m is a constant of value 0 m 1, c the carrier frequency, and di (t) the digital baseband signal such that di (t) = L , where L = 1, 2, 3, . Note: The above expression is of the same form as for analog DSB AM . For BASK , the modulated signal si (t) has two values, i.e., s0 (t) and s1 (t) corresponding to sending a binary 0 and 1, respectively. In this case, the input binary digit di(t) is either +1 or 1. Now, with m = 0.5, the BASK signal becomes s0 (t) =
Semester 2, 2011

A A [1 + 0.5(1)] cos(c t) = cos(c t) 2 4 2

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES for binary 0, or s1 (t) = for binary 1.

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

A 3A [1 + 0.5(+1)] cos(c t) = cos(c t) 2 4

The most commonly used BASK is the on-o keying (OOK). With OOK, m = 1, and the modulated signal s0 (t) for sending a binary 0, and s1 (t) for sending a binary 1 are: s0 (t) = 0 and s1 (t) = A cos(c t) Note: This is equivalent to switching on the carrier when a binary 1is transmitted, and switching o the carrier when a binary 0 is sent.

Now, assume that the binary 0 and 1 are equally likely, then the average energy per bit is given by
Semester 2, 2011

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

ASK spectrum Being a special case of DSB-AM, the spectrum of an ASK signal is similar to that of DSB-AM, i.e., the baseband spectrum being shifted and symmetrically distributed about the carrier.

Note: For ASK, the baseband spectrum is that of the binary digit stream di (t). Also, there is a discrete component at the carrier frequency fc . Example: Power spectrum of OOK signal. For OOK , the modulated signal si(t) can be simplied to si (t) = Ac bi (t) cos(2fc t) where bi (t) is an on-o full-width random pulse train, i.e., bi (t) = 0, or 1 over the bit
Semester 2, 2011

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

period Tb = 1/fb , and is the carrier amplitude. The power spectral density (PSD) of bi (t) is determined as follow:

The PSD of an OOK signal is the same as that of the baseband signal bi (t) frequency shifted to the carrier frequencyfc , as shown:

Semester 2, 2011

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES ASK signal generation

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

ASK signals can be generated in two distinct ways: 1. The use of an analog amplitude modulator for DSB-AM:

2. The use of keying or switching operation, i.e., the input binary data is used to control the keying switch, SW . Examples: (i) OOK

(ii) ASK with nonzero voltage level

Note: Method 2 is only suitable for rectangular input pulse.

Semester 2, 2011

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES ASK demodulation

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

ASK signals can be demodulated using either a non-coherent demodulator or a coherent demodulator. 1. Non-coherent detection using an envelope detector. In this case, the same type of envelope detector as used in conventional DSB-AM is applicable.

Note: The RC time constant of the envelope detector should be sucient long to hold the incoming amplitude over many carrier cycles. However, it should be short, compared to the bit period Tb, to allow fast discharging to occur once the binary signal changes state. 2. Coherent demodulation using a product detector

For proper operation, the local carrier must have the same frequency and phase as the transmitted carrier. This is achieved through the use of a carrier recover circuit, an example of which is the Costas loop.

Semester 2, 2011

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES Costas loop

Lecturer & Tutor:

S.Nordholm@curtin.edu.au

The Costas loop can be considered as comprising two phase-locked loops fed by a single voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). Let the incoming ASK signal be represented as si (t) = b(t) cos(2fc t + ) The outputs of the upper and lower lowpass lters, LP F 1 and LP F 2, respectively, are y1 (t) = b(t) sin( ) 2 b(t) y2 (t) = cos( ) 2 (1) (2)

Note that the outputs are proportional to the phase dierence. The error signal e(t) applied to the input of the VCO is the lowpass ltered output of y1 (t) y2 (t) , i.e., e(t) = b2 (t) b2 (t) sin( ) cos( ) = sin[2( )] 4 4

Note: The loop drives the error term sin[2( )] to zero.

Semester 2, 2011