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Curtin University, Australia 2-1

YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)


DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS


1 Discrete-Time Signals

Recall we are interested in discrete-time continuous-amplitude signals


Fig. 1 Classification of signals



Strictly, a discrete-time signal is simply a sequence of numbers, represented
mathematically as follows
{ } [ ] x x n = (1)
where n and [ ] x n is the nth number of the sequence



In practice, x is often derived by sampling an analog signal ( )
c
x t periodically,
i.e.
= [ ] ( ),
c
x n x nT n (2)
where T is sampling period

Continuous amplitude Discrete amplitude
Continuous-time
Discrete-time
Analog signal
Digital signal
Curtin University, Australia 2-2
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Remarks
(i) As stated, strictly, [ ] x n means the nth number of the sequence x
However, by corruption of use, it can also refer to the entire sequence
itself

(ii) [ ] x n is defined only for integer values of n

(iii) [ ] x n is assumed to be always finite in value, i.e.
[ ] , x n n < " (3)


Curtin University, Australia 2-3
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
2 Some Basic Sequences

Unit sample sequence (aka discrete-time impulse, or simply, impulse)

0, 0
[ ]
1, 0
n
n
n
d

(4)




Unit step sequence

0, 0
[ ]
1, 0
n
u n
n
<

(5)




Exponential sequence
a a = [ ] ,
n
x n (6)

n
1
d [n]

0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3
n
1
u[n]

0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3
n
1
x[n]
n
1
x[n]
0 < a < 1 -1 < a < 0
0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3 0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3


Curtin University, Australia 2-4
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Alternating sequence (exponential sequence with a =-1)
{ }
0
[ ] ( 1) , 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
n
n
x n

=
= - = + - + - + (7)




Periodic sequence
The sequence [ ] x n is said to be periodic with period N if
+ = " [ ] [ ], x n N x n n (8)
The fundamental period of [ ] x n is smallest positive N that satisfies Eq. (8)
1




Sinusoidal sequence
[ ] cos( ), , ,
o o
x n A n A q f q f = + (9)
A is amplitude,
o
q is frequency, f is phase

The sinusoidal sequence [ ] x n is periodic with period N if and only if
2 , for some
o
N k k q p = (10)



Complex exponential sequence
[ ]
o
n j n n j
x n A A e e
q f
a a = =
{ } cos( ) sin( ] ) [
n
o
n
o
j x n n n A A a q f f a q = = + + + (11)
where , , , , ,
o
j j
o
A A e e A
q f
a a a f q = =


1
Thus alternating sequence has fundamental period = 2 N
n
1
x[n]

0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2 -3
Curtin University, Australia 2-5
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
3 Basic Sequence Operations

Suppose { } [ ] x x n = and { } [ ] y y n = are two sequences

Scaling: { } [ ] , a x a x n a = (12)

Addition: { } [ ] [ ] x y x n y n + = + (13)

Multiplication
2
: { } [ ] [ ] x y x n y n = (14)

Convolution: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
k k
x y x k y n k x n k y k

=- =-



* = - = -




(15)



Example 1
(a)
0, 0
[ ]
, 0
n
n
x n
A n a
<

can be written more compactly as a = [ ] [ ]


n
x n A u n


(b) { }
2
1
[ ] 1, 4, 0, 1
n
x n
=-
= - can be written mathematically as d d d = + + - - [ ] [ 1] 4 [ ] [ 2] x n n n n


(c) Suppose { }
2
1
[ ] 1, 4, 0, 1
n
x n
=-
= - and { }
2
0
[ ] 1, 0, 1
n
y n
=
= - . Define = * [ ] [ ] [ ] w n x n y n .
=-1 n - = - = = [ 1] [ 1] [0] 1 1 1 w x y
= 0 n = - + = + = [0] [ 1] [1] [0] [0] 1 0 4 1 4 w x y x y
=1 n = - + + = - + + = - [1] [ 1] [2] [0] [1] [1] [0] 1 ( 1) 4 0 0 1 1 w x y x y x y
= 2 n = + + = - + + - = - [2] [0] [2] [1] [1] [2] [0] 4 ( 1) 0 0 ( 1) 1 5 w x y x y x y
= 3 n = + = - + - = [3] [1] [2] [2] [1] 0 ( 1) ( 1) 0 0 w x y x y
= 4 n = = - - = [4] [2] [2] ( 1) ( 1) 1 w x y



Example 1(b) yields following general expression
d

=-
= -

[ ] [ ] [ ]
k
x n x k n k (16)


2
Thus, sum and product of two sequences are given, respectively, by their sample-by-sample sum
and product
Curtin University, Australia 2-6
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
4 Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT)

Discrete-time Fourier transform of [ ] x n is defined by
{ }
q q
q

-
=-
= =

DTFT [ ] ( ) [ ] ,
j jn
n
x n X e x n e (17)




q
( )
j
X e is periodic in q with period p 2 since " m

q p q p q +
= =
( 2 ) 2
( ) ( ) ( )
j m j j m j
X e X e e X e (18)
Therefore, we consider only [ ] , q p p -



We call q digital frequency. Its unit is radians/sample



Inverse DTFT is given by

{ }
q q q
p
q
p
- +
= =

1
2
1
DTFT ( ) [ ] ( )
2
j j jn
X e x n X e e d (19)
where integral is evaluated over any p 2 interval of q



For following examples, next result on geometric series is useful

1
1
1
0
, 1
, 1
N
a
N
n
a
n
a
a
N a
-
-
-
=

(20)


Curtin University, Australia 2-7
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Example 2
(a) d = [ ] [ ] x n n

q q
d

-
=-
= =

( ) [ ] 1
j jn
n
X e n e



(b) [ ] [ ], 1
n
x n a u n a = <

( )
0
1
( ) [ ]
1
n
j n jn j
j
n n
X e a u n e ae
ae
q q q
q

- -
-
=- =
= = =
-





0.75 a =
















0.75 a = -











-
1
1 a
+
1
1 a
-
-
1 2
tan ( 1 ) a a
+
1
1 a
-
1
1 a
-
-
1 2
tan ( 1 ) a a
Curtin University, Australia 2-8
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
0.75 a =
(c) [ ] , 1
n
x n a a = <

( ) ( )
1
0 0 1
2
2
( )
1
1 1
1
1 2 cos
n m
j n jn n jn n jn j j
n n n n m
j
j j
X e a e a e a e ae ae
ae
ae ae
a
a a
q q q q q q
q
q q
q
-
- - - - -
=- = =- = =
-
= = + = +
= +
- -
-
=
- +






0.75 a =





(d) [ ] [ 1], 1
n
x n a u n a = - - - <

( ) ( )
( )
1
1
0
1
1
( ) [ 1]
1
n n
j n jn j j
n n n
n
j
n
X e a u n e ae a e
a e
q q q q
q
-
- -
=- =- =

=
-
-
= - - - = - = -
= -


-



Last summation converges only if
1
1
j
a e
q -
< or
1
1 a
-
< which contradicts the given condition
1 a < . Therefore, given sequence does not have a DTFT


?


+
-
1
1
a
a
-
+
1
1
a
a
Curtin University, Australia 2-9
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Properties of DTFT

Let
q
( )
j
X e and
q
( )
j
Y e be the DTFTs of [ ] x n and [ ] y n respectively:

q

DTFT
[ ] ( )
j
x n X e

q

DTFT
[ ] ( )
j
y n Y e
Linearity
q q
+ +
DTFT
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
j j
ax n by n aX e bY e
Time shifting
q q -
-
DTFT
[ ] ( )
o
j n j
o
x n n X e e
Frequency shifting
q q q -

DTFT ( )
[ ] ( )
o o
j n j
x n e X e
Conjugation
q * * -

DTFT
[ ] ( )
j
x n X e
Time reversal
q -
-
DTFT
[ ] ( )
j
x n X e
Time expansion
DTFT
( )
multiple of
multiple of
[ ],
[ ] ( )
0,
jk
k
n k
n k
x n k
x n X e
q
=


Convolution
q q
*
DTFT
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
j j
x n y n X e Y e
Multiplication
x q x
p
x
p
-

DTFT ( )
2
1
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
2
j j
x n y n X e Y e d
Time differencing
q q -
- - -
DTFT
[ ] [ 1] (1 ) ( )
j j
x n x n e X e
Accumulation
q
q
p d q p

-
=- =-
+ -
-

DTFT 0
1
[ ] ( ) ( ) ( 2 )
1
n
j j
j
k k
x k X e X e k
e

Frequency differentiation
q
q

DTFT
[ ] ( )
j
d
n x n j X e
d

[ ] x n real
q q - *
= ( ) ( )
j j
X e X e
[ ] x n real and even
q
( )
j
X e real and even
[ ] x n real and odd
q
( )
j
X e purely imag and odd
Parsevals relation
2
2
2
1
[ ] ( )
2
j
n
x n X e d
q
p
q
p

=-
=




Curtin University, Australia 2-10
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Table of DTFT pairs

Sequence [ ] x n
Transform
q
( )
j
X e
1. d[ ] n
1
2. [ ] u n
q
pd q p

-
=-
+ -
-

1
( 2 )
1
j
k
k
e

3. d - [ ] n m
q -j m
e
4. [ ]
n
a u n
q -
-
1
1
j
ae

5. ( 1) [ ] , 1
n
n a u n a + <
q -
-
2
1
(1 )
j
ae

6.
( 1)!
[ ] , 1
!( 1)!
n
n r
a u n a
n r
+ -
<
-

q -
-
1
(1 )
j r
ae

7.
1
1
1,
0 ,
n N
n N

>


( )
( )
1
1
2
sin ( )
sin 2
N q
q
+

8.
sin
sinc
c c c
n n
n
q q q
p p p


=




1,
0 ,
c
c
q q
q q p

<


9. 1 p d q p

=-
-

2 ( 2 )
k
k
10.
q
o
j n
e
p d q q p

=-
- -

2 ( 2 )
o
k
k
11. q cos
o
n { } ( 2 ) ( 2 )
o o
k
k k p d q q p d q q p

=-
- - + + -


12. q sin
o
n { } ( 2 ) ( 2 )
o o
k
k k
j
p
d q q p d q q p

=-
- - - + -


13. Periodic square wave

1
1
1,
0 , 2
n N
N n N

<


+ = [ ] [ ] x n N x n
( )
2
2
k
k
N
k
a
p
p d q

=-
-


( )
2 1
1
2
2
2
sin
sin
k
N
k
k
N
N
a
N
p
p

+

=



14. Impulse train
d

=-
-

( )
k
n kN
( )
2
2
k
N
k
N
p
p
d q

=-
-



Curtin University, Australia 2-11
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
5 z-Transform

z-transform of [ ] x n is defined by
{ }

-
=-
= =

[ ] ( ) [ ] ,
n
n
x n X z x n z z (21)



Recall from Eq. (17)

q q
q

-
=-
=

( ) [ ] ,
j jn
n
X e x n e
Therefore, z-transform generalises DTFT:
3

( )
j
X e
q
is simply ( ) X z evaluated around the unit circle
j
z e
q
=



Region in z-plane where ( ) X z is finite is its region of convergence (ROC)



Clearly, if
q
( )
j
X e exists, then ROC of ( ) X z must include unit circle



ROCs consist of rings in z-plane centered about the origin



Inverse z-transform is given by
{ }
p
- -
= =

1 1
1
( ) [ ] ( )
2
n
C
X z x n X z z dz
j
(22)
where C is a closed contour in ROC of ( ) X z


3
In the same way Laplace transform generalises the Fourier transform
Curtin University, Australia 2-12
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Example 3
In the following, we re-work Example 2 for z-transforms

(a) d = [ ] [ ] x n n
d

-
=-
= =

( ) [ ] 1
n
n
X z n z and converges everywhere except = 0 z


(b) = [ ] [ ]
n
x n a u n


- -
=- =

-
=
-
= =
=
=
-
=
-

0
1
0
1
( ) [ ]
( )
1
1
n n n n
n n
n
n
X z a u n z a z
az
az
z
z a


provided
1
1 az
-
< or z a >


(c) [ ]
n
x n a =

1
0
1
0 1
1
2
1
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1
1
1
(1 )
( )( )
n n n n n n
n n n
n n
n n
a
X z a z a z a z
az az
az
az
a z
a z a z
-
- - - -
=- = =-

-
= =
-
= = +
= +

= + -
-
-
-
=
- - -




provided
1
1 az
-
< and 1 az < ,
i.e.,
1
a
a z < <

a 1
Re
Im
z-plane
unit circle
1
Re
Im
z-plane
a
1/a
Curtin University, Australia 2-13
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
(d) = - - - [ ] [ 1]
n
x n a u n

1
1
1
1 1
( ) ( )
1 1
1
1 1
n n n
n n
X z a z a z
a z az
z
z a
-
- -
=- =
- -
= - = -

= - - =

- -
=
-



provided
1
1 a z
-
< or z a <




Comparing Examples 3(b) and 3(d), we see that

( ) X z is not unique different sequences can have the same ( ) X z

( ) X z s are distinguishable only by their ROCs

a 1
Re
Im
z-plane
Curtin University, Australia 2-14
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Sequence ROC





Fig. 2 Regions of convergence of z-transforms
n
x[n]
n
x[n]
n
x[n]
n
x[n]
All z
except z = 0
All z
except z =
All z
except z = 0 and
R

< |z|
n
x[n]
n
x[n]
|z| < R
+
R

< |z| < R


+
Curtin University, Australia 2-15
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Properties of z-transform

Let ( ) X z with ROC
X
R and ( ) Y z with ROC
Y
R be z-transforms of [ ] x n and [ ] y n
respectively:

[ ] ( ),
X
x n X z R

[ ] ( ),
Y
y n Y z R
Linearity + +

[ ] [ ] ( ) ( ), contains
X Y
ax n by n aX z bY z R R
Time shifting
-
-

[ ] ( )
o
n
o
x n n X z z ,
X
R except for possible addition or deletion
of origin or
Frequency shifting
( )
[ ] ,
o
n z
o o X
z
x n z X z R


Conjugation
* * *

[ ] ( ),
X
x n X z R
Time reversal
-
-
1
[ ] ( ), 1
X
x n X z R
Time expansion
1
( )
[ ],
[ ] ( ),
0,
k k
k X
n rk
n rk
x r
x n X z R
=


Convolution *

[ ] [ ] ( ) ( ), contains
X Y
x n y n X z Y z R R
Multiplication
( )
1
1
[ ] [ ] ( ) , contains , in ROC
2
z
X Y
C
x n y n X Y d R R C
j
x x
x x
p


Time differencing { }
1
[ ] [ 1] (1 ) ( ), contains 0
X
x n x n z X z R z
-
- - - >


Accumulation { }
1
1
[ ] ( ), contains 1
1
n
X
k
x k X z R z
z
-
=-
>
-



Differentiation in z -

[ ] ( ),
X
d
n x n z X z R
dz

[ ] x n real
* *
= ( ) ( ) X z X z
Parsevals relation
2 1
1
[ ] ( ) (1 ) , in
2
X
C
n
x n X X d C R
j
x x x x
p

* * -
=-
=




Curtin University, Australia 2-16
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Table of z-transform pairs

Sequence Transform ROC
1. d[ ] n 1 All z
2. [ ] u n
-
-
1
1
1 z

1 z >
3. - - - [ 1] u n
-
-
1
1
1 z

1 z <
4. d - [ ] n m
-m
z
All z except 0 (if > 0 m )
or (if <0 m )
5. [ ]
n
a u n
-
-
1
1
1 az

z a >
6. - - - [ 1]
n
a u n
-
-
1
1
1 az

z a <
7. [ ]
n
na u n
-
-
-
1
1 2
(1 )
az
az
z a >
8. - - - [ 1]
n
na u n
-
-
-
1
1 2
(1 )
az
az
z a <
9. [ ] cos [ ]
o
n u n q
q
q
-
- -
-
- +
1
1 2
1 [cos ]
1 [2cos ]
o
o
z
z z
1 z >
10. [ ] sin [ ]
o
n u n q
q
q
-
- -
- +
1
1 2
[sin ]
1 [2cos ]
o
o
z
z z
1 z >
11. cos [ ]
n
o
r n u n q




q
q
-
- -
-
- +
1
1 2 2
1 [ cos ]
1 [2 cos ]
o
o
r z
r z r z
z r >
12. sin [ ]
n
o
r n u n q




q
q
-
- -
- +
1
1 2 2
[ sin ]
1 [2 cos ]
o
o
r z
r z r z
z r >
13.
, 0 1
0, otherwise
n
a n N


-
-
-
-
1
1
1
N N
a z
az
0 z >

Curtin University, Australia 2-17
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
6 Discrete-Time Systems

Systems can be: continuous-time or discrete-time
linear or non-linear
time-invariant or time-varying
stable or unstable
causal or non-causal
with memory or memoryless
invertible or non-invertible

We focus on discrete-time linear time-invariant stable causal systems



Let be a discrete-time system with input [ ] x n and output [ ] y n
{ } [ ] [ ] y n x n = (23)




(i) is linear if, for any , a b
{ } { } { }
1 2 1 2
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ax n bx n a x n b x n + = + (24)


(ii) is time-invariant if, for all
o
n
{ } [ ] [ ]
o o
x n n y n n - = - (25)


(iii) is stable in the bounded-input-bounded-output (BIBO) sense if and
only if for all input sequences satisfying
[ ] ,
x
x n B n < " (26)
we can find a
y
B such that
[ ] ,
y
y n B n < " (27)


(iv) is causal if, for all
o
n , [ ]
o
y n depends only on { } [ ],
o
x n n n

x[n] y[n]
Curtin University, Australia 2-18
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Suppose is linear time-invariant (LTI). Define
{ } [ ] [ ] h n n d = (28)
[ ] h n is the unit sample response, or impulse response, of


(i) It follows from Eqs. (16), (24) and (25) that

{ } { } d d

=- =-

=-



= = - = -



= -

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
k k
k
y n x n x k n k x k n k
x k h n k

i.e. = * = * [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] y n x n h n h n x n (29)
Eq. (29) shows an LTI system is completely characterised by [ ] h n


(ii) z-transform of Eq. (29) is given by
= ( ) ( ) ( ) Y z H z X z (30)
where { } = ( ) [ ] H z h n
4
(31)
Hence an LTI system is also completely characterised by ( ) H z . Indeed,
the system is often identified as ( ) H z

( ) H z is called the transfer function of the system. It is also called the
system function


Fig. 3 Time- and transform-domain representations of a system


(iii) Frequency response of system is given by the DTFT
( ) ( ) j
j
z e
H e H z q
q
=
= (32)


4
Alternatively, since ( ) 1 X z = if [ ] [ ] x n n d = , so by Eq. (30),
[ ] [ ]
( ) ( )
x n n
Y z H z
d =
= . But
[ ] [ ]
( )
x n n
Y z
d =
=

{ }
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
x n n
y n
d =
and by definition,
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
x n n
y n h n
d =
= . Therefore, it follows that { } [ ] ( ) h n H z =
h[n] x[n] y[n] H(z) X(z) Y(z)
Curtin University, Australia 2-19
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
(iv) It can be shown an LTI system is stable if and only if
5

[ ]
n
h n

=-
<

(33)
But
1
[ ] [ ]
n
z
n n
h n h n z

-
=
=- =-
=


Therefore, a stable ( ) H z must include the unit circle in its ROC


(v) As can be seen from Eq. (29), an LTI system (stable or unstable) is
causal if and only if = [ ] 0 h n for <0 n


(vi) If is LTI and causal, and [ ] x n is also causal, then Eq. (29) simplifies to

0 0
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
n n
k k
y n x k h n k h k x n k
= =
= - = -

(34)




5
See A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall,
2010, pp. 59-60
Curtin University, Australia 2-20
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
7 Interconnected Systems

It can be shown (exercise) from Eqs. (29) and (30) that:


Cascaded Systems Parallel Systems


Fig. 4 System interconnections



Example 4


Defining [ ] w n as shown and taking z-transforms of [ ] x n , [ ] y n and [ ] w n , we get, at summer output
= + ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) W z A z X z B z C z W z
\ =
-
( )
( ) ( )
1 ( ) ( )
A z
W z X z
B z C z

But = ( ) ( ) ( ) Y z B z W z
\ =
-
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ( ) ( )
A z
Y z B z X z
B z C z

Hence = =
-
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1 ( ) ( )
Y z A z B z
H z
X z B z C z

h
1
[n] h
2
[n]
h
1
[n]
*
h
2
[n]
h
2
[n] h
1
[n]
H
1
(z)H
2
(z)
h
1
[n]
h
2
[n]
h
1
[n] + h
2
[n]
H
1
(z) + H
2
(z)
B(z)
C(z)
A(z) y[n] x[n]
w[n]
Curtin University, Australia 2-21
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
8 Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference Equations

Linear constant-coefficient difference equations (LCCDEs) describe an
important class of discrete-time LTI systems
6




An Nth order LCCDE is defined by

0 0
[ ] [ ]
N M
k m
k m
a y n k b x n m
= =
- = -

(35)
where
k
a and
m
b are constants, and
0
a normally equals 1



Taking z-transform of Eq. (35), we get

0 0
( ) ( )
N M
k m
k m
k m
a Y z z b X z z
- -
= =
=


or
-
=
-
=

0
0
( ) ( )
M
m
m
m
N
k
k
k
b z
a z
Y z X z (36)
Transfer function of LCCDE system (see Eq. (30)) is given by

- -
= =
- -
= =
= = =
+


0
0 0
0
0 1
( )
( )
( )
1
M M
m m
m
m
m m
N N
k k
k
k
k k
b
b z z
a
Y z
H z
X z
a
a z z
a
(37)



6
LCCDE systems form a special class of LTI systems. Can you think of an LTI system that cannot be
described by an LCCDE?
Curtin University, Australia 2-22
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Re-write ( ) H z as follows

0
0 0
0 0 0
( )
M
M M
N p
k N M k
M p
k k
p
k k
N N N
k M N k M p
k k N p
k k p
z b z
b z z b z
H z
a z z a z z a z
- -
-
=
= =
- -
-
= = =
= = =



(38)
Roots of
numerator
denominator






polynomial are called






zeros
poles
of ( ) H z
Hence ( ) H z has M zeros and N poles at non-zero locations in z-plane
and
zeros
poles
N M
M N
-




-

at =0 z if
N M
M N
>




>



Beware!
Although ( ) H z is often expressed as a ratio of two polynomials in
1
z
-
, its poles
and zeros are found from ( ) H z expressed as a ratio of two polynomials in z



Example 5
Consider
-
=
-
1
1
( )
1
H z
az

It is often said ( ) H z has no zeros and only one pole at

-
- =
1
1 0 az

or
= z a
Above statement is not entirely correct since re-writing ( ) H z as follows

-
= =
-
-
1
1
( )
1
z z
H z
z z a
az

we see, apart from the pole at = z a , ( ) H z actually has a zero at = 0 z


Curtin University, Australia 2-23
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Let [ ] x n be a known input sequence. Output sequence [ ] y n can be found by:
(a) solving LCCDE formally through finding the homogeneous and particular
solutions
(b) using z-transforms
{ } { }
1 1
[ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) y n Y z H z X z
- -
= = (39)
(c) determining the linear convolution
= * = * [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] y n x n h n h n x n (40)
(d) assuming [ 1], , [ ]
o o
y n y n N - - are known, computing the forward
recursion

0 0
1 0
[ ] [ ] [ ], , 1,
N M
k m
o o
k m
a b
y n y n k x n m n n n
a a
= =
= - - + - = +

(41)
or assuming [ ], , [ 1]
o o
y n y n N - + are known, computing the backward
recursion

1
0 0
[ ] [ ] [ ], , 1,
N M
k m
o o
N N
k m
a b
y n N y n k x n m n n n
a a
-
= =
- = - - + - = -

(42)



Clearly, to exercise Eq. (39), ROC of ( ) H z must be known
Likewise, to exercise Eq. (40), ROC of ( ) H z must also be known since actual
form of [ ] h n depends on ROC of ( ) H z
In next section, it will be shown how, given an LCCDE, we can determine all
possible [ ] h n



Above comment implies knowing LCCDE is not enough more information is
required



Therefore, for example, suppose LCCDE system is causal and stable
(i) [ ] h n causal ROC of ( ) H z has form R z
-
<
(ii) [ ] h n stable ROC includes unit circle
\ [ ] h n causal and stable ( ) H z must have all its poles inside unit circle
Curtin University, Australia 2-24
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Example 6
Consider the LCCDE
[ ] [ 1] [ ] y n ay n x n = - +
As can be readily verified

1
1
( )
1
H z
az
-
=
-

Clearly, ( ) H z has a pole at z a = . Therefore, there are two possible ROCs: { } z a > and { } z a < ,
and from z-transform table

1
1
1
[ ] [ ] ( ) ,
n
az
h n a u n H z z a
-
-
= = >



1
1
1
[ ] [ 1] ( ) ,
n
az
h n a u n H z z a
-
-
= - - - = <


We show below how we can find both forms of [ ] h n recursively

Suppose [ 2] 0 y - = and [ ] [ ] x n n d = . By the forward recursion
[ ] [ 1] [ ] y n ay n x n = - +
n [ 1] y n- [ ] x n [ ] y n
2 - 0 0 0
1 - 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
1 1 0 a
2 a 0
2
a
3
2
a 0
3
a
Thus
{ }
2 3
2
[ ] [ ] 0, 0, 1, , , , [ ]
n
n
y n h n a a a a u n

=-
= = =

For the backward recursion, suppose [2] 0 y = and [ ] [ ] x n n d = . Re-arranging LCCDE as follows
( )
1
[ 1] [ ] [ ] y n y n x n
a
- = -
n [ ] y n [ ] x n [ 1] y n-
2 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 a -
1 - 1 a - 0
2
1 a -
2 -
2
1 a - 0
3
1 a -
3 -
3
1 a - 0
4
1 a -
Thus
{ }
2
3 2 1
[ ] [ ] , , , , 0, 0, 0 [ 1]
n
n
y n h n a a a a u n
- - -
=-
= = - - - = - - -
Curtin University, Australia 2-25
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
9 Partial Fraction Expansion (PFE)

Recall Eq. (37). Factorising ( ) H z

1
0 0 1
0 1
1 0
(1 )
( )
(1 )
M M
k
k k
k k
N N
k
k k
k k
b z c z
b
H z
a
d z a z
- -
= =
- -
= =
-
= =
-


(43)
we see: non-zero zeros given by
1
, ,
M
c c
non-zero poles given by
1
, ,
N
d d



If = = =
1 2 s
k k k
d d d for some
1 2 s
k k k , then we say
1
k
d is an sth
order pole, or a repeated pole with multiplicity s



Suppose ( ) H z has only one repeated pole (with multiplicity s), and poles are
so indexed that
-

1
, ,
N s
d d are simple poles while
- +1 N s
d is the repeated
pole

PFE of ( ) H z is given, with
- +
= =
1 N s N
d d , by

1
0
0 1
1
0
1 0
(1 )
( )
( )
( )
(1 )
M M
k
k k
k k
N N
k
k k
k k
b z b c z
N z
H z
D z
a d z a z
- -
= =
- -
= =
-
= = =
-




- -
-
- -
= = = - +
= + +
- -
=

1 1
0 1 1 1
1
( )
( )
1
( )
( )
M N N s s
r n m
r
m
r n m n N s
A C
B z
N z
H z
D z
d z d z
(44)
where residues
r
B ,
n
A and
m
C are given by

1
1
0
1
( )
(1 ) ( )
(1 )
n
n
n k
N
z d
k
k
k n
z d
N z
A d z H z
a d z
-
=
-
=

=
= - =
-

(45)

Curtin University, Australia 2-26
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)

1
1
1
1
1
1
(1 ) ( )
( )!( )
N s
s m
s
m N s
s m s m
N s w d
d
C d w H w
s m d dw -
- +
-
-
- +
- -
- + =




= -




- -



1
1
1
1
0
1
1 ( )
( )!( )
(1 )
N s
s m
s m s m N s
N s
k
k
m
w d
C
d N w
s m d dw
a d w
-
- +
- -
- - -
- +
=
=




=



- -


-



(46)
and
r
B are found by long division of ( ) N z by ( ) D z with division process
stopping when degree of the remainder is less than N



Can readily extend above procedure to ( ) H z s with more than one repeated
pole



[ ] h n is found with following z-transforms

1
( 1)!
1
( 1)
1
1 2
1
!
1
( 1)!
1
( 1)!
1
( 1)! 2
3
1 1
1
2
[ ]
[ ]
1
1 [ 1]
( 1) [ ]
1
(1 ) ( 1) [ 2]
( 1)( 2) [ ]
1
(1 ) ( 1)( 2) [ 3]
r
n
n
n
n
n
k
k
k
n
k
k
z n r
a u n
az a u n
n a u n
az n a u n
n n a u n
az n n a u n
d
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

- - - -

= =
= =

- - + - -

+ +

= =
= =
- - + + - -

1
( 1)!
1
1
( 1
( 1)!
)!
( 1)( 2) ( 1) [ ]
1
(1 ) ( 1)( 2) ( 1) [ ]
k
n
k
k n
k
n n n k a u n
az n n n k a u n k
-
-
-
-

+ + + -

- - + + + - -

=
-





Since it is necessary that [ ] 0 h n as n for ( ) H z to be stable, above
z-transform pairs show causal poles of a stable ( ) H z must lie strictly inside the
unit circle and anitcausal poles must lie strictly outside the unit circle
7


7
This is consistent with a result derived in pp. 19 where it is shown the ROC of a stable LTI system
must include the circle unit
Curtin University, Australia 2-27
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Example 7
( )( )( )
1 2 3 4 5
2
1 1 1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
( )
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4) 1 0.3
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
1 0.53 0.156 0.018
z z z z z
H z
j z j z z
z z z z z
z z z z
- - - - -
- - -
- - - - -
- - - -
- + - + -
=
- + - - -
- + - + -
=
- + - +


( ) H z has = 5 M non-zero zeros, = 4 N non-zero poles and - =1 M N pole at = 0 z . Two of the
non-zero poles form a complex conjugate pair at =
1,2
0.2 0.4 d j , and the other non-zero pole is at
=
3
0.3 d but with a multiplicity of = 2 s . Thus PFE will have form
2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
2
1
1
1
1 1
( )
1 (1
(1 0.
)
1 3 )
M N N s s
r n m
r
m
n
r n
n
m
m
n m
r
n N s
r
r
m
A C
H z B z
d z d z
B z
C
z
A
d z
-
=
- -
-
- -
= = = - +
-
=
-
=
= + +
- -
=
- -
+ +



(i)
0
B and
1
B found as follows.

4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
3 2 1
0.018 0.156 0.53 1 0.018 0.174 0.926 4.03 7.5 8
0.018 0.156 0.53
0.018 0.396 3.03 6.5 8
0.018 0.156 0.53 1
0.24 2.5 5.5 7
z
z z z z z z z z z
z z z z z
z z z z
z z z z
z z z
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - -
- - - -
- - - -
- - -
-
- + - + - + - + - +
- + - + -
- + - +
- + - +
- + - +
1
1
-
+

Hence
1
1 B = - and
0
1 B =

(ii)
1
A and
2
A found as follows.

( )( )
2
1
2
1 2 3 4 5
2
2
1 1
0.2 0.4
(1 ) ( )
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 0.3
1 2
z d
z j
d z H z A
z z z z z
j
j z z
-
=
- - - - -
- -
= -
= -
- + - + -
= =
-
-
- +


2 1
1 2 A A j
*
+ = =

(iii)
1
C and
2
C found as follows.

( )( )
3
2 2
2 1
3 3
2 2 2 2
1
3
2 3 4 5
1 0.3
2
1
(1 ) ( ) , 0.3
(2 2)!( )
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
(1)
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4)
4
w d
w
d
d w H w d
d dw
w w w w w
j w j w
C
-
-
- -
=
=




= - =


- -


- + - + -

=

- + - -

=


Curtin University, Australia 2-28
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)

( )( )
3
2 1
2 1
3 3
2 1 2 1
1
3
2 3 4 5
1 0.3
1
2
1
(1 ) ( ) , 0.3
(2 1)!( )
1 8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
( 0.3) 1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4)
1 8 7.5 4.03
( 0.3)
w d
w
d
d w H w d
d dw
d w w w w w
dw j w j w
d w w
dw
C
-
-
- -
=
=




= - =


- -


- + - + -


=



- - + - -

- + -
=
-
3 4 5
2
1 0.3
2 3 4 5
2 2
2 3 4
2
0.926 0.174 0.018
1 0.4 0.2
1 8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
( 1)( 0.4 0.4 )
( 0.3)
(1 0.4 0.2 )
7.5 8.06 2.778 0.696 0.09
1 0.4 0.2
w
w
w w w
w w
w w w w w
w
w w
w w w w
w w
=


+ -





- +

- + - + -

= - - +

-
- +

- + - + -

+

- +
1 0.3
1
=
=


Thus
1 1 1 1
1
2
1 2 1 2
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4
1 4
( )
1 0.3 (1 0.
1 ( 1)
3 ) )
j j
j z j z z z
z H z
-
- - - -
= + + + + +
-
+ -
-

- + -
-
-

Suppose ( ) H z is causal. Then, impulse response is given by
8

{ }
(0.3)
(1 2)(0.2 0.4) [ ] (1 2)(
[ ]
[ ] [ 1] 2Re (1 2)(0.2 0.4) [ ] (4 5
[
)(0.3) [
] 4(
0.2 0.4)
1)(0
[ ]
.3
[ ] [ ]
) ]
]
1
[
n
n
n
n
n
n
h n
n n j
j j u
j u n n u
n
u n n
j j u
n
n
n
n
u
n d d
d d = -
+ +
+ +
= - - + + + + +
+
+ + - -
-


Exercise: Write a MATLAB program to evaluate first 10 terms of [ ] h n .



Above PFE procedure is implemented in MATLAB by the function residuez
(in signal processing toolbox)


8
Alternatively, since
1
1 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4)
1 0.4 0.2
j j z
j w j w
z z
-
- -
+ - -
+ =
- + - -
- +

it follows (exercise) from entries 11 and 12 of the z-transform tables, that
( )
( )
1
1 1
1 2
2 2
2 0.2 cos 2sin [ ], cos 0.2
1 0.4 0.2
n
o o o
z
n n u n
z z
q q q
-
- -
- -


-

= - =


- +


It can be readily verified using MATLAB that above sequence equals
{ }
2Re (1 2)(0.2 0.4) [ ]
n
j j u n + +
Curtin University, Australia 2-29
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
If ( ) H z is causal, [ ] h n can also be found by performing a long division of ( ) N z
by ( ) D z for as many terms as we wish
However, with above procedure, round-off errors will accumulate as n increases
and computed [ ] h n will not be accurate for n large



Example 7 (revisited)
( )( )( )
1 2 3 4 5
2
1 1 1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
( )
1 (0.2 0.4) 1 (0.2 0.4) 1 0.3
8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
1 0.53 0.156 0.018
z z z z z
H z
j z j z z
z z z z z
z z z z
- - - - -
- - -
- - - - -
- - - -
- + - + -
=
- + - - -
- + - + -
=
- + - +

We demonstrate here method of finding the causal [ ] h n by long division. It is instructive to compare
and contrast long division shown below with that shown in pp. 27 to find the residues
0
B and
1
B

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
2
1 0.53 0.156 0.018 8 7.5 4.03 0.926 0.174 0.018
8 8 4.24 1.248 0.144
0.5 0.21 0.322 0.03 0.018
0.5 0.5 0.265 0.078 0.009
0.29 0.057
z z z z z z z z z
z z z z
z z z z z
z z z z z
z z
- - - - - - - - -
- - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -
-
- + - + - + - + -
- + - +
- + + -
- + - +
+
1 2 3
3 4 5
2 3 4 5 6
3 4 5 6
3 4
8 0.5 0.29 0.347
0.108 0.027
0.29 0.29 0.1537 0.0452 0.0052
0.347 0.0457 0.0182 0.0052
0.347 0.347
z z z
z z
z z z z z
z z z z
z z
- - -
- - -
- - - - -
- - - -
- -
+ + +
+ -
- + - +
- + -
-



Quotient gives the first 4 terms of [ ] h n , namely, { } 8, 0.5, 0.29, 0.347,

Curtin University, Australia 2-30
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Problems


1. Consider the continuous-time signal
( ) ( ) cos 8
c
x t A t p =
(a) What is the (fundamental) period of ( )
c
x t ?
(b) Suppose ( )
c
x t is being sampled with a sampling period of
1
16
sec T = to yield
the discrete-time sequence [ ] ( )
c
x n x nT = . Determine the fundamental period N
of [ ] x n , and comment on the value NT .
(c) Repeat Part (b) for
1
18
sec T = and
1
401
sec T = .


2. Suppose { }
2
1
[ ]
=
=
M
n M
x x n , { }
2
1
[ ]
=
=
N
n N
y y n , and { }
2
1
[ ]
=
= * =
K
n K
w x y w n .
Show that
1 1 1
K M N = +
and
2 2 2
K M N = +


3. Given { }
4
2
[ ] 3, 1, 2, 0, 4, 1, 2
=-
= - -
n
x n
and { }
3
1
[ ] 2, 1, 0, 1, 3
=-
= -
n
y n
Find the sequences
(a)
1
2 w x y = -
(b)
2
w x y =
(c)
3
w x y = *


4. Use the properties of DTFT and the table of DTFT pairs to find the DTFT of the
sequence
[ ] , 1
n
x n a a = <
(This problem was solved in pp. 8 but the solution was based on the geometric series
formula Eq. (20).)


Curtin University, Australia 2-31
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
5. Consider the discrete-time signal

{ } 1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1 , 3 7
[ ]
0, otherwise
n
x n
- - -


Without explicitly evaluating the DTFT ( )
j
X e
q
, find
(a)
0
( )
q
q=
j
X e
(b) ( )
q
q p =
j
X e
(c) arg ( )
j
X e
q

(d) ( )
j
X e d
p
q
p
q
-


(e) Determine the signal whose DTFT is ( )
j
X e
q -

(f) Determine the signal whose DTFT is
{ }
Re ( )
j
X e
q



6. Determine the z-transform, including the ROC, for each of the following sequences. Use
the properties of z-transforms and the table of z-transform pairs.
(a)
( )
1
2
[ ] [ ]
n
x n u n =
(b)
( ) ( )
1
2
[ ] [ ] [ 10]
n
x n u n u n = - -
(c) [ ] 2 [ 1]
n
x n u n
-
= - - -
(d) [ ] , 1
n
x n a a = <
(e) [ ] , 1
n
x n a a = >


7. Determine the inverse z-transform for each of the following using the properties of
z-transforms, a table of z-transform pairs, and the PFE.
(a)
1
1
2 1 1
4 2 1 2
3 1
4 8
1
( ) ,
1
z
X z z
z z
-
- -
-
= < <
+ +

(b)
1
1
2 1
2 1 2
3 1
4 8
1
( ) ,
1
z
X z z
z z
-
- -
-
= >
+ +


Curtin University, Australia 2-32
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
8. Two LTI systems, one with impulse response [ ] h n and the other with impulse response
[ ] g n , are cascaded together as shown below.

Show, using the definition of convolution, that the cascaded system can be represented
by a single system with impulse response [ ] [ ] h n g n * .



9. Are the following systems linear? Are they time-invariant?
(a) { } [ ] [ ] [ ] = x n g n x n with [ ] g n given
(b) { } [ ] [ ]
=
=

o
n
k n
x n x k
(c) { }
[ ]
[ ] =
x n
x n e
(d) { } [ ] [ ] = + x n ax n b
(e) { } [ ] [ ] = - x n x n


10. Example 3.12 of Oppenheim and Schafer, pp. 152, gives the transfer function of a
discrete-time LTI system that cannot be described a finite order LCCDE. Give other
examples.


11. When the input to an LTI system is

( )
1
2
[ ] [ ] 2 [ 1]
n
n
x n u n u n = + - -
the output is

( ) ( )
3 1
2 4
[ ] 6 [ ] 6 [ ]
n n
y n u n u n = -
(a) Find the transfer function ( ) H z of the system. Where are its poles and zeros and
what is its ROC?
(b) Find the impulse response of the system for all n.
(c) Write the LCCDE that characterises the system.
(d) Is the system stable? Is it causal?


h[n] g[n]
x[n] w[n] y[n]
h[n]
*
g[n]
x[n] y[n]
Curtin University, Australia 2-33
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
12. A causal LTI system is described by the LCCDE

3
2
[ ] [ 1] [ 2] [ 1] y n y n y n x n = - + - + -
(a) Find the system function ( ) ( ) ( ) H z Y z X z = and its ROC.
(b) Find the impulse response of the system.
(c) You should have found the system is unstable. Find a stable (non-causal) impulse
response that satisfies the difference equation.


13. The transfer function of an LTI system has the pole-zero plot shown below. Specify
whether each of the following statements is true, false, or cannot be determined from
the information given.

(a) System is stable.
(b) System is causal.
(c) If system is causal, then it must be stable.
(d) If system is stable, then it must have a two-sided impulse response.


14 A causal LTI system has transfer function

1
1 1
1 1
2 4
1
( )
(1 )(1 )
-
- -
+
=
- +
z
H z
z z

(a) What is the region of convergence (ROC) of ( ) H z ?
(b) Is the system stable? Explain.
(c) Find the z-transform of the input [ ] x n , including the ROC, that yields the output
( ) ( )
1 1 4
3 4 3
[ ] [ ] 2 [ 1] = - - - - -
n
n
y n u n u n
Hint. First find the z-transform of [ ] y n , including its ROC.


0
Unit circle
z-plane
Re
Im
Curtin University, Australia 2-34
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
15 Given
1
1
[ ]
1
-

-
= =
n
a u n
az

Use the properties of z-transform to find
(a) ( 1) [ ]
n
n a u n +
(b) ( 1)( 2) [ ]
n
n n a u n + +
(c) ( 1)( 2) ( 1) [ ]
n
n n n k a u n + + + -


Curtin University, Australia 2-35
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
Answers


1. (a) Fundamental period is
1
4
p
T =
(b) 4 N = ,
p
NT T =
(c) For
1
18
T = , 9 N = and 2
p
NT T = . For
1
401
T = , sequence is not periodic.


2. Start by considering the definition of convolution
[ ] [ ] [ ]
k
w n x k y n k

=-
= -


Next, sketch generic plots for the finite length sequences [ ] x k and [ ] y n k - and observe
what happens as n increases from -.


3. (a) { }
4
2
2 6, 4, 3, 0, 9, 1, 4
=-
- = - - -
n
x y
(b) { }
3
1
2, 2, 0, 4, 3
=-
= - -
n
x y
(c) { }
7
3
6, 1, 3, 1, 18, 1, 3, 6, 11, 5, 6
=-
* = - - -
n
x y


4.
{ }
2
2
1
1 2 cos
DTFT
a n
a a
a
q
-
+ -
=


5. (a) 6
(b) 2
(c) 2q -
(d) 4p
(e) { }
3
7
1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1
n=-
- -
(f) { }
7
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
7
, 0, , 1, 0, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1, , 0,
n=-
- -


6. (a)
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
,
z
z
-
-
>
(b)
( )
( )
10
10 1
2
1 1
2
1 9
1 9
1 1
2 2
1
1 , 0
z
z
z z z
-
-
-
- -
-
= + + + >
(c)
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
,
z
z
-
-
<
Curtin University, Australia 2-36
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
(d)
2
2 1
1
1
(1 ) ( )
,
a
a
a a z z
a z
-
-
+ - +
< <
(e) Transform does not exist.


7. (a)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 4
4 [ 1] 3 [ ]
n n
u n u n - - - - - -
(b)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 4
[ ] 4 [ ] 3 [ ]
n n
x n u n u n = - - -


8. We begin by noting that [ ] [ ] [ ]

=-
= -

k
w n h k x n k and [ ] [ ] [ ]

=-
= -

l
y n g l w n l .
The stated result follows by substituting the first equation into the second equation.


9.
Linearity Time-Invariance
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)


10.
1
1 2 3
1 1
2! 3!
( ) 1 , 0
-
- - -
= = + + + + >
z
H z e z z z z


11. (a)
1
1 3
4
1 2
3
4
1
( ) ,
z
z
H z z
-
-
-
-
= >
(b)
( ) ( )
1
3 3
4 4
[ ] [ ] 2 [ 1]
n n
h n u n u n
-
= - -
(c)
( )
3
4
[ ] [ 1] [ ] 2 [ 1] y n y n x n x n = - + - -
(d) System is stable and causal.


12. (a)
1
1 2 3
2
1
( ) , 2
z
z z
H z z
-
- -
- -
= >
(b)
( ) ( )( )
2 2 1
5 5 2
[ ] 2 [ ] [ ]
n
n
h n u n u n = - -
(c)
( ) ( )( )
2 2 1
5 5 2
[ ] 2 [ 1] [ ]
n
n
h n u n u n = - - - - -
Curtin University, Australia 2-37
YH Leung (2005, 2006, 2007, 2012)
13. (a) Cannot be determined
(b) Cannot be determined
(c) False
(d) True


14. (a)
1
2
z >
(b) ( ) H z is stable
(c)
1 1
2
1
1
1 2
( )
z
z
X z
-
-
-
-
=


15. (a)
1 2
1
(1 ) az
-
-

(b)
1 3
2
(1 ) az
-
-

(c)
1
( 1)!
(1 )
k
k
az
-
-
-